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Robert W. Young 

Specialist in the Navoho Language 

William Morgan 
Indian Assistant in the Navaho Language 

A Publication of the Education Division, United States 

Indian Service 

Harold L. I ekes, Secretary 


John Collier, Commissioner 
William Zimmerman, Jr., Assistant Commissioner 


Willard W. Beatty, Director 

Ole R. Sande, Associate Director 

P. W. Danielson, Assistant Director 


This edition published by 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


For some time there has existed a need for literature des- 
criptive of the Navaho language for the practical purposes of the 
layman. This need has not been ignored, and for a number of 
years various groups on the reservation have been publishing 
such literature, notably the Franciscan Fathers at St. Michaels; 
Arizona. Many groups have made use of the language in the 
course of their scientific studies, but effective use of such texts 
as they have gathered is highly limited as far as the acquisition 
of a practical knowledge of the language is concerned. 

It is hoped that the present work may be a useful contri- 
bution to the ever growing store of such literature on the Navaho, 
and may in some way aid in satisfying the needs of those who de- 
sire to gain an insight into the language. 

The work presented herewith is composed of three parts, 
an outline of Navaho grammar, a Navaho - English vocabulary, 
and an English - Navaho vocabulary. The various parts of speech 
have been described along the lines dictated by the language it- 
self, rather than along the conventional lines of English gramma- 
tical description, for the two languages have little in common. 
For the convenience of the White student the fundamental in- 
flectional forms have been given for all Navaho verbs contain- 
ed in the dictionary, while the principal parts of the English verbs 
have been given for the use of the Navaho in learning English. 

It is hoped that, in the not too far distant future, we will be 
able to publish a more comprehensive work, which would include 
comparative material from other languages of the Athabascan 
family for the more complete understanding of the Navaho, as 
well as many classes of words which have remained outside the 
scope of this work. 

Lack of time has made it impossible to include etymological 
data with the Navaho word entries. This, however, is not a serious 
omission inasmuch as the majority of Navaho words are self- 
explanatory. An attempt has been made to assign a meaning to 
the verb stems, regardless of the fact that this is often difficult or 

A stock of literature already exists in Navaho, ranging from 
simple children's stories to books of adult level, and recently a 
news sheet in that language. Study of this material, in conjunc- 
tion with the grammar and dictionary, should prove most helpfuf 
to the student. 

The authors wish to acknowledge the valuable aid which 
they have received from the published works of such eminent 
students of Navaho and other Athabaskan languages as the late 
Edward Sapir, Harry Hoijer and Father Haile Berard. 


Adjective, 37, 38. comparison 
of, 39, 40. 

Consonants, III, IV, V, VI. 
Deictic prefixes, 55, 56. 
Distributive da-, 2, 69, 70, 71 . 
Enclitics, 16, 17, 18. postposit- 
ional, 19. 

Future tense, 97, 98, 99, 100, 
101. inchoative, 108. 
Gender, 1. 
hi- prefix, 75, 76. 
Imperatives, 53, 54. 
Imperfective mode, 77 - 81 . dis- 
junct paradigms, 77, 78. con- 
junct paradigm, 79, 80, 81. 
Inchoative verb forms, 108, 109. 
inchoative future, 108. inchoa- 
tive perfective 109. 
Iterative mode, 102, 103, 104. 
Labialization, VI. 
Modal prefixes, 56, 57, 58. 
naa- prefix, 71,72, 73, 74. 
na- prefix, 74, 75. 
Neuter paradigm, 81. 
Noun, 9-16. abstract verbal, 
13. basic, 9, 10, 11. constantly 
possessed, 11, 12. compound, 
13, 14, 15, 16. stem and prefix, 

Number, 2. 
Numerals, 36, 37. 
Objective yi- and bi-, 48, 49. 
Optative mode, 104-108. dis- 
junct paradigms, 105. conjunct 
paradigms, 105, 106, 107. uses 
of the, 107, 108. 
Palatalization, VI. 
Particles, 26-36. 

Perfective mode, 82-94. yi- 
perfective disjunct, 82, 83. yi- 
perfective conjunct, 83, 84, 85, 

86. ni-perfective disjunct, 86, 

87. ni-perfective conjunct, 87 

88. 89, 90. si-perfective dis- 
junct, 90, 91. si-perfective con- 
junct, 91, 92, 93, 94. 
Postpositions, 20 - 26. 
Progressive mode, 95-97. pro- 
gressive disjunct, 95, 96. pro- 
gressive conjunct. 96, 97. 
Pronoun, demonstrative, 8. in- 
definite, 8, 9. independent pos- 
sessive, 4. independent subject- 
ive, 4. interrogative, 8. noun 
prefixed possessive, 4, 5. prefix- 
ed to postpositions, 6, 7. verb 
incorporated objective, 58, 59 
60, 61. verbal incorporated sub- 
jective, 56. 

Reciprocal pronoun object, 61. 

Reflexive pronoun, 62. 

Semeliterative naa-, 71 - 74. 

Sound system of Navaho, I - VI. 

Syntax, 112-120. 

Tense, 46-48. 

Terminology, definitions of, 121 

- 123. 

Texts, 114-120. 

Transitive and intransitive, 50 


Usitative mode, 101. 

Verb, 40. stem, 41 - 45. stem 

classifier, 45. prefixes, 62 - 69. 

paradigms, 77 - 111. 

Voice, 51 - 53. 

Vowels, I - III. 

The Vowels 

The vowels of Navaho are; a, e, i, o. in the diphthong oi, o 
approximates u in quality. The sound represented by short i assi- 
milates to a following a, approximating the sound of u in sun, and 
before a following o in some cases to approximate the sound of oo 
in wood. 

The vowels occur short and long in quantity. When short the 
vowel is represented by a single letter, and when long by a double 
letter. Actually there are three regular vowel lengths, a short, 
long, and on extra long. The latter occurs regularly in syllables 
closed by a stop consonant (usually d or ' ). The difference in 
length between short and long vowels in Navaho is much more 
pronounced than in English. Vowel length is often the only mark 
of distinction between otherwise homophonous words. For exam- 
ple, bito\ his water; bitoo', its juice. 

The quality of the vowel is further varied by pronouncing it 
through the mouth alone (orally), or through the mouth and nose 
simultaneously (nasorally). Nasorality is indicated graphically by 
a subscript "nasal hook." Thus, nasoral a is written g. 

Further variation in the sound of the vowel results from the 
tone attached thereto. Tone (i.e. voice pitch) may be high, low, 
falling (from high to low) or rising (from low to high). In English 
sentences we do not voice all the words in the same tone or pitch; 
our voices rise and fall as we speak. However, the type of tone we 
use in English is variable, and the same word may receive a differ- 
ent pitch depending upon its position or meaning in the sentence. 
Compare the pitch of the word hungry in the two sentences: You 
are not hungry. You are not hungry? In Navaho the tone of 
each syllable is fixed, or variable only within certain prescribed 
limits. Tonal quality is indicated by zero (absence of diacritical) 
when the tone is low; and by an acute accent when high. Thus 
*ash£, I am eating, wherein the first a is low in tone, and the se- 
cond is high. Rising and falling tone occur only with long vowels. 
Thus, falling tone is indicated by placing the acute accent over 
the first vowel only, and rising tone is indicated by placing the a- 
cute accent over the second vowel only. Thus, 'ashqqgo, while I 
am eating, wherein <-qq- is falling in tone; binooi, his elder bro- 
ther, wherein -adi has rising tone. The tone is fixed, inasmuch as 

one would under no circumstance pronounce 'ashq as 'ashq, or 
'ashq; it is correctly pronounced only as 'ashq. 

Tone often distinguishes between words otherwise complete- 
ly homophonous. Thus, *azee\ medicine, 'azee*, mouth; nil§, you 
are, nilj, he is. 

The high toned vowel of a syllable containing n often drops 
out, and the n retains the high tone. Thus the letter h will be fre- 
quently encountered. For example, ndiizq for nidiizq, it started to 
move (a crowd). 

The vowels are listed below with examples: 
(a) - like a of father. Navaho: slid, for me. 
(oo) - long a. Navaho: saad, word, language, 
(q) - nasoral a. Similar to an of French dans. Navaho: sq, old age. 
[qq) - long q. Navaho: naadqq', corn. 

(e) - like e in met. Navaho: ke, shoe. 

(ee) - long e. It has nearly the quality of e in Spanish de, or of Eng- 
lish ey in they, but without the offglide. Navaho: 'adee 1 , horn. 

(f) - nasoral e. Usually occurs long. Navaho: nt'g'igii, what was. 
($f) - long $ . Navaho: Sffs, wart. 

(i)-iikeiof it. Navaho: shi, I. 

(ii) - long i like ee in need. Navaho: dii, this, these. 

(j) - nasoral i. Navaho: 'afrs|', flesh, meat. 

(li) - long i. Navaho: dji', four. 

(o) - like o in so (but without the offglide). Navaho: fro, water. 

(oo) - long o, Navaho: dooda, no. 

(9) - nasoral o. Something like French on. Navaho: $q\ star. 

(99) - long 9. Navaho: dl$$\ prairie dog. 

The Diphthongs 

(ai) - something like y in my, Navaho: hai, winter. 

(oii) - similar to ai, but with the last element long. Navaho: fr'fia 

h6iida, anyone, whosoever. 
(aai) - similar to ai, aii, but with the first element long. Navaho: 


binaai, his elder brother. 

(oo) - nearly like English ow. Navaho: daolghe, they are called, 

(ooo) - a plus long o. Navaho; 'aoo*, yes. 

(ei) - approximates ey of they. Navaho: sei, sand (actually a more 
forward pronounciation of oi. Many pronounce sdi). 

(eii) - like ei, but with the last element long. Navaho: *eii # that. 

(oi) - never like oi of oil, but like oughy of doughy, or more often 
like ewy of dewy, Navaho: deesdoi, it is warm (weather). 

(ooi) - like oi, but with the first element long. Navaho: titsooigii, 
that which is yellow, yellow one. 

(ouu) - o plus long uu. Navaho: 'ouu', yes (ouu occurs only in this 

The Consonants 

O - this is the most common consonantal sound in Navaho. It is 
called a glottal stop, and sounds like the hiatus between the 
two elements of the English exclamations oh oh, and hunh unh. 
It always precedes on otherwise word initial vowel, with the re- 
sult that words are often separated where an English speaking 
person would expect them to be run together. It is illustrated in 
the Navaho words: 'dt'e, is is; 'abe', milk; 'a 'dan, hole. 

(b) - the sound written b in Navaho orthography is not exactly b, 
inasmuch as it is not the voiced sound represented by that let- 
ter in English, When we pronounce b in English the voice box 
functions, but in Navaho the sound is unvoiced. It strikes our 
ears now as b and again as p. Actually it is neither. English p 
is aspirated in most positions, while Navaho b is neither aspira- 
ted nor voiced. It is much like the p in spot. If pot and spot are 
pronounced one after the other it will become apparent that 
there is a difference in the quality of the p in each case. We 
can describe Navaho b as an unaspi rated p or as an unvoiced b. 
Navaho: bi, he, she, it; 'obani, buckskin. 

(ch) - sounds much like ch of church, except that it is usually more 
strongly aspirated in Navaho. Navaho: chizh, firewood. 

(ch') - represents the explosive sound produced by the almost si- 
multaneous release of breath from the glottal closure and the 


closure formed by the tongue and the roof of the mouth when 
the tongue is in the ch-position. Navaho: ch'ah, hat. 

(d) - does not represent the sound of English d. Navaho d is actu- 
ally an unaspirated t, and sounds similar to the t of stop. Like 
Navaho b, it is neither voiced nor aspirated. Navaho: djj' four. 

(dl) - something like English gl, except that the first element in 
the Navaho sound is the d described above. Navaho: dlg^' 
prairie dog. 

(dz) - approximates the dz of adze. The first element is the Nava- 
ho d, and the second is actually s. In other words, dz represents 
an unaspirated t plus s sound. Navaho: didze, berry. 

(g) - represents an unaspirated k or an unvoiced g. It has about 
the same value as k of skid. Navaho: gah, rabbit. 

(x, h) - represent the sound of ch in German ich, as well as that of 
h in English have. Ordinarily, both of the sounds are written h, 
but when h follows s it is necessary to distinguish the resulting 
s h sequence from the digraph sh. This is accomplished by sub- 
stitution of x for the h. Thus, Navaho: yiyiisxf, he killed him, 
for yiyiis-hj. x is also employed to distinguish between such 
forms as 'atfrso, 'attsxo, the latter being more strongly aspirated 
than the former. Actually there are two distinct sounds in Na- 
aho; one which is guttural and harshly aspirated, and which 
would be technically represented by x; the other being similar 
to English h, and which could be properly represented by h. 
Still another variant could be added, namely, the voiced h that 
often occurs in intervocalic position, as in nihi, we, which is 
heard as nixi, or nihi, in the latter of which h may be voiced. 

(hw) - like wh in when. This is a distinct phoneme, not a labial- 
ized h. Navaho: hwee, with him. 

(gh) - is the voiced equivalent of x. Instead of forcing air out to 
produce the rasping x-sound, the voice box functions. It could 
be described as a "growling sound." Navaho: 'aghaa\ wool. 

(j) - is not the voiced j (=dzh) of English, but more closely approxi- 
mates the sound composed of unaspirated t plus sh. It is be- 
tween English j and ch, or something like the sound of ch in the 
sequence "hiss-chin" pronounced rapidly. Navaho: \\, day. 

(k) - is more strongly aspirated than in English. Navaho: kg*, fire. 

(kw) - as qu in quick. Navaho: kwe'e, right here. This sound is 
not to be confused with labialized k of kodi, here. 

(k 1 ) - is a clicked sound resulting from the simultaneous release 
of the back of the tongue against the soft palate, and release of 
the glottal closure. Navaho: k'ad, now; k'ai\ willow. 

(I) - like English I. Navaho: bilid, its smoke. 

(*) - is produced by placing the tongue in l-position, but instead of 
functioning the voice box, air is blown out laterally between the 
central portion of the tongue and the palate or roof of the 
mouth. The resulting sound is a hiss analogous to that produc- 
ed in making the sounds s, sh. The difference between t and I is 
analogous to that between sh and zh, s and at. It is similar to II 
of Welsh. Navaho: *66*, fish; bit, with him. 

(m) - as in English. Not a common sound in Navaho. Navaho: 
mq'ii, coyote; bima, his mother. 

(n) - as in English. A vocalic n is commonly produced in Navaho 
by elision of the vowel in an n-syllable. Thus Navaho: nninil, 
or even nnnil, I placed them. Vocalic n always takes the tone 
of the elided vowel. It sounds similar to n In colloquial "n'nen" 
for "and then." Navaho: m, you; ndi, but. 

(s) - is much like s in so. Navaho: sis, belt. 

(sh) - as in she. Navaho: shash, bear. 

(t) - as in English, but more strongly aspirated. Navaho: tin, ice. 

(t*) - represents the sound produced by the almost simultaneous 
release of breath from the closure formed by the tip of the 
tongue on the hard palate just above the teeth, and the glottal 
closure. Navaho: t'eesh, charcoal; t'iis, Cottonwood. 

(ts) - is something like ts of hats, batsman, etc., but is more aspir- 
ated. Navaho: tsin, log, stick, tree; tsah, awl. 

(ts*) - is similar to k\ t\ ch\ except that the breath is simultane- 
ously released from the ts-position and the glottal closure. Na- 
vaho: ts'in, bone; *ats*id, sinew. 

(tf) - represents t and t pronounced simultaneously, (t is much 
like pronouncing the f-sound, except that one starts from a t- 
position. Navaho: ditfce*, wet; Hah, salve, ointment. 

(tt*) - involves the release of breath from the t-position laterally 
between the tongue and hard palate, and from the glottal clo- 
sure. Simultaneous production of the three elements of the 
sound result in a strong click or explosion. Navaho: H'izi, goat. 

(w) - is usually represented in Navaho by gh, which is strongly la- 
bialized before o. Navaho: waa*, beeweed; 'awee', baby. 

(y) - as in English. Navaho: ya, sky; yaa' # louse. 

(z) - as in English buzz. Navaho: biziiz, his belt. 

(zh) - like s in pleasure. Navaho: bizhe'e, his father. 

Palatalization and Labialization 

By palatalization is meant that a consonant is followed by a 
y-sound before certain vowels, and by labialization is meant that 
the consonant is followed by a w-sound before certain vowels. In 
English such consonants as b, p, and m are palatalized before u in 
such words as butte (byutte), puny (pyuny), and mute (myute). In 
Navaho certain consonants are regularly labialized before cer- 
tain vowels, and palatalized before others. The word ke, shoe, is 
actually pronounced kye, because k is regularly palatalized be- 
fore e. Similarly, to, water, is pronounced two, because t is labial- 
ized before o* The following table will show where palatalization 
and labialization occur in Navaho. In those combinations where 
the former results p indicates this fact, and where the latter re- 
sults I will be found. Where there is neither palatalization nor la- 
bialization, a dash ( — ) will be found. 






x, h 



P P 


P P 

P P 

gh is so deeply affected by labialization that it sounds like a 
w before o. Thus, bighoo\ his teeth, is almost biwoo'; and by pa- 
latalization that it sounds like a y before e and i. Thus bighi\ in 
it, is almost biyP; and gholghe, he is called, sounds like wolye. 



The words of the Navaho language can be classed \n four 
major categories, namely the pronoun, the noun, the verb and 
the particle (the latter including adverbs, numerals, conjunctions 
etc.). The postpositions might be added as a fifth class. Each of 
these categories will be taken up and described individually. 

Terminology introduced to aid in the description of the lan- 
guage will be defined and explained whenever such terminology 
diverges from the ordinary. 

By way of preface, it would be well to point out that the Na- 
vaho language is essentially monosyllabic; not in the sense that 
its words are all of a single syllable, but rather that they are com- 
posed of grouped monosyllabic elements, each of which contri- 
butes its individual significance to the whole. A word final stem 
defines, in a more or less unmodified manner, the act, state or 
quality denoted by the verb, while monosyllabic elements pre- 
fixed to the stem modify it in ways analogous to those by which 
the pronouns, adverbs, etc. of English modify the English verb. 


Many of us still think of the English language as one ex- 
pressing gender, although actually there exists only a vestige of 
such grammatical distinction, and this only in the forms of the 
3rd person pronoun. Thus we use he, his, him to designate the 
masculine; she, hers, her for the feminine, and it, its, it for the 

In Navaho, gender is not expressed by special forms, even 
of the 3rd person pronoun. Its expression is as unimportant for 
clarity in the Navaho pronoun as it is in the English noun. Of 
course, in both languages there are nouns such as man, woman, 
girl etc. which, by virtue of their meaning, are concerned with 
gender; but there is not a special word form, as in Latin or Span- 
ish, to make such distinction. 

When, in Navaho, it is necessary to expressly designate the 
sex of an animal, this is accomplished by means of the counter- 
parts of English male, female, or by specific names distinguishing 
the male and the female of the species. In English we could say 


male sheep and female sheep, although we generally use the spe- 
cific names ram and ewe. In Navaho dibe means sheep. Dibe 
frscTii is ewe, and deendsts'aa' (coiled horns) is ram. Ba'adigii 
(that which is its female) is used to denote the feminine, and 
bikq'igii (that which is its male) distinguishes the masculine. 
Tsa'ii is also used to denote a female, its force being to indicate 
that this particular sex is the one which breeds and reproduces. 
The differentiation or distinction in sex as denoted by the 
variant forms of the English 3rd person pronoun gives rise to con- 
siderable confusion among Navaho school children learning the 
new language. One often hears the pronoun "he" used in refer- 
ence to a woman, "she" of a man etc. 


In English we express number as singular (one) and plural 
(more than one). Navaho, on the other hand, expresses number 
as singular (one), dual (two), duoplural (two or more), plural (more 
than two), and distributive plural (indicating not only that the 
number is more than two, but also that each of the subjects or ob- 
jects in reference is taking part in the act, state or condition de- 
noted by the verb). To illustrate with concrete examples: 

yishaat, I am walking along 
yiit'ash, we two are walking along 
yiikah, we (plural) are walking along 
niheezna, they (duoplural) moved with their goods 
ndahaazna, they (distributive plural) moved with their 

The distributive plural is indicated by the prefix da-. It is 
used regularly with verbs, and on occasion with nouns. In the 
latter case it indicates that there are many individually scattered 
about, and the attention is focused on them as individuals rather 
than in collectivity. Thus kq , fire; daakg', many fires. Chash- 
k'eh, dry wash; chddaashk'eh, dry washes. 

Navaho nouns are not generally pluralized, the one word 
standing for singular or plural as the context or accompanying 
verb may indicate. Thus kp* is fire or fires;dzif is mountain or 

A few personal nouns such as boy, girl, youth, maiden etc. 

as well as nouns which express geneological relationship, are 
rendered plural by suff ixation of -ke or -(y)66. Thus: 

*ashkii, boy 'ashiike, boys 

'at eed, girl 'at'eeke, girls 

sik'is, my sibling (of same sex as self) sik'isoo, my 


The fact that English regularly expresses number in its 
nouns by means of a plural ending (boy, boys), or by means of 
internal vowel change (goose, geese), places another obstacle in 
the path of the Navaho student, and should receive due consider- 

* For an excellent discussion of Navaho relationship terms 
see Learning Navaho, Vol. 1, by Fr. Berard Haile, St. Michaels, 
Arizona, 1941 


The pronouns of Navaho occur as independent subjective 
and possessive, verbal incorporated subjective and objective, and 
the series prefixed to nouns and postpositions to indicate the pos- 
sessor and object respectively. The demonstrative, interrogative 
and indefinite pronouns constitute another group. 

Since the verb contains within its structure elements indica- 
tive of pronominal subject, the independent subjective pronouns 
are not necessary with the verbs, in contradistinction to English. 
The case is analogous to that of Spanish where the verb endings 
denote person. Thus English I talk, Spanish (yo) hablo, and Na- 
vaho (shi) yashtr. Spanish -o indicates that the person is 1st sin- 
gular, and Navaho -sh- does likewise, thus precluding the ne- 
cessity of adding the pronouns yo or shi, unless for emphasis. 

In the first group of pronouns to be given below, it will be 
noted that there are two 3rd person forms, one designated 3., the 
other 3a. It may be said here that the 3. form corresponds to the 
ordinary 3rd person pronouns he, she, it; whereas the 3a, form is 
less definite, being at times like English one, although it trans- 
lates he and she. It is used in polite conversation, and is con- 
sidered a deferential form between certain relationships, such as 
brother and sister. 

Independent Subjective Pronouns 







shf, I 

nihf, we 

danihf, we 


ni, you 

nihf, you 

danihi, you 


bi, he, she, 


bi, they 

daabf, they 


ho, he, she, 


ho, they 

daaho, they 


A variant and particularized form of the above subjectives 
is obtained by suffixation thereto of relatival enclitic -i, and pre- 
pounding of the particle t'da (just). Thus t*aa shihi, t'da nihi, t'aa 
bihi, t'aa hohi etc., the meaning being thus modified to I myself, 
you yourself, he himself, etc. 

Independent Possessive Pronouns 

The independent possessive pronouns occur in two forms, 
the first being the same as the independent subjectives already 
given, and the other being obtained by lengthening the vowel and 
closing the syllable with the glottal closure O. Thus shi or shif, 
mine; ni or nii', yours; bi or bii*, his, hers, its, theirs; ho or hwiP, 
his, hers etc. The form wherein the vowel is lengthened indicates 
that one just came into possession of it (a momentaneous per- 
fective force); whereas the other form merely signifies the state 
of possssing it (a static durative concept). 

Thus: 'Eii iff bi, that horse is his; but eii iff bfi* sil[[\ that 
horse became his. 

Noun Prefixed Possessive Pronouns 

The prefixed possessive pronouns are the same, in general, 
as the independent subjective forms already given, with several 
important exceptions. With the majority of nouns the pronoun 
prefix has low tone, but there is a group of nouns which require 
high tone on the pronoun prefix. Another minor group of nouns 
causes the pronoun prefix to drop its vowel (i) and join its con- 
sonantal part directly to the initial vowel of the noun (the poly- 
syllabic pronoun prefixes drop their final vowel). 

Further, there are two added 3rd person forms in this series. 
These are the 3rd person indefinite, designated 3 i., and the 3rd 
person obliquative, designated 3o. The 3i. signifies someone's, 
something's (an indefinite possessor), while the 3o. indicates that 
a 3. (not 3a.) subject acts upon a 3. object. Usually the 3o. pro- 

noun is attached to the verb, but in some constructions it is 
attached to the object noun. Thus bi-ghan is translatable as his- 
home, while 3o. yi-ghan is rendered as he-(to)-his-home (yi- con- 
tains the idea of a 3. subject acting upon 3. object). 

Lastly, there is a reciprocal form, designated rec. This form 
is used on nouns in Navaho, but is more commonly used in other 
Athabaskan languages. It means each other's, one another's. 

The noun prefixed possessive pronouns are given below, pre- 
fixed to on exemplary noun, but separated from it by a hyphen. 


A. The ordinary low toned series. 
Person Singular 

1 . shi-tsii* my-head 

2. ni-tsii 1 , your-head 

3. bi-tsii', his- her- its- 

3o. yi-tsii', he, she, it to 

his- her- its-head 
3a. ha-tsii', his- her- 

*3i. 'a-tsii', someone's 



nihi-tsiP, our-heads 
nihi-tsii*, your-heads 
bi-tsii', their-heads 

yi-tsii', they to their- 
ha-tsii\ their-heads 

*a-tsii', someone's head 

at-tsii* (or 'ahit-tsii'), 
each other' s-heads 

nihf-la', our-hands 
nihf-la\ your-hands 
bMa 1 , their-hands 

yf-la\ they to their-hands 

ha-la*, their-hands 

'a-la', someone's hand 

'ahtf-la', each other's- 

C. Series in which the final vowel of the prefix is dropped. 
1. sh-6df, my-sister nih-adf, our-sister 

ICL. — 

B. The high toned series. 


shf-la', my-hand 


nf-la\ your hand 


bi-la\ his- her- its 



yf-la\ he, she, it to 

his- her- its-hand 


ha-la*, his- her- 



*a-Ia\ someone's 




n-adi', your-sister 


b-adf, his- her- 



y-adf, he, she to his- 



h-adf, his- her- 



'-adi, someone's sis. 

nih-adf, your-sister 
b-adf, their-sister 

y-adf,they to their-sister 

h-ddf, their-sister 

"someone's ---." 

*The 3i. forms are herewith translated as 
Usually such forms can best be rendered without this indefinite 
pronoun in English. Thus 'atsif, head; *adi, (elder) sister, etc. 

Pronouns Prefixed To Postpositions 

The pronouns prefixed to the postpositions are similar to 
those just given for the nouns. The same three series A, B, and C 
again occur. The reciprocal is widely used with the postpositions, 
and another form, the reflexive, occurs. This is designated ref. 








ni-k'i, on-you 
bi-k'i, on-him her it 
yi-k'i, he, she, it on- 
him her it 
ha-k'i, on-him her 
'a-k'i, on-someone 

'a-k'i, on-self 




shi-ka, for-me 
nf-ka, for-you 
bi-ka, for-him her it 
yf-ka, he, she, it for- 
him her it 
ha-ka, for-him her 


nihi-k*i, on-you 
nihi-k'i, on-us 
bi-k'i, on-them 
yi-k'i, they-on-them 

ha-k'i, on-them 
'a-k*i, on-someone (pi) 

•at-k'i (or 'ahii-k'i), on 

each other 
'a-k*i, on-selves 

nihf-ka, for-us 
nihf-ka, for-you 
bf-kd, for-him her it 
yf-ka, they-for-them 

ha-ka, for-them 



*d-kd, for-someone 

'd-kd, for-someone (pi) 


at-kd (or *ahft-kd), for- 
each other 


a-kd, for-self 

'd-kd, for-seives 


sh-d, for-me 

nih-d, for-us 


n-d, for-you 

nih-d, for-you 


b-d, for-him her it 

b-d, for-them 


y-d, he, she, it for- 
him her it 

y-d, they- for-them 


h-d, for-him her 

h-d, for them 


'-a, for-someone 

*-d, for-someone (pi) 


*ah-d, for-each other 
'dd-d, for-selves 

*dd-d, for-se!f 

The two postpositions in B and C above,both translated for, 
are distinguished as the English for in whistle for me (to call my 
attention), and do it for me, respectively, -ka also renders the 
meaning of after, as in to run after him. 

Other groups which function as subjectives are: 

1. fad aniidla, we both 

2. t'dd 'dnoh+a, you both 

3. t'dd 'dta, they both 
3a. t'dd ajfta, they both 

1. ndiniilt'e, we two 

2. ndinolt'e, you two 

3. ndilt'e, they two 
3a. nizhdilt'e, they two 

(n- = naaki, two) 

1 . tdniilt'e, we three 

2. tdndtt'e, you three 

3. tdlt'e, they three 
3a. tdjflt*e, they three 

(td- = tad', three) 

dd 'dnoht'e, you all 
dd 'dt'e, they all 
aa annt e, we all 
dd 'dji't e, they all 

dd 'dnfiltso, we all 
dd 'dnoftso, you all 
dd 'altso, they all 
dd 'djiitso, they all 

djniilt'e, we four 
d[n6tt'e, you four 
d^lfe, they four 
dfjNt'e, they four 
d[- = d[[\ four) 

One can also use the full word, instead of the apocopation 
of the number Thus naaki diniilt'e, we two; taa* niilt'e, we three; 
dff niilt'e, we four etc. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns 

dii, this, these rilei-, over there (visible or 

dttdi', this very one known place) 

'ei, that, those (remote and rilah-, over there (invisible or 

invisible) unknown place) 

'eii, that, those (close at hand ko-, here 

and visible) dzqq-, over here 

'eiidf, that very one kwe'e, right here 

rilei, yonder one 'dkwe'e, right there 

naghai, that one there, those kwii, here (less definite) 

*'aa-, there (remote) 'akwii, there (less definite) 
^o-f there (nearby) 

*Those from dii through naghai are used of persons or things. 
Those terminating in a hyphen refer to place, and are usually 
used with one of the postpositional enclitics such as: -di, -gi, at; 
-d$§', -doo, from; -goo, toward; -ji, on the side of, in the direc- 
tion of; -ji\ up to, as far as. Thus ko-di, (at) here; ko-ji*, as far 
as here; ko-ji, on this side, etc. 

The Interrogative Pronouns 

haa-, where? The enclitic added to it determines its meaning. 

haa-dishq', haa-dish, where (at)? 

hdd-gooshq*, hdd-goosh, where (to)? 

haa-d^'shq, haa-d§§sh, where (from)? 
haf, haishq' hdi'sh, who? Hafshq* 'dt'i, who is it? 

haf bi-, hdfsh bi-, whose? Hdfsh bi-l[f , whose horse? 

haa, daa, what? (how?) Dfish haa (daa) gholghe, what is 

this called? 
ha*at'iishq\ ha'at'iish, what (is it)? Ha'at'iish 'ife, what 

is it? 
haidfshq', hdidish, which one? Hdidfsh ninizin, which one 

do you want? 

The Indefinite Pronouns 

t'aa bfholnihf, anything, any- hafshQ, someone 

one t'da attsogoo, everywhere 

t'aa haida, anybody t'aadoo le*e, thing, some- 
t'dd dfkwif, a few thing 

t*aa 'attso, all, everybody taa aftsonf, everything, any- 
t'aa 'ata, both thing 


di'kwiishii, several 

ta', ta'fgff, the other one 

Iq, iani, Iq'f, 1'66 *ahayof, 

many, much, a lot 
ha'at'nshii, ha'at'fsh([, some- 

haajish[[, (toward) somewhere 
haajfda, in some direction 
haaji'shii, (as far as) some- 
where, to some point 

Indefinite concepts are often expressed as in the following 
exemplary sentences: 

Hoodi la nanina, ghoshd^ 1 hanina, wherever you are, come 

T'da ni'ydhigii, rilahdi nanina bididifniit, whoever comes, tell 
him to go away! 
Doo nisini da, I want nothing 
T*aa yinfzinigii baa difleet, give him whatever he wants 

T*aa niza'azis silaa shjj hanile, take out whatever you have in 
your pocket 

Just as in English, there are several different classes of 
nouns in Navaho. These can be grouped as 1 . Basic nouns, 2. 
Constantly possessed nouns, 3. Nouns composed of a stem and a 
prefix, 4. Abstract verbs used as nouns, 5. Compound nouns. 

1 . Basic Nouns 

This group probably represents, in part at least, the oldest 
stratum in the language, and it refers largely to natural objects 
and phenomena. A list, by no means exhaustive, is given here- 
with by way of illustration. 

*dh, 'dhf, fog, mist 

bqqs, hoop 

beesh, flint, metal, knife 

btf, drowsiness, sleep 

byh, deer 

bis, adobe, clay 

chaa', beaver 

chqq*, excrement 

chnh, red ochre 

chill, snowstorm 

chizh, firewood, wood 

chgeh, wild rose 

ch'ah, hat 
ch'ai, frog 
ch'il, plant, weed 
ch'6, spruce 
clVosh, bug, worm 
daan, springtime 
dit, blood 
dlddd, lichen 
dloh, laughter 
dlQQ* prairie dog 
dzeeh, elk 
dzit, mountain 

*ee\ clothing, shirt 

gad, cedar 

gah, rabbit 

gish, digging stick, cane 

hai, winter 

hal, club 

heel, pack, burden 

his, pus 

hosh, thorn, cactus 

'i+, coniferous needles 

joof, ball 

jeeh, resin, pitch 

jish, medicine pouch 

JL day 

ke, foot, footwear, shoe 

kin, house 

kg*, fire 

k'aa', arrow 

k'ai', willow 

k'ish, alder 

k'ii', sumac 

k'os, cloud 

teezh, soil, dirt 

\e, jealousy 

fid, smoke 

i[[\ pet, livestock, horse 

Joh, loop, noose 

t66d, sore, lesion 

too', fish 

nP, earth, ground 

noo\ storage cist 

*ood, eagle trap 

saad, word, language 

sq, old age 

s^f, sand 

sees, wart 

siil, steom, vapor 

sid, scar 

sin, song 

sis, belt 

sool, box alder 


lizh, urine 

shash, bear 

shaazh, knot 

shqq', sunshine 

sh[, summer 

sho, frost 

teeh, valley, deep water 

tin, ice 

to, water 

tooh, large body of water 

t'eesh, charcoal 

t'iis, Cottonwood 

tlah, grease, ointment 

tf ee*, night 

tieet, igniter 

t+'id, flatulent expulsion 

tPiish, snake 

ti'oh, grass 

t-Poot, rope, cord 

tsah, awl 

tse, stone, rock 

tsin, wood, tree 

tsiid, ember, live coal 

ts'aa', basket 

ts'ah, sagebrush 

ts*in, bone, skeleton 

yaa\ louse, tick 

ya, sky 

yas, snow 

yoo\ bead 

zas (ib.yas), snow 

Such nouns as tPizi, goat, jadi (dijdad, fleet plus -i, relatival 
enclitic, i.e. the one) might be added to the above list because 
they ore apparently composed of a stem plus a relatival enclitic. 


Some of the nouns in the foregoing list undergo phonetic 
chonges when the possessive pronominal prefix is added. Thus: 

Stem initial and final t become I. 

teezh, soil shi-leezh, my soil 

t[[* t horse shi-l[[', my horse 

lizh, urine shi-lizh, my urine 

t+'oor, rope shi-tt'661, my rope 

heel, pack shi-gheel, my pock 

Exception: +66', fish shi-too', my fish 

Stem initial h becomes gh. 

heel, pack shi-gheel, my pack 

hosh, thorn shi-ghosh, my thorn 

Exception: his, pus shi-his, my pus 

Stem final sh becomes zh. 

beesh, knife shi-beezh, my knife 

Exception: shash, bear shi-shash, my bear 

jish, medicine bag shi-jish 

Stem initial and final $ become z. 

sq' star S1-Z9' (or si-sg')/ my star 

sef, sand *si-zei (or si-sef), my sand 

sis, belt si-ziiz, my belt 

Exception: sin, song shi-ghiin, my song 

sees, wart si-z££s, my wart 

*sh- assimilates to s- before -s, -z, -ts, -ts', dz. 

Stem vowel shortens. 

k'aa', arrow shi-k'a* (or shi-k*aa'), my arrow 

ts'aa 1 , basket si-ts'aa' (or si-ts'a'), my basket 

Stem vowel lengthens. 

sis, belt si-ziiz, my belt 

sin, song shi-ghiin, my song 

' is added to the stem. 

to, water shi-to', my water 
tse, stone si-tse*, my stone 

2. Constantly Possessed Nouns 

This group comprises relationship terms and names of body 
parts, which cannot be logically dissociated from a possessor. An 


illustrative list is herewith given, the 3rd person "indefinite pro- 
nominal possessive prefix 'a-, *d-, representing the possessor. 

abe*, milk^ mammary gland 

'abid, stomach 

'achj|h, nose 

'acrViF, intestine 

'adoh, muscle 

'agaan, arm 

1 agod, knee 

'aghid, chest, sternum 

'aghoo', tooth, teeth 

*aghos, shoulder 

'ajaa', ear 

'ajaad, leg 

'akee', foot 

ala\ hand 

'onoa , eye 

'acheii, maternal grandfather 
'ach'e'e, daughter(mother 

'adeezhi, younger sister 
'ddi, elder sister 
'aghe', son (father speaking) 
'ak'is, sibling (of same sex) 
'alah, sibling (of opposite sex) 

ani', mind 

anii', face 

aniT, nare, nostril 

anii', waiste 

ataa*, forehead 

atl'aa*, rump 

atsee', tail 

atsii', head 

atsoo*, tongue 

ats'id, tendon, ligature 

ayol, breath 

ozee f mouth 

azid, liver 

aziz, penis 

azhf, voice 

ama, mother 
anaaf, elder brother 
atsi*, daughter (father 

atsilf, younger brother 
azhe'e, father 
ayaazh, son (mother 


In the case of the body part nouns, secondary or alienated 
possession is expressed by a combination of the definite and the 
indefinite possessive pronominal prefix. Thus *abe* means milk 
or literally "something's fa-) milk." Replacing 'a- with definite 
shi-, my, we get shibe\ my milk. However, when one speaks of it 
as shi be' the meaning is that the milk came from one's own 
breasts. If the milk came from an animal, and passed into my 
possession, whereafter I speak of it as "my milk," I say not shibe', 
but she'abe 9 , wherein she- (=shi-) represents "me," the present 
possessor, and -'a- stands for the original possessor from which 
the milk has been taken. She'abe' means literally "my some- 
thing's milk." The same is true of sitef', my (own) flesh; she'atsf, 
my meat. 


3. Stem and Prefix Nouns 

These nouns are probably verbal in origin, but to verify their 
etimology at present is difficult or impossible. 

'ashja', opportunity dine, man, person Navaho 

dibaa', thirst dine e, tribe, nation, people 
dichin, hunger (an old plural of dine) 

didze, berry doone'e, clan 

dineeh, young man nat'oh, tobacco, cigaret 

4. Abstract Verbs Used as Nouns 

halgai, plain (ha-, pronoun referring to place; -Igai, white) 
ntsekees, thought (he thinks, thinking takes place) 
ha'a'aah, east (ha-, up out; -'a-, indefinite subject pronoun; 

'-aah, a round object moves (referring to the sun) 
'e'e'aah, west (*e- = 'a-, in, out of sight; -'e- = -'a-, indefinite 

subject; -'aah, a round object moves (i.e. the sun) 
nanise', vegetation (it grows about) 

neest'q, fruit (it has matured); tsin bineest'q', fruit (of a tree) 
hado, heat (ha-, pronoun referring to space, area; -do, hot) 
hak'az, coldness (ha-, spatial pronoun; -k'az, cold) 

Often a relatival enclitic -i, the one, -ii, the particular one, 
-igii, the one, that which, is added to the verb. Thus: 
'iisxfinii, killer (*i- — 'a-, indefinite object pronoun; -is- — si- 
perfective; -x[ (=-h[) perfective stem of to kill one object; -n- 
from the nasalized stem, which interposes -n- between the 
stem vowel and the relatival enclitic, and lengthens its vo- 
wel with falling tone before -ii, the particular one) 
'ani'linf, thief ('a-, indefinite object pronoun; -ni'jih-, he 

steals; -f, the one (who) 
'adiits'a'ii, interpreter ('a-, indefinite object pronoun; -dii- 

ts'a*, he hears, understands; -ii, the particular one (who) 
dflghfhi, lead (dilgh[-, it melts; -f, the one (which) 
hataa+ii, shaman (hataat-, he sings; -ii, the one (who) 
nfmasii, potato (nimaz-, it is globular; -ii, the one (which) 

5. Compound Nouns 

These fall into several categories, ranging from simple com- 
pounds to long descriptive phrases. 


1. Noun plus noun. 

tozis, water bag, bottle, tumbler (to-, water; -zis, bag) 

tsesg', glass, mica (tse-,stone; sg\ star) 

teets'aa', dish, earthenware (lee- = teezh, soil; -ts'aa*, basket) 

tt'aakat, skirt, dress (tt*aa-,rump; -kat, leather) 

chech'il, oak (che- = tse-, stone; -ch'il, plant) 

tse'aan, rock cave, lair (tse-, rock; -aan, hole, burrow) 

k'aabeesh, arrowhead (k'aa-, arrow; -beesh, flint, metal) 

tsihat, warclub (tsi-, wood; -hat, club) 

tsits'aa, wooden box (tsi-, wood; -ts*aa\ basket) 

2. Noun plus postposition. 

teeghi 1 , subsoil, underground (tee-, soil; -ghT, within) 

tsintah, forest (tsin-, trees; -rah, among) 

tseghi', canyon (tse-, rock; -ghi*, within) 

tota*, Farmington, N.M. (to-, water; -to', between) 

taghi', interior of the water (ta-, water; -ghi',within) 

kek'eh, footprint (ke-, foot; -k'eh, place) 

tatkacT, on the surface of the water (ta-, water; -tkaa', on) 

dinetah, old Navaho country (dine-, people, -tah, among) 

Naakaiitah, Mexico (Naakaii-, Mexicans; -tah, among) 

It will be noted in the above examples that, in many cases, 
the postpositional element is used with the force of a noun. 

3. Noun plus verb stem. 

ti'ohchin, onion (Won-, grass; -chin, smells) 
teejin, coal (tee-, soil; -jin, black) 

chezhin lava, malpais (che- = tse, rock; -zhin, black) 
tsenit, ax (tse-,, stone; -nit, pound) 

k'aagheet, quiver (k'aa-, arrows; -gheet, carry a pack (or as a 
noun heet, pack, burden) 

4. Noun plus verb. 

tsinaabqqs, wagon (tsin-, wood; -naabqqs, it (a circular object 

as a wheel) rolls about) 
tsinaa'eet, boat (tsin-, wood; -naa'eet, it floats about) 
tonteel, ocean (to-, water; -nteel, \t is wide, broad) 
gatbahf, cottontail (ga-, rabbit; -tbahf, gray one) 
Naakaiitbahf, Spaniard (Naakaii-, Mexican; -tbahf, gray one) 
chidf naa'na'f, caterpillar tractor (chidi, car; naa'na'f, the 

one that crawls about) 


silaago nda'afeelfgif, sailors (silaago, soldier; nda'at'eeh'gif, 

those who cause navigation) 
deenasts'aa', ram (dee-, horns; -nasrs'aa', coiled) 

5. Postposition plus verb. 

ba'olta'f, teacher (ba-, for her; -'oita'-, studying takes place; 
-i, the one) 

bee'eldgoh, gun (bee-, with it; -'eldogh, indefinite subject (3i.) 
makes an explosion) 

bee'atsidf, hammer (bee-, with it; -'atsid-, pounding is done; 
-i, the one (with which) 

bee'atsxis, whip (bee-, with it; -'atsxis, whipping is done) 

bee'otsa'i, pincers, pliers (bee-, with it; -'otsa'-, grasping (as in 
the teeth) is done; -(, the one) 

bee'adit'oodf, towel (bee-, with it; -'adrt'ood-, one wipes one- 
self; -(, the one) 

6. Miscellaneous. 

naalghehe ba hooghan, trading post, store (naalghehe, mer- 
chandise = that which is packed about; bd, for it; hooghan, 

'atsiniltfish bee 'adinfdfin, electric light Catsiniltt' ish, light- 
ning; bee, with it; 'adinfdfin, light) 

beesh to bii* rilfnfgff, water pipe (beesh, metal; to, water; bii', 
in it; nlf(n)- it flows along horizontally; -fgff, the one) 

chidf naa'na'i bee'eldoohtsoh bikaa' dah naaznilfgif, military 
tank (chidf naa'na'f, caterpillar tractor; bee'eldoohtsoh, 
cannons; bikaa*, upon it; dah, up; naaznil-, they set about 
(plural objects); -fgff, the one. The enclitic -fgff nominalizes 
the whole phrase, a free translation of which would be "the 
particular caterpillar tractor upon which cannons set/ 7 ) 

+[[* bigheel, saddle (i[[\ horse; bigheel, his pack) 

tsin bigaan, limb (tsin, tree; bigaan, its arm) 

Nouns denoting clans (doone'e) are often formed by means 
of a suffix -nii, people, no doubt cognate with dine, person, man. 
Clan names often have to do with geographical location, such as 
kiyaa'aanii (ki- — kin, house; -yaa'a-, it stands straight up; -nii, 
people), people of the erect house. Totsohnii, (to-, water; -tsoh-, 
big; -nii, people), big water people. Sometimes the noun dine'e, 
tribe, nation, people, is used in forming clan names. Thus Naa- 


kaii dine'e, Mexican people (clan). Other names are formed by 
use of a relatival enclitic, as frabaqha, (ta-, water; -bqqh, edge; -a 
= -i, the ones) / the shore ones, or more freely, the shoremen. 

Despite the long association of the Navaho with various 
European groups, word borrowing has been very light, probably 
due in some part to the dissimilarities that exist between the Na- 
vaho and Indo-European languages. A few words have come in, 
largely from Spanish. Such ore: 

madzo, marble (from Eng. marble) 

gohweeh, gohwei, 'ahweeh, etc., coffee (from Sp. cafe) 

deeh, tea (from Sp. te) 

mandaguya, butter (from Sp. mantequilla) 

'aloos, rice (from Sp. arroz,) 

masdeel, basdeel, pie (from Sp. pastel) 

yaal, bit (nrv ney) (from Sp. real) 

bilasaanaa, apple (from Sp. manzana) 

noomba, number (from English number) 

chaleego, vest (from Sp. chaleco) 

Some nouns, principally those of the constantly possessed 
category, (i.e. those referring to body parts), can be conjugated 
after the fashion of neuter verbs, in which instance the significa- 
tion is one of comparative condition or appearance. Thus using 
shash, bear, and -tsii\ head, we obtain: 

shash yinis-tsif, i have a head like a bear 

shash yinfl-tsii', you have a head like a bear 

shash yil-tsii', he, she, they (dpi) have a head like bear 

shash jool-tsii', he, she, they (dpi) have a head like a bear 

shash yii!- (or yiniil-) tsii', we (dpi) have heads like a bear 

yinol-tsiP, you (dpi) have heads like a bear 

shash deiniil-tsiT, we (dist. pi) have heads like a bear 

shash deinoi-tsii\ you (dist. pi) have heads like a bear 

shash daal-tsif , they (dist. p!) have heads like a bear 

shash dajool-tsii', they (dist. pi) have heads like a bear 

The Enclitics 

There is a class of words termed enclitics because of their 
dependence upon a preceding word. They are listed herewith: 
shq\ -sh, -ish. These are the interrogative enclitics. A ques- 


tion is not indicated in Navaho by raising the tone of a word or 
phrase as we do in English, but is indicated by the suf fixation of 
one of the interrogative enclitics to the first word in the clause, or 
by use of the particle da', whose function it is to introduce a ques- 
tion, or by use of both the enclitic and the particle. Thus: 

Haishq' or hafsh 'anit J (, who are you? 

Haait'eegoshq' doo bichY yanittf da, why do you not talk to 

Ha'at'ifshq* or ha'at'iish nfnfzin, what do you want? 
Haashq' or haash yinilghe, how are you called? what is your 

Bich'ahash dff ch'ah bilaah 'anittso, is his hat larger than 

this hat? (-ash = -fsh) 
Dnsh ni, is this yours? 

Nichidishq' hait'eego dilgho', how fast is your car? 
Bee nini'if fsh, did you steal it from him? 
Da' dichinfsh nil[, are you hungry? 

-go. Generally speaking, this enclitic is comparable to the Eng- 
lish endings -ing, as in going, and -ly, as in coldly. It functions in 
Navaho to adverbialize nouns and particles, and to participialize 
verbs. It is very widely used, translating such concepts as when, 
while, as, etc. The examples will illustrate its uses. 

Jiniyaago hot hodeeshnih, I'll tell him when he comes. 
Kwe'e sezfigo t'aa 'nghisif nfzaad nihoolzhiizh, I have been 

standing here for a long time. 
Too jinfyahago (or jiniyaagoo) hot hweeshne', as soon os he 

arrived, I told him, 
*Oodlqq*go biniinaa 'awaalya 'abi'dooItV, he was put in jail 
for being drunk, 
-goo. This postpositional enclitic means "toward" or "along 
the extension of (as tabqqhgoo, along the shore)," when used with 
nouns, but with verbs it translates conditional "if" in a negative 

Doo 'ffyqq'goo doo dah dideeshaat da, I will not start off if I 

have not eaten. 

Doo shee nikihonfttqqgoo sh|[ t*aa kwe'e naashaago shee 

hodfina* dooleet nt*|f ', if it had not started to rain on me, 

I would probably have stayed here longer. 

-i, -ii, -igff. These are the relatival enclitics, meaning the one, 

the particular one, that which, those which etc. Low toned -ii is 


more particularizing than high toned -i (compare remote '66-, 
there, with close at hand 'aa-, there). The instrumental and agen- 
tive ending -er is translated by -i, or -ii. The following example? 
will illustrate. 

'azee'i'iTmi, medicine maker, dpctor Cozee', medicine; 'iit'i- 
he makes it; -(n)i, the one who. Note that when the relati- 
val enclitic is added to an open stem syllable whose vowel 
is nasal, an -n- appears between the denasalized stem vo- 
wel and the following enclitic.) 

hataa+ii, shaman (hataat-, he sings; -ii, the one) 

hataa+igif, that which he sings 

yidanfgn, that which is eaten 

Naakaiigii, the Mexican(s) in particular, those that are 
Mexicans, Hie Mexicans 

T'aa yinizinfgH baa difleet, give him whatever he wants. 

Doo nisinf da, I want nothing (nisin, I want it; nisinf, I am a 
wanter of it). 

Doo naaghahi da, there's no one at home (naaghahf, one 
who walks). 

Taadoo tsijlgo yani+ti'f, don't talk so fast (yani+ti'i, you are 
a talker). 

Taadoo yiittsanf da, I saw no one (yiHtsanf, I was a seer of 

As it has already been noted in the section dealing with 
nouns, the relatival enclitics enter widely into noun formation, 
especially of those nouns derived from verbs. 

-dqq. This element indicates past time, and is usually equiva- 
lent to English ago, last, when, yester-, etc. 

daan, spring dqqdqq\ last spring 

j[, day jlfdqq*, today (the part already past) 

hai, winter haidqq', last winter 

hiina, he is alive hiinahqqdqq*, when he was alive 

-da. This is an enclitic, and could be written in conjunction 
with the preceding word, although we do not thus write it in our 
Navaho texts. It is used as part of a negativizer, following the 
negativized statement, while doo precedes, in a manner analo- 
gous to the French ne — pas. Thus: 

Doo ya'at^eh -da, it is not good. 

Dooyiittsqqda, I did not see him. (Note that when the en- 
clitic da follows a short, open, high toned stem vowel, the 


latter is usually lengthened and the tone becomes falling. 
If the stem vowel is long and high toned, the tone be- 
comes a falling one, regardless of whether the stem syll- 
able is open or closed; i.e. whether it ends in a consonant 
or not). 
Id. This enclitic often renders it is, that's what it is, etc, 
Haf Id 'anf, who is it that is speaking?! 
Haa la yinidzaa, what in the world happened to you?! 
ga\ An emphatic. 

'£i ga* shi 'asht'{, I'm the one who did (said) it! 
Dm ga' t[[' nizhoni, this is the pretty horse! 
Ie\ Optative and mandatory. 
'Adinidnn le\ let there be light! 

Todi+hiHa' sel'qq le', I wish I had (on hand) some whiskey. 
ni\ Indicates past time or decease. 
Shizhe'e ni', my father (deceased). 
Taah yi'qq ni', I had put it inthe water. 
nt'§f\ Indicates past time; was, used to be, etc. 

yishaat ht'ee', I was walking along. 
•y§?/ ~yff n>*# -§§/ -e§ni* (assimilates to -qq, -qqnV after preced- 
ing a) This enclitic has various meanings, among which are for- 
mer, deceased, used to be and aforementioned (in narrative it is 
attached to a noun or verb which has already been mentioned, in 
the same sense as we use aforementioned in English). 

shadiy§£, my deceased or aforementioned elder sister 
shimahqq, my deceased mother 

Postpositional Enclitics 

The following enclitics have largely to do with direction or 
place, and are suffixed to nouns, verbs or postpositions. They are: 
-gi, at, in (a general area) 

Europegi, in Europe 

Europe hoolgheegi, at the place called Europe 
-di, at, in (a more closely defined area, somewhat like English 
right at, right in). 

'olta'di, at school 

nleidi, (at) over there 

kodi, (at) here 

hooghandi, at home 
-goo, to, toward, along (implies motion toward) 

hooghangoo, toward home 


Na'nizhoozhigod, toward Gallup 

tabqqhgoo, along the shore 
-df §*, from, along the way from 

Na'nizhoozhid^*, from Gallup 

*6lta'd£§', from school 

'dad| £', from there 
-doo, from (a point or well defined place) 

tsin 'iTdhidoo kinji', from where the tree stands to the house 

'dddoo, from there, and then 
-ji*, to, up to, as far as 

hooghanji', as far as the hooghan, as far as home 

hooghanjigo, homeward 

tse si'anfji', up to the rock 
-ji, on the side of, in the direction of 

nish'nddjf, right hand side 

shfla' nish'nddjf yfgn, my right hand 

be'ee* danineezfjf *atah nishtf, I am Catholic (lit. I am on the 
long garment's side) 

hozhpQJf (hatddl), (a sing, ceremony) on the side of (i.e. for) 
beauty, happiness, wellbeing. (-jf is commonly used in the 
names of native ceremonies) 

shich'ijf nil[, he is on my side 

The Postpositions 

For the sake of convenience these will be listed in conjunc- 
tion with the 3rd personal pronoun bi-, him, her, it, and trans- 
lated with him or it. 

The postpositions of Navaho take the place of the preposi- 
tions of English, and the examples given herewith will serve to 
exemplify their usage. 

ba, for him, in his favor 

ba jttbeezh, he is boiling it for him 
baa, about him, to him 

ha'dt'ffsh baa ydnHti', what are you talking about? 

beeso baa ni'q, I gave him a dollar 
badtk'iisji, (progressing, extending) beside him, parallel to it 

bdd+k'iisjf yishddt, I am walking along beside him 

'atiin badtk'iisji' beesh rit'P, the railroad (or wire) runs along 
parallel to the road. 
bddtis, over it 


nahasdzddn 'atniTgi hoodzooigii bddtis da'niil'&l, we 
(dist. pi) sailed over the equator. 
bqqh, beside him, alongside it 

bqqh ndeesh'dat, I'll place it (one round or bulky object) be- 
side him, pawn it to him. 

tsin bqqh hasis'na', I climbed the tree (lit. crawled up along- 
side the tree). 

shfla* yoostsah bqqh nini'q, I put the ring on my finger (lit. 
my finger ring alongside it I placed it). 

tsinaabqqs bijaad bqqh ninam'q,! put the wheel back on the 
bee, about, concerning it, him 

beendshniih, I remember (about) it, him. 

beehonisin, you know about him, are acquainted with him. 
bee, with it, by means of it 

bee da'ahijiganigii, those things with which people kill one 
another, weapons 

tse bee kin, stone house (lit. stone with-it house). 

tse bee se+h[, I killed it with a stone. 
biba', for him (waiting) 

biba* seda, I am sitting waiting for him. 

*a+ba' si ike, we two are sitting waiting for each other. 
bich'ah, at him (?) 

bictVah hodeeshkeet, I'll scold him. 

nihidVah hoshkeed, he scolded us. 
bich'qqh, in front of him, in his way 

bich'qqh sez[, I am standing in his way 

shich'qqh naagha, he walks in front of me, protects me. 

'ach'qqh sodizin, self-protection prayer 

t'aadoo shich'qqh smfzfni, don't stand in my way! 
bich'i's to, toward him 

bich'f yashti*, I am talking to him 

kin bich'f, toward the house 

dzil bich'i' hoott^, the rain is moving toward the mountain. 
bich'ijigo, on his side 

shichMjfgo nini'aah, put it on my side (i.e over here by me)! 
bidaah, toward it, facing it, toward him (to meet him) 

bidaah nfya, I met him, encountered him. 

bidaah yashti*, I'm talking back to him. 

nfyol bidaahji* facing the wind 


bideend, in exchange for it 

dikwifsh bideena nanilnish, how much do you get (lit. how 
much in exchange for do you work)? 
bideijigo, above it 

tse bideijigo tsin 'iTa, above the rock there is a tree. 

bee'atsidi shideijigo dah si'q, the hammer is setting right 
above me. 
bigha, through it, penetrating it 

bigha hoodzq, it is perforated 

bighd'deeshshish, I'll poke a hole through it. 

bighanisht'q, I took it away from him (by force). 
bighT, bii'/ within it, inside of it 

beesh bii* kpi, iron stove (lit. metal in- it fire-the-one) 

This postpositional functions like a noun at times, as in: 

bighi'di, (at) in its interior 
bi'oh, less than it 

bi'oh neesh'q, I cannot afford it. 

bi'oh anfsneez, I am less tall than he. 
bikda', over its surface, above it 

tsidii shikda' naanaat'ah, the bird is flying around above me 

hooghan bikaa'gi, on, or above, the hogan 
bikee', behind him (in his footsteps) 

bikee* yishaat, I'm walking along behind him. 
bik'eh, according to him, after his manner, in his way 

bmi' bik'eh, according to his ideas 

'ef bik'eh (or *efk*ehgo), according to that 

shd bik'ehgo, according to the sun, sunwise 

Also as an enclitic -k'ehji, as in Naakaiik'ehjf yatti', he is 
talking Spanish. 

-k'ehgo is often joined to a preceding word as an enclitic, as 
in Bilagaanaak'ehgo, in the White man's manner. 
biiaah, beyond it; more than it 

biiaah 'anfsneez, I am taller than he (lit. tall beyond him). 
bif, with him, in his company 

bit naash'aash, I am accompanying him 

bee bit hodeeshnih, I shall tell him about it (the use of bit in 
this case is idiomatic). 

bit be^hozin, he knows (about) it (lit. there is knowledge 
about it with him). 
biih, movement or action toward inside 

to biih yi'q, I put it in the water. 


(Compare kin, house; k[[h, into town, as in k[[h yTq, I took it 
into town). 
biighah, proportionate to it, commensurate with it, beside him 

dn 'eetsoh doo bfighah da, this coat does not fit hirrv. 

doo biighah da, it is insufficient. 

kin biighahgi sitq, it is lying beside the house. 

'ahiitghah siidz[, we are standing beside each other. 
bighqqh, in front of and against it 

\\l tsinaabqqs bighqqh dideeshteet, I'll hitch the horse to the 
wagon (lit. I'll put the horse in front of and against — ). 
bik'ee, on account of him, because of him 

bik'ee bit hozhg, he is happy on account of it (lit. on account 
of it with him things are beautiful). 

bik'ee bit hoghee', he dreads it (lit. on account of it with him 
things are dreadful). 

bik'ee dinishniih, I am peeved at him (lit. on account of him 
I am sore). 
bik'e, for it, in exchange for it 

beeso bik'e naashnish, I am working for money. 
bik'i, on it, on its surface 

tse bik*i dah seda, I am sitting up on the rock. 

'aadoo bik'iji', afterward 

'atnf'ni'qqdoo bik'ijf, afternoon 
bika, for, after him (as in running after one) 

bika *ani, he is calling him (to get his attention). 

bika adeeshghot, I'll help him (lit. 1*11 run after him). 

As a verb proclitic or prefix -ka often occurs as ha-, ha-: 

hadideesh'iit, I'll look for him. 

bj[h hadeeshzhah, I'll hunt (for) deer. 
bilqqji 1 , in front of him, ahead of him 

bilqqji' naasha, I am walking ahead of him. 
binaa, around it 

binaa hodighin, things (or the area) around it are (is) holy. 

kin binaagoo hozhoni, it (impersonal it, area place) is pretty 
around the house 
binahji', against it 

binahjf ninf'aah, put it against it! 
binaka, through it, penetrating it 

binaka'deeshntf, I'll bore through it. 

to binaka nflf, water flows through it. 


binaashii, opposite him 

kin binaashiijf tse+chff ritY, opposite the house the red 
rocks extend. 

'atnaashii keehwiit'[, we live opposite each other 
bindat, in his presence 

shinaai daaztsq, he died in my presence, I saw him die. 

This form is verbal. Thus: 

shidoonaal, I shall be present, shall witness 

shi'niinaal, I am going to witness (lit. have started to — ) 

shindal, I am present, am witnessing 

shundal, I was present, witnessed 

shonaal laanaa, I wish I could be present, witness 

It is conjugated for person by merely altering the pronomi- 
nal prefix, just as on the other postpositionals. 
bine', behind it 

dzil bine'di, (at) behind the mountain 

tsin bine*d££* sez[, I am standing (from) behind the tree. 
bini, into it 

tse bin? da'azhaazh, the rock is worn (into), eroded 
biniighe, for him, for its purpose, in order to 

ha'at'ffsh biniighe, for what purpose? 

beeso biniighe naashnish, I work for (the purpose of) money. 

ha'dt'ifsh biniighe yinfya, what have you come for? 
biniikd, against him 

bfniika yashti*, I talk against him. 
biniinaa, because of it, on account of it 

ha'at'fish biniinaa yfniya, why did you come? 
bitah, among them 

Naakaii bitahgi (or Naakaiitahgi), among the Mexicans 

bitaasha, I am going among them 

tsintah, among the trees, forest 
bit«T f between them 

tse bita'gi sez[, I am standing between the rocks. 
bitis, over it 

dzit bitisgoo deeshaat, I'll go over (to the other side of) the 

tsfdii shitis yit'a\ the bird flew over me. 
bitse, bi'itse, before him (in time) 

t'd6 bftse naashd, I am older than he (lit. I walk before him). 

bi'ftse shi*dizhch[, I was born before him. 


bitsiji', in front of him, before him (in time) 

nitsiji* naasha, I am older than you (lit. I walk before you). 

t*aa bitsiji" nfya, I arrived before him. 
bits' qq\ away from him, (deriving) from it 

bits'qq' dah dideeshaai, I'll start off whether he likes it or 
not (lit. I'll start off away from him). 

beesh bits'qqdoo or bits*qqd§§* 'alyaa, it is made of iron. 

bits'anfya, I separated from him. 

'atts'aniit'aazh, we separated from each other. 

biyaa, under, below it 

beeldlef biyaad§§* hasis'na*, I crawled out f torn under the 

tsfdii shiyaagi yit'ah, a bird is flying below me. 

biyaade?' hada yishaai, I'm walking down slope from it. 
biyaajigo, below it 

tse biyaajfgo yishaat, I'm walking along under the rock. 
biyah, under and against it 

biyah nii'aah, put it under it (to brace it)! 

It will be noted that, of these postpositions, a certain number 
can be suffixed directly to nouns, often serving to form com- 
pound nouns. Thus: 

Tseghdhoodzanf, Window Rock, Arizona (perforated rock) 

tatkdd\ the surface of the water 

dlp'atah ne'eshjaa', burrowing owl (owl among prairie dogs) 

tota', Farmington, N.M. (between the waters) 

tsinyaa, under the tree 

Others are given under the compound nouns. 

The following postpositional enclitics are added to numerals: 
-di, times -ts'dadah, -'dadah, Eng. -teen 

naakidi, two times ta'ts'aadah, eleven 

~diin, corresponds to Eng. -ty du'ts'aadah, fourteen 

naadiin, twenty 'ashdla'dadah, fifteen 

tadiin, thirty 

Some of the postpositions can be conjugated as neuter verbs. 
Such a postposition as biighah, proportionate to it, is actually a 
neuter verb. Thus: 

bffnfshghah, I'm proportionate to it, able to do it 
bffnfghah, you are proportionate to it, etc. 


bfighah, he, she, it, they (dpi) is (are) proportionate to it, etc. 
yfighah, he, she, it, they (dpi) is (are) pro. to him, her, it, them 
bfjnghah, he, she, they (3a. dpi) is, (are) proportionate to it 
'ahn+ghah, they are proportionate to each other 
'adi'ighah, he, she, they is (are) pro. to selves; self-sufficient 
bnniigah, we (dpi) are proportionate to it 
bnnoohah, you (dpi) are proportionate to it 
bfdefnfigah, we (dist. pi) are proportionate to it 
bidefnohah, you (dist. pi) are proportionate to it 
yfdaaghah, they (dist, pi) are proportionate to it, them 
bfdajfighah, they (3a.) are proportionate to it 

'anishtah, I am among 'anohtah, you (dpi) are - 

'anftah, you are among da'aniitah, we (dist. pi) are — 

'atah, he, she, it, they (dpi) --- da'anohtah, you (dist. pi) 

'ajitah, he, she, they (dpi) — da'atah, they (dist. pi) 

'aniitah, we (dpi) are among da'jitah, they (3a. dist. pi) — 
Df i 'anaa' k'ad da'aniitah, we are now in this war. 

The Particles 

(Conjunctions, adverbs, numerals) 

'dddoo, and then 

'aadoo diidffljee*, and then he built a fire 
'ddddd biVijP, afterward 
'adqqdqq', yesterday 
'aghd, 'aghdadi, superlative, foremost, best, favorite 

dff 'aghaadi shinat'oh, this is my favorite cigaret. 

dff hastiin 'aghaadi *anftneez, this man is the tallest of all. 
*dko, then, so then, so 

*eii toshjeeh nanfihis f ako+ahd§e' dmeesh'jit, turn that 
barrel around so I can look at the other side. 
'dkddei, up there 

'akodei hadeeshaat, I'll go up over there. 
'dkdnaa, across there 

'akonaa nanitse^h, put it across right there! 
'dkoyaa, down there 

'akoyaa bidadeeshaat, I'll go down there. 
♦6k$$, there 

*6k§£ deeshaat, I'll go over there. 
'alddhjf, furthermost, furthest 

rttef 'alaahjf sP6nfgff, that furthest one 


*atd6', also, too 

shimd 'afdo' yiyiiitsq, my mother sow him, too. 
'at'qg, separate, distinct, different 

'a+'qq dine'e t ad 'aJtso 'dkot eego *ddaa ntsidaakees, diffe- 
rent peoples all think thus with respect to themselves. 
'afk'idqq', long ago 

aik'idqq* Naabeeho Naakaii yichT a+ndddaabah nt'ef , 
long ago the Navaho used to raid the Mexicans. 
'ottse, first, firstly 

'dftse 'adqqdqq*, day before yesterday 
'aniid, new, recent, young 

'dniid naashd, I am young (lit, I go around recent, new). 
'dniidi, new; recent 

chidi bikee' t'ah 'dniidf, the tires are still new. 

dif 'ats[* t'ah 'dniidi, this meat is still fresh. 

'dnffdf daaztsq, he recently died. 
'aoo', 'ouu', yes 

*W'# yeah, uh huh (as in agreement while another talks) 
'at'ah, wait 

'dt'ah t'dd kwe'e, wait right here! 
'at'ahigo, in a little while 

'at'ahigo shaa doogddt, he'll come to me in a little while. 
'ayoi, remarkably, exceedingly 

'ayof 'dt'6, he is remarkable 

'aydigo deesk'aaz, it's very cold. 
'azhq — ndi, even though, no matter how 

*azhq nfzaadji* ndi 'atchin, he can smell no matter how (ever 
though) far away. 
ba'aan, in addition to it 

dizdiin d66 bci'aan d[[*, 44 (forty and in addition four) 
biiskani, on the next day 

biiskdnf ndeeshdddt, I'll return on the next day. 
ch'eeh, futilly, in vain 

ch'6eh 'fit'fjd, I acted in vain, failed. 
ch'66shdq4dq$', originally, formerly, in the beginning 

ch'ddshd^dqq* shitah yd'dhoot'S^h, I was formerly well. 
doh, up at on elevation 

dah sPq, it is setting up (at an elevation) 
da'nffts*6$'g66, in several directions from a reference point 

sho'dfchfnf da*nttts*<54*g66 *oheeskai, my children went off 
in different directions. 


dzit da'nHts'qq'goo dadeez'a, parts of the mountain go in 
different directions. 
dei, deigo, up, upward 

t'aa k'ehozdongo deigo haatV, it flew straight up. 

deigo dmi'Ji', look upward! 

dei yaa'a, it stands pointing upward. 

deHdzaa, he looked up, raised his head. 
dii 'aak'eedgo, this fall 
dii daani, this spring 
dii ghaai, this winter 
dii ji, today (future part) 
dii zhini, this summer 
dikwiisha/, dikwiish, how many? how much? 

di'kwfishq' dah hidfni'dlo*, how much do you weigh? 
d66, and 

shima doo shf, my mother and I 
-doo bik'iji', after 

*i'i'yqq'd66 bik'iji', after I ate 
doo — — ndi, not even 

doo naaki yddl ndi bqqh 'N[[ da, it's not even worth two bits. 
dooda # no (in refusal) 

Na'nfzhoozhfgooish deeshaat nfnizin, do you want to go to 
Gallup? dooda, no. 
doo — — da, not 

doo ya'at'eeh da, it is not good 
doo deighanigoo, far, a long way 

doo deighanfgoo hodiits'a', it could be heard a long way. 
dooda ii', or, or else 

t6 nidlq doodaii* 'abe' nidlq, drink the water or the milk! 

doo hadji da, nowhere 

doo haajf da deyaa da, I'm going nowhere.^ 
doo 'asohodeebeezh do, hopeless, beyond repair 
doo 'asohodoobeezhgoo, extremely 

doo 'asohodoob£6zhg66 deesk'aaz, it's extremely cold. 

d6\ too, also 

shima doo shi do', my mother and I too. 
ghodah, hodah, up, above 

ghodahgo dah sP$, it's setting up (there). 

tsfdii ghodahgo yit'ah, the bird is flying up above. 


ghonaani-, honaani-, the other side 

ghonaanid§§* sizi, he is standing on (from) the other side. 

ghonaanfgoo diit'ash, let's go (we two) to the other side. 
ghonaasdoo, as time passes; soon; meanwhile 

t'dadoo nji'dahi ghonaasdoo ch'iydan daniik'aaz, the food 
got cold before he came back. 

\\\ ch'eeh hanishtdago ghonaasdoo Tii'q, the sun went down 
while I searched in vain for the horse. 

ghonaasdoo yoo' 'adoolghat, soon he will run away. 
ghoshd^f '/ this way 

gh6shd£§' shaa nfaah, bring it here (this way) to me! 
ghoyah, hoyah, down, below 

ghoyahgo si'q, it's setting down below. 

ghoyahgo tee* si'q, it is setting deep in the ground. 

tsidii gh6yahgo yit'ah, the bird is flying low. 
-gi 'at'eego, (being) like 

nigi 'at'eego shit hoghee', I'm lazy like you. 

t'aa 'eigi 'at'eego, in that way (being like that) 

t'adtdhagi 'at'eego, in the same way (being like one), in one 
godei, up, above 

nlef godei yigaat, he is walking up (hill). 

bikaa' godei 'adzfilne', he threw it up on top. 
g6naa, across 

nlef gonaa nanftseeh, put It across! 
gone', ghone', hone', inside (an enclosure) 

kin g6ne* yah 'ffya, I went inside the house. 

ghone* (or hone') doo haz'qq da, there's no room inside. 
goyaa, down 

bidah goyaa yigaaf, he is walking down it (as a bank). 

bikooh goyaa 'adzfftne*, he threw it down in the arroyo. 
hW-, where? 

haadishq', where (at)? haad##'shq\ where (from)? h66- 
gooshq', where (to)? haajigoshq', which way? 
haa, how? what? 

haa niltso, how big is it? 

haa nfzah, how much farther? 

deigo haa ntttso, how high is it? 

haa nfftsogo nfmaz, how big around (globular thing) is it? 

haa nfftsogo n6zbqs, how big around (circular thing) is it? 

haa nfldffl, how large is it? 


yaago haa nfzah, how far down is it? 

haa nHtsddz, how big around is it? (man, tree, rope) 

haa nfshoni, how pretty is it? 

haa neelt'e', how many? (as sacks of beans, potatoes, etc.) 

haa nrtneez, how tall, long? 

haa neelqq', how much? (sand, hay, beans, wool, water,etc.) 

haa yideetqq', how deep, thick, is it? 

haa nizdadi, how far is it? 

haait'eegoshq', haait'eegosh, haait'e, how? how is it that? 

haait'eego tigai, how white is it? 

haait'eego sido, how hot is it? 

haait'eego sik'az, how cold is it? 

haait'eego dftch'il, how dense is it? (as wool on a sheep) 
haah, here (i.e. hand it here) 
hdaji sh|§ # in some direction, somewhere 

t'dd nindhdlt[[h bik'eh ieezh y§§ hddjf sh[[ neheleeh, every 
time it rains the soil goes somewhere else. 
haa la, what the — ! how in the — ! 

haala yinidzaa, what happened to you!? 

haald 'dhdneeh, what's happening? how do you do? 
haala, for, because 

haala t*ad bf sizfnfgi t*eiyd 'ddaa ntsekees, for he thinks 
only of himself. 
hdaniyee', who? anybody? 

hdaniyee* bitsit+'e+f hdl£, who has a match? 
hadqqsha\ how long ago, when (in the past)? 

hddqq'shq' niyd, how long ago did he arrive? 
hago, come here! 
hdgoshfj, all right 
hah, hahi, fast, quickly 

hahf naaghd, he is in a hurry. 
hahgoda, sometime 

hahgoda rideeshdddl, I'll come back sometime. 

hahgodashq/, (I) wonder when 

hahgodashq* ndoodddt, I wonder when he'll return. 
hahgoshq*, when (in the future)? 

hahgoshq* ndfidddt, when will you come back? 

ha'naa, across (on area) 

ha'naa nanftseeh, place it across (as a stick)! 


hdidishg', hdidiigiishq', which one? 

hdidrshq* nfnfzin, which one do you want? 

hdidngnshq* nitsxaa, which is the larger? (as two mountains) 
hazho'ogo, carefully 

hazho'ogo naalnish, he works carefully 
hazhoo'ogo, slowly, carefully 

hazhoo'ogo naalnish, he works slowly and carefully. 
hool'ddgod, forever, for all time 

hoordagoo doo 'dnaddeesh'nfit da, I won't ever do it again. 
hozh$, very, well 

doo hozhp 'eesh'tj da, I don't see well. 
-ii*, and 

ridiitqii* 'ahnthan, I picked it up and threw it. 

yah 'ffydif neezdd, he came in and sat down 
*iidqq\ then, at that time (past) 

'udqq' dine 'adin, at that time there were no men. 
'inda, then, then only 

t'aa 'ndqq* hot hweeshne'go 'mda yfnfyd, I had already told 
him when you arrived (lit. already I told him then you 
jlfdqq', today (part already past) 
kodei, up this way; up here 

kodei hadeeshaai, I'll go up this way (as from a canon). 
kohoot'eedqq\ last year at this time 

kohoot'eedqq* nahattin nt'e§\ last year at this time it was 
konaa, across here 

konaa nanftseeh, put it across right here! 
konddhoodzaago, next year at this time 

konaahoodzaago *anaa' da'niitah dooleet, next year at this 
time we will be \n the war. 
kdoni, hereabout 

koonf tsin 'adin, there are no trees hereabout. 
koyaa, down here 

koyaa bidadeeshaat, I'll go down here. 
k$$, hereabout 

k99 tsin 'adin, there are no trees here. 

kg§ ch'fdoogadt, he will come out through here. 

k'ad, now 

k'ad shitb66h6zin, now I know. 


k'odff , nearly, about 

k y ad§q 'afne'e'aah, it's nearly noon. 
k'asdqq, almost nearly 

k'asdqq' dasetsq, I almost died. 
lq'qq\ Iq'q, yeah, OK, all right 
Iq'i, Ig'igo, much, many 

din6 Iq'f yii+tsq, I saw many people. 

chizh Iq'igo 'ahidi+kaat, chop a lot of wood! 
Ig'idi, t'66 'ahayoidi, many times 

IqVdi Na'nfzhoozhigoo niseya, I've been to Gallup many 
lah, once 

iah taah yigo'go k'asdqq' to shiisxf, once I fell into the water 
and nearly drowned. 
tahada, rarely, seldom 

tahada bj[h hanashzhah, I seldom hunt deer. 
tahda, sometimes 

tahda kwii nashdaah teh, I sometimes come here. 
fahdi, once 

tahdi bifh seth(, I once killed a deer. 
tahgo, otherwise, different 

tahgo 'at'eego, being changed, otherwise. 

tahgo 'adzaa, he changed (color, character etc.) 
tab goo, in some places 

tahgoo nahasdzaan bikaa'gi deikodaadzaa, in some places 
the earth's surface rose 
tahjji, to one side, on the other side 

tahji siz[, he's standing on the other side. 
tahji', port 

tahji' shaa nfaah, give me part! 
ta'igii, the other one 

ta'fgff shaa nTaah, give me the other one! 
leh, usually, custumarily 

nahattin teh, it usually rains. 
naa, sidewise 

naa *»fk§^z, it toppled over sidewise, fell over to one side. 
naas, forward, o* >ard 

naas yfnaat, keep walking on! 
nah, nahji', to one side 

nahji* dfnadh, go off to one side! 

yas nahgoo 'ayiizgeed, he shoveled the snow aside. 


na\ here (as when handing something to a person) 
nat'qq\ back (returning) 

nat'qq 1 ridfsdza, I'm going back. 
nda, no (in negation) 

deesk'aazfsh, is it cold? nda, no. 
ndi, but 

shifniitdon ndi sisiih, he shot at me but he missed me. 
ni'goo, on the ground, on the floor 

ni'goo set[, I'm lying on the ground. 
nizaa(d)g66, afar, far off 

nfzaadgoo (or nfzaagoo) deeshaat, I shall go far off. 
sha'shin, maybe, possibly 

nahodoott[i+ sha'shin nisin, I think maybe it will rain. 
shfi, probably 

nahodoott[[+ shfi, it will probably rain. 

shi[ also shows uncertainty and indefiniteness, as in haashfi 
neelqq', an indeterminately large number or quantity; 
haajf sh[[, in some direction, etc. 
t'aa, just 

t'aala'f, just one 

t'aa 'ako, right then 
t*da 'dhdni, near 

t'aa 'ahanidi si'q, it sets (at) nearby, 
t'aa 'aanif, really, truly, actually 

t'aa 'aanif ani, he's telling the truth. 

t'aa 'aanff seth[, I really killed him. 
t'dd 'dhqgh, frequently, often 

t'aa 'ahqqh shaa nadaah, he comes to me often. 
t'dd 'ahqqh, simultaneously 

t'aa 'ahqqh ni'aazh, they (d) arrived at the same time. 
t'dd 'dkodi, that's all 
t'dd 'dkwii, every (with ref. to days, night, and seasons) 

t'aa 'akwfi j[, every day 

t'aa 'akwii zhfnf, every summer 

t'aa 'akwn ghaaf, every winter 
t'dd'dtaji', always 

koji* 'anahalzhishgo t'aa 'ataji* nahaltin, it always rains at 
this time of the year. 
t'aa 'dtch'ifdigo, a little bit 

t'aa 'ateh'iidigo nahattin, it's raining a little bit. 


t'oa 'oftsogo, everything, everywhere 

t'dd 'attsogo shil 'eehodoozijt, I shall know everything. 

t'dd 'attsogo yishddJ, I'm going everywhere. 
t'dadoo, without, don't 

t'dadoo 'ashdni niyd, I came without eating. 

t'dadoo shaa ndnit'ini, don't bother me! 
t'aadoo bahat'aadi, clearly, evidently 

t'dadoo bahat'aadi t'dd 'ddinda'jidlo', clearly they were 
merely fooling themselves (dist. pi). 
t'aadoo hodina'i, soon (in the future) 

t'dadoo hodina'i' ndeeshdddt, I'll soon return. 
t'dadoo hodiina'i, soon (in the past) 

t'dadoo hodfina'i nddzd, he soon returned. 
t'aadoo hooyani, suddenly 

t'dadoo hooyani nikihonfttq, it suddenly started to rain. 
t'aadoo kot'e 'ilini, suddenly and without warning 

t'dadoo kot'e 'flini shiztat, he suddenly kicked me. 
t'dd 'ei bijj, on that day 

t'dd *ei bij[ daaztsq, on that day he died. 
t'dd 'ei bitt'ee', on that night 

t ad *ei bit* ee' ch'fniyd, on that night I went out. 
t'dd geed, without 

shilii' t'dd geed naashd, I am (going) without my horse. 
t'dd hazho'6, except 

iff t'dd 'attso da oodlqcS' t'dd hazhd'd t'ddtd'f t'diyd t'dd 
dooda, the horses all drank except one. 
t'dd T*dqq\ already 

t'dd 'udqq* 'nyqq', I already ate. 
aa nghisii, very 

t'dd 'nghisff nfzaad, it is very far. 
t'dd 'iishjdni, clear, evident, apparent 

t'dd 'ffshjanf sil[f\ it became apparent 
t'dd fqqgoo, in many ways, in many places 

k'ad 'fnda t'dd tqqgdd nihil 'eedahoozin, only now have we 
acquired great knowledge. 
t'oo sahdii, alone, separately 

t'dd sahdii siz[, he stands apart, separately. 

t'dd sdhi, alone 

t'dd sdhf naashd, I'm going about alone. 
t'qg', t'qqji', t'ggjigo, back, backward 


t'ah, still, yet 

t'ah hinishna, I'm still alive. 

t'qq' konileeh, put it in reverse, back it up (car)! 

t qqji' hidinaah, take a few steps backward! 

t* qqji go 'iitiizh, he fell over backward. 
t'«eh, t'ei, t'eiya, only, alone, exclusively 

shi feiya daastsaah, I only am sick. 

bilasdana t'ad t'eehgo yishq, I'm eating the apple raw. 
t'jlhdigo, a little, a bit 

t'iihdigo diniih, it hurts a little. 
t'66, merely 

t'66 'dsht'i, I'm just loafing (lit. I'm merely doing). 
t*66 'ahayoi, t'66 'ahayoigo, much, many, very 

dine t*66 'ahayof yiiitsq, I saw many people. 
t*66 bahadzidgo, very seriously, extremely 

t*66 bahadzidgo deezni, he was badly hurt. 
t*66 nahodi'naahgo, every once in a while; at intervals 

t'66 nahodi'naahgo tsitl'etf nayiidzoh, every once in a while 
he lit a match. 
t'66 konighaniji', (for) a little while 

t'66 konighaniji' seda, I'm sitting for a little while. 
rt'oo*-, outdoors, outside 

tt'oo'di naagha, he's walking around (at) outside. 
tse'naa, across 

bikooh tse'naa hasindah, go across the arroyo! 
tsede, on the back, face upward 

tsede set[, I'm lying on my back. 

tsede 'ffttizh, I fell over backward. 
tse'yaa, on the face, face first 

tse'yaa setL I'm lying on my belly. 

tse'yaa 'wttizh, I fell over on my face. 
tsi\ in every direction 

tsf* naasha, I'm walking in all directions, am dizzy, drunk. 
tsj|l, tsjjfgo, fast, rapidly 

ts{[tgo yilghot, he is running fast. 

tsiJi nishtf, I'm in a hurry. 

ts'ida, really, decidedly 

ts'fdd shaa hojooba'f, I am really poor, miserable. 
yah, into (an enclosure) 

yah *ifya, I went in 


yo' f isn't it, n'est-ce pas 

'ayoigo deesk'aaz ya', it's very cold, isn't it? 

nahastiin doo sidaa da ya\ your husband isn't home, is he? 

(the answer is 'aoo', yes, he isn't; if one answers nda, no, he 
is there, ya* requires agreement) 
yeigo, hard, diligently 

yeigo naalnish, he works hard 
yiskqqgo, tomorrow 
yoo', away (into invisibility or infinity) 

yoo* 'fiya, I went away, got lost. 

The Numerals 


+aa'ii, t'aa+a'i, 1 
naaki, 2 
taa', 3 

dif , 4 
'ashdla', 5 
hastqqh, 6 
tsosts'id, 7 
tseebff, 8 
nahast'ef, 9 
neeznaa, 10 
ta'tsaadah, 11 
naakits'aadah, 12 
taa'ts'aadah, 13 
dfi'ts'aadah, 14 
'ashdla aadah, 15 
hastq'aadah, 16 
tsosts'idts'aadah, 1 7 
tseebf fts'aadah, 1 8 
nahastefts'aadah, 19 
naadiin, 20 
naad|ila', 21 
naadiinaaki, 22 
naadfjtaa', 23 
naadiidn', 24 
naadifashdla*, 25 
naadijhastqqh, 26 
naadjitsosts'id, 27 

naadiitseebii, 28 

naadiinahast'ef, 29 

tad i in, 30 

tadiin doo ba'aan t'ad+a'i, 31 

(From here on doo ba'aan, in 

addition to it, is used.) 

tadiin doo ba'aan naaki, 32 

dfzdiin, 40 

di'zdin doo ba'qq tseebff, 48 

'ashdladiin, 50 

hastqdiin, 60 

tsostsMdiin, 70 

tseebfdiin, 80 

ndhdst'ediin, 90 

t'ddfdhddi neeznadiin, 100 

naakidi neeznadiin, 200 

naakidi neeznadiin doo ba'- 
aan naaki, 202 

taadi neeznadiin doo bo'aon 
'ashdladiin doo ba'aan taa', 

t'adldhddi miil (or mill; from 
Sp. mil, thousand), 1000 

t'dd+dhddi miil doo ba'aan 
ndhdst'eidi neeznadiin doo 
ba'aan dfzdiin doo ba'aan 
taa', 1943 


t adiahddi miiltsoh (miiltsoh), thousand, and Sp. millon, 
1,000,000 (Cp. miiltsoh, big big thousand = million.) 


The ordinals are the same as the cardinals, gone', or gone'- 
igii merely being added to the cardinal number form. Thus: 

'atse, or Idd'ii gone', 1 st 
naa ki gone', 2nd 
tad' (or ten) gone*, 3rd 
d[f (ordfi)gone\ 4th 

The Adjective 

In Navaho the adjectives are, for the most part, 3rd person 
forms of neuter verbs denoting quality, state or condition. There 
are a few adjectival suffixes, as: 

-tsoh, big dinetsoh, big man man; Mr. Long 

-chil, -chilf, small iiichiK, -did, tall, big dinedifl, tall, 

small horse big man 

-ts'osi, slender 'asdzqqts'6- yddzh, little shash yddzh, 

sf, slender woman bear cub 
neez, tall hastiin neez, tall 

An exemplary list of 3rd person neuter verbal adjectives is: 

'attas'ef, varied, assorted dnlid, burnt 

'aszolf, light (in weight) dichosh, stubby 

'd+ts'oozf, slender diitdzid, rotten 

'dtt'q'f, shallow, thin dit'od, dit'odi, pliable, soft 

bii' halts'aa*, hollow dit+'o, hairy, hirsute (bear) 

dah 'ats'os, conical, tapering dizef, crumbly 

deeni, sharp dfch'fi', bitter, hot (as chile) 

deeshzhah, pronged dfich'il, dense (wool, woods) 

deeshgizh, having a gap dits'oz, hairy (long hair, as on 

dijool, ball-like certain sheep) 

dit+id, shaky, quivery (as jello) dits'id, tough (as meat) 

ditq, thick, deep dinilchfp, pink 

dighozh, thorny dinooltt'izh, greenish 

di*il, di*ili, hairy (as a goat) dinilgai, cream color 

dik'q, squared dinilbd, light green 

ditsxis, jerky doott'izh, green, blue 


dinilzhin, tan 

dilhit, dark colored, jet-black 

diniltso, orange 

dik'gQzh, sour 

dilch'it, crackling, popping 

dilchxosh, effervescent 

dighol, rough, rutted 

dich'fizh, asperate, rough (as 
a file); coarse (as wool) 

doo ya'ashgg da, no good 

heets'ooz, tapering 

(The following refer to space 
or area; ho-, ha-, pronoun 
of space, area, place.) 

honooji, rugged, broken 

hoteel, flat, plain, broad 

halchfr, red 

halzhin, black 

haltso, yellow 

halba, gray 

hodootfizh, blue, green 

hazgan, dried up 

hoozdo, hot (as an oven) 

hodighol, rough, rutted 

hoghee* dreadful, awful 

'ndeetqq', thick, deep 

tiba, gray 

tichfi\ red 

tigai, white 

tigaigo tiba, light gray 

tikan, sweet, tasty 

tikizh, spotted 

fikon, inflammable 

tizhin, black 

titso, yellow 

nazbqs, circular 

nahateet, slippery (place) 

nashch'qq', decorated 

naneeshtt'iizh, zigzag 

nast+ee* wet (it became wet) 

naat'ood, flexible 

ndzhah, bent (horseshoe-like) 

ni neez, long 

nimaz, globular, spherical 

ni+chxon, stinking 

nitsaa, big, large 

niMtsQQz, rugose; flat (tire) 

nildzil, firm, solid 

nighiz, round and slender 

nidaaz, heavy 

nirt'iz, hard (as stone) 

niteel, broad, wide 

nittolf, clear, transparent 

nihodii'a, steep 

ni-tts'ili, clear, crystalline 

noojf, rugged, corrugated 

noodggz, striped 

nizhonf, pretty, nice, clean 

nrchxggu, ugly, filthy 

shibeezh, boiled 

sitiee', mushy 

sido, warm, hot 

sik'az, cold 

sigan, dried, dessicated 

sisff, piquant (as pepper) 

sit'e, cooked, roasted, "done 

sits* i I, shattered, broken 

tat+Md nahalingo doott'izh, 

light green 
tsedede£h nahalingo doo- 

tfizh, purple 
t*66 baa'ih, dirty, filthy 
ya'at'eeh, good, suitable 
yazhf, little 
yfdeeltg*, slippery 
yilzqq 1 cured (hide) 
yilzholf, soft, fluffy 
yrrtseii, dry, withered 
yisht+izh, coffee colored 
yisk'qqz, straight(ened) 



Certain adjectivals denoting physical qualities or conditions 
as size, distance, extension, weight, etc., have a different form 
when used in a relative or comparative sense from the absolute 
form merely describing the quality or condition. Thus: 

Absolute Relative 

nineez, it is long 'anf+neez, it is long 

nitsaa, it is large 'anfttsxaaz, it is large 

niteel, it is broad anfiteel, it is broad 

neelt'e', numerous 'aneelt'e', numerous 

nfldffl, it is large 'anildffl, it is large 

nidaaz, it is heavy 'anf+daas, it is heavy 

-tsoh, big 'antttso, it is big 

nfzaad, it is far 'anizaad, it is far 

Comparison of Adjectives 

There are no forms in Navaho comparable with large, lar- 
ger, largest, wherewith to express the positive, comparative and 
superlative degrees for the adjective. Such comparison is accom- 
plished in Navaho by means of the postpositional -Idah, beyond, 
-*oh, less than, or 'agha, 'aghaadi, superlative — or by other lo- 
cutions. The following examples will illustrate: 
-neez, -neez, long, tall 

dff 'eetsoh nineez, this coat is long 

dff 'eetsoh shilaah 'anftneez, this coat is too long for me (lit. 

this coat beyond me is relatively long), 
dff 'eetsoh shi'oh 'anf+n6§z, this coat is too short for me (lit. 

this coat less than me is relatively long), 
biladh 'anfsneez, I am taller than he (lit. beyond him I am 
relatively tall). 
-tsoh, -tso, big 
tfitsoh, big horse 

dff t[f *ayof 'anf-rtso, this horse is very (relatively) big. 
bil[f* dff +[[' bilaah 'anfftso, his horse is bigger than this horse 
bil[r dff til' bi'oh 'ani+tso, his horse is smaller than this horse, 
bilij' *alaahdi or 'aghaadi anfttso, his horse is the largestOit. 

his horse beyond anything is relatively large), 
naaniigo t'aa naasee 'anfttsofgi 'anfftso, it is as long as it is 
wide (lit.crosswise just lengthwise like it it is rel. big). 
-zaad, -zaad, far 

shikin nfzaadi si'q, my house is far away. 


nighandoo shighan bita'gi kodoo Na'nizhoozhijf *anizadd, 
it is as far from your home to mine as it is from here to 
Gallup flit, from your home between my home from here 
to Gallup it is relatively far). 


shijigo dinishgho', ni t } 6a Voh, I can run faster than you 
(lit. being on my side I am a runner, you just less). 

nilaahgo dinishgho', I can run faster than you (lit beyond 
you I am a runner). 

doo jootta' 'aneelqq' nadhaiidqq', countless years ago (lit. 
not that one might count them years are rel. many). 

The Verb 

The Navaho verb is the most difficult phase of the language 
for the non-Navaho to master. It often appears to be a hopeless 
maze of irregularities, and in reality it is irregular from our point 
of view. 

The pattern of Navaho thought and linguistic expression is 
totally unlike that of the European languages with which we are 
most commonly familiar. We learn such foreign languages as 
Spanish, French, Italian and German with a minimum of diffi- 
culty because there exist so many analogies, both with respect to 
grammar and to words, with our own native English. Moreover, 
the pattern according to which we conceive and express our 
thoughts in English and in these common European languages is 
basically the same throughout. We translate readily from one to 
the other, often almost word for word. And lastly, similar or very 
closely related sound systems prevailing throughout make the 
words easy to pronounce and to remember. 

On the other hand, the Navaho language presents a number 
of strange sounds which are difficult to imitate, and which make 
the words very hard to remember at first. Secondly, the pattern 
of thought varies so greatly from our English pattern that we have 
no small difficulty in learning to think like, and subsequently to 
express ourselves like the Navaho. An understanding of the mor- 
phology and structure of the language, and an insight into the 
nature of the thought patterns involved can go far in aiding to 
solve the puzzle. 

In the foregoing pages we have described the noun, pronoun 
and particles In the following pages we shall deal with the verb. 



The Navoho verb, unlike the English, often contains within 
its structure not only the verbal idea, but also subject and object 
pronouns, and many adverbial modifiers. It is, in itself, a com- 
plete sentence. Actually, each of these elements is a monosyll- 
able, each with its own signification. When these are placed to- 
gether in a certain prescribed order, they serve to express a con- 
crete thought, just as a number of blocks placed in the correct or- 
der serve to make a rectangle. Each monosyllabic prefix has its 
own position in the verb complex, and cannot exchange places 
with another without altering or nullifying the meaning. Thus, 
ha-$i-s-'na', I crawled up out, cannot be *si-s-ha , -n<T / for each 
element of the word has its own fixed position with relation to 
those which precede or follow it; just as in the English sentence 
"he shot a rabbit," not "shot a he rabbit," although there is more 
liberty in altering the relative order of English words than in the 
case of the Navaho verb prefixes. 

The modifying prefixes, along with the pronouns and the 
stem classifier, always stand first in the verb complex, the final 
position being occupied by the monosyllabic stem. 

The Verb Stem 

By the stem of the verb we refer to that part which contains 
the verbal idea in more or less abstract and unmodified form. The 
stem does not express the doer of the act, nor in most cases does it 
tell how the act was done; it merely expresses or defines an action 
state or quality in an abstract sense. We say that the stem of the 
Spanish verb hablar, to speak, is habl-. We modify it with respect 
to time, person, number, etc., and give it concrete meaning, by 
adding various suffixes to the stem. Thus habl-o, I speak, habl- 
aste, you spoke, habl-aran, they will speak, etc. 

The Navaho verb stem is a monosyllabic element composed 
of a consonant-vowel (CV), or of a consonant-vowel-consonant 
(CVC). The stem does not always remain the same in all forms of 
the verb, as it does in the case of Spanish habl-. The Navaho stem 
is often varied to express different modes or aspects of the verb. 
Lengthening, or change in the quality of the stem vowel, tone al- 
terations, or change of the final consonant accomplish these va- 
riations, although a number of verbs retain the same stem for all 
the modes and aspects. 


As many as four different aspects, and six different modes 
may be distinguished by alterations of the stem. It is rarely that 
a verb distinguishes more than five modes and one or two aspects 
at best by use of distinct stem forms, although a few verbs have 
as many as eight different stem forms. 

The modes distinguished in the Navaho verb are; 

Imperfective, indicating that the action is incomplete, but is in 
the act of being accomplished, or about to be done. 
Perfective, indicating that the action is complete. 
Progressive, indicating that the action is in progress. 
Iterative, denotes repetition of the act. 
Usitative, denotes habituality in performing the act. 
Optative, expresses potentiality and desire. 

The aspects distinguished are: 
Momentoneous, action beginning and ending in an instant. 
Repetitive, action repeated. 

Semelfactive, action which occurs once, and is neither con- 
tinued nor repeated. 
Confirmative, action which is continued. 

The various stems and forms of the verb meaning "to handle 
one round or bulky object" will serve as illustration. 

Concrete Verb Form 

taah yislVaah, I'm putting it into 

the water, 
naash'ah, I carry it about, 
taah yPq, I have put it in water. 
yislVaal, I'm carrying it along, 
taah nash'aah, I repeatedly put it 

in water 
taah yislVaah, I habitually put it in 

taah ghosh'aat, that I might put it 

in water 

The stem may contain the verbal idea as an abstraction, as 
-gah, to whiten, become white, or the stem may classify the object 
to which it refers on the basis of size, shape, number, etc. Some 
of these stems which classify their objects ore herewith listed. 







* r 








The stems given are for the progressive, imperfective, per- 
fective, iterative and optative modes. Some of these verbs do not 
have a progressive, but their future tense forms employ the stem 
of the progressive. Thus where there is no progressive mode poss- 
ible, the stem form given is for the future tense. 

Stems that* classify shape, size, manner. 

adt, *aah, q, 'ddh, *ddt, to handle one round or bulky object, 
'at, 'aat, 'aal, tat, 'aat, to chew, eat, a hard object, 
'at, 'ah, 'add, 'ah, 'add, to lose, toss, a flat flexible object. 
bqs, bqqs, bqqz, bqs, bqqs, to roll (a circular object), 
shosh, shoosh, shoozh, shosh, shoosh, to place slender stiff ob- 
jects side by side (in parallel position), 
dit, deet, deel, dit, dit, to lose, toss, a slender flexible object, 
ghat, ghat, ghal, ghat, ghat, to chew, eat, meat, 
gheet, gheeh, ghf, geeh, gheeh, to handle a load or pack. 
h§sh, h££sh, heezh, h^sh, h§§sh, to flow, fall (mushy matter), 
kddt, kaah, kq, kddh, kadi, to handle anything in a vessel, 
kit, keed, kid, ki', keed, to chew, eat, one round object, 
kos, k§£s, k£§z, kgs, k§^s, to fall (slender stiff object), 
leet, leh, Id, leeh, leet, to handle a slender flexible object, 
mas, mads, mddz, mas, mads, to roll (spherical object), 
nish, nush, nizh, nish, nush, to break a slender flexible object, 
niit, ne\ ne*, niih, ne', to toss or lose a round or bulky object, 
jot, joot, jool, jot, joot, to handle non-compact matter (wool), 
tsos, tsods, tsooz, tsos, tsoos, to handle a flat flexible object, 
ttoh, tteeh, tt£e', ttoh, tteeh, to handle mushy matter, 
jih, jddh, jaa', jih, jddh, to handle plural granular objects, 
teet, teeh, t[, teeh, teet, to handle one animate object, 
tift, tijh, tq, tjfh, t{[t, to handle a slender stiff object, 
tsot, tsddd, tsood, tso*, tsddd, to feed one. 

ts'ot, ts'p9d, ts'pgd, ts'q', ts'ood, to make taut a slender object, 
t'eet, tV, tV, t'eeh, tV, to drop a slender flexible object, 
rah, tddh, taa', tah, tddh, to shatter a fragile object, 
ts'ah, ts'eeh, ts'ee*, ts'ah, ts'eeh, to eat mushy matter, 
crhosh, chozh, chosh, chosh, chozh, to eat, chew, herbs, 
ts'it, ts'iid, ts'id, tsY, ts'iid, to fall (a hard object), 
ttish, ttfish, ttizh, ttish, tti'fsh, to fall (animate object), 
dlosh, dlddsh ,dlosh, dlosh, dlddsh, to go on all fours, trot 


Stems that distinguish number. 

'ash, 'aash, 'aazh, t ash, aash, to go, walk (2) 

kah, kaah, kai, kah, kaah, to go, walk (more than 2). 

166s, 166s, I66z, 166s, 166s, to lead (1). 

yof, yood, yood, yo*, yood, to drive a small herd (5-10) 

heet, heh, hi, heeh, heel, to kill (1). 

ghqqt, ghq, ghqq', gqqh, ghqqt, to kill (2 or more). 

tsit, tseed, tseed, tsi', tseed, to kill (more than 2). 

tsaat, tsaah, tsq, tsaah, tsaat, to die (1 ). 

'neet, 'neeh, 'no, 'neeh, 'neei, to die (2 or more). 

daai, daah, da, daah, daah, to sit (1). 

keel, keeh, ke, daah, keeh, to sit (2). 

bU+, b[ih, bin, b[[h, bijh, to sit (more than 2). 

teet, teeh, t[, teeh, teet, to lie down (1 ). 

tish, teesh, teezh, tish, teesh, to lie down (2). 

jah, jeeh, \ee, jah, jeeh, to lie down (more than 2). 

ghof, gheed, ghod, gho\ gheed, to run (1). 

cheet, cheeh, chqq , cheeh, cheei, to run (2). 

jah, jeeh, jee\ jah, jeeh, to run (more than 2). 

nit, mrf, nil, nit, nfM, to handle plural objects. 

das, daas, daaz, das, daas, to fall (heavy plural objects). 

dah, deeh, deeh, dah, deeh, to fall (plural separable objects). 

dtt, deei, deel, dit, deet, to chew, eat plural objects. 

hqqt, han, han, ghqqh, han, to throw (1) object. 

tfil, tfiid, tfifd, t+T, tf'iid, to throw plural objects. 

A number of stems could be added to enlarge these lists, 
but the foregoing will serve to illustrate. In these lists only the 
principal stems are given. In the dictionary the same verbs will 
be found more fully explained, and with all stems given. 

Phonetic alterations of the stem initial consonant. 

There are a few phonetic alterations of the stem initial con- 
sonants which will be noticed in the paradigms. Examples of these 
changes may be helpful. The verb stems given are all in the im- 
perfective mode. 

Stem initial gh often becomes h after sh, h, or f. 

ghq, to kill plural objects; yishhq, I am killing them; ghohhq 
you (dpi) are killing them, ghal, to chew meat, ghothat, you 
(dpi) are chewing it. 


Stem initial s often becomes z after I. 

siid, to awaken; ch'eeniilziid, we are awakening him. 

Stem initial sh becomes zh after I. 

sheeh, to mow; yiilzheeh, we are mowing it. 

Stem initial zh becomes sh after h. 

zha, to spit; dohsha, you (dpi) are spitting. 

Stem initial I becomes I after sh or I, 

leeh, to make; 'dshfeeh, I'm making it; 'ohteeh, you (dpi) are 
making it. 

The Stem Classifier 

With position immediately preceding the stem is the stem 
classifier, a prefixed element which serves to distinguish between 
active and passive voice, and sometimes to transitivize intransi- 
tive verbs, or even to detransitivize transitive ones. The four stem 
classifiers are \ t I, d, and zero. 

I. Example, hotbj', you are building a hogan. I becomes I in 
the passive, and in the 1st person dpi. Thus, hwiilbj', we dpi 
are building a hogan; halbf, a hogan is being built. I is add- 
ed to many zero class and I class verbs as a causative and 
transitivizing agent. 

L Example, ndiilHoh, you will get wet. I classifier becomes I in 
the 2nd person dpi. Thus, 'adilzheeh, you are shaving your- 
self, but 'adotzheeh, you are shaving yourselves. Zero class 
verbs with sh or s initial stems infix I in the first person dpi 
and passive in order to avoid confusion with the d classifier. 
yidoosih, he will miss it; diilzih, we will miss it; doolzih, it 
will be missed, didiishof, you will start dragging it; didiil- 
zhot, we will start dragging it; didoolzhof, it will start to be 

I class verbs can be transitivized by r, as ndiilttoh, you will 
get wet; fidiHtfoh, you will make it wet. 

d. This classifier is lost as such in Navaho. It still remains in 
certain verbs whose stem initial consonant is ', d, gh, I, n, z, 
zh, or y. It joins with these stem initials as follows: 

d plus * = r* d plus n = *n 

d plus d = d d plus z == dz 

d plus gh = g d plus zh = j 

d plus I = dl d plus y = d 


Thus / for example, ni*q, I brought it; bighanisht'q, I took it 
away from him. Ch'eedeessit, Til awaken him; crTeedeesdzif, I'll 
wake up. Yileeh, it is becoming; nadleeh, it becomes repeatedly. 
Yideeshsh|jt # I'll make it black; yideeshjjjl, I'll get black. (In these 
latter cases d classifier serves to detransitivize.) 

Zero. Example, yi'aat, you are carrying it along. Some of the 
zero class verbs can be transitivized by insertion of I classi- 
fier. Thus: 

sfq, it sets, has position; se4'q, I have it (in position, i.e. 

am causing it to set). 
niseghiz, I turned around; ntseihiz, I turned it around (i.e. 

caused it to turn around). 
'oo*©!, there is movement along floating (i.e. an indefinite 
thing is floating along); 'oof'ot, he is causing an indefi- 
nite thing to move along floating (i.e. he is navigating). 
yoorol, he is causing (definite) it to move along floating 

(i.e. he is sailing it along). 
selji*, I became; selj|*, I caused it to become. 


The Navaho verb expresses time as future, present or past. 
The simple future is expressd by such forms as deeshdai, I'll go, 
deeshfii, I'll eat it, etc. (V. Future paradigms.) 

The present tense is expressed principally in the imperfective 
and progressive mode forms, including the neuter verbs. In gener- 
al the imperfectives of the momentaneous aspect translate "in the 
act of," about to," while the continuative and repetitive render a 
simple present. To illustrate: 

yishq, I am eating it (continuative imperfective). 

yisdiz, I am spinning, twisting, it (continuative imperfective). 

nanishtat, I am repeatedly kicking him (repetitive imperf.). 

yfnishtq', I am holding on to it (neuter), 

naasha, I am walking about (continuative imperf.) 

dishtoos, I am in the act of starting to lead him (momenta- 
neous imperfective). 

bi'dishteeh, I'm in the act of cheating him (mom. imperf). 

taah yish'aah, I'm in the act of putting it in water (mom. im- 

'iishhddsh, I'm about to fall asleep (mom. imperf,). 


yislVddt, I'm carrying it along (progressive). 

yishghot, I'm running along (progressive) 

nish+i, I am (neuter). 

honish+9, I exist (neuter). 

yfnistseii, I'm dry (neuter) 

dinistsiz, I'm shaky, trembling (neuter). 

dinishghin, I'm holy (neuter). 

tinishchii', I'm red (neuter). 

si'q, it sets (si-perfective neuter). 

Past tense is generally expressed by the perfective mode. 
Thus, naa ni'q, I gave it to you; niya, I arrived, came; yishghal, I 
chewed, ate it (meat). 

Periphrastic tense forms are produced by postpounding doo- 
leet (often abbreviated to doo, or even to lee!), it will be; nt'ff*, or 
ni\ it was, used to be; or a combination of the two (dooleet nt'lf '), 
to the verb forms. Thus: 

Dooleet, renders a future; nt'§e', a past, and dooleet nt'ff*, 
a conditional. 

deeshul, I'll eat it. nishtii dooleet, I'll be. 

deesh[[t nt §§', I would eat it. nishtii dooleet rit'^', I would 

yishq, I'm eating it. be. 

yishqq nt§§\ I was eating it. seda, I'm sitting. 

yishqq dooleet, I'll be eating it sedaa nt'ee', I was sitting. 

y(yqq\ I ate it. sedaa dooleet, I'll be sitting. 

yiyqq* nt'§§*, I had eaten it. honisq, I'm wise. 

yiyqq* dooleet, I'll have eaten honisqq dooleet, I'll be wise. 

it, honisqq deeshteet, I'll become 
yfyqq* dooleet rit'ee ', I would wise. 

have eaten it. honisqq yishteet, I'm becom- 
nishtf, I am. ing (progressively) wise(r). 

nisht[[ nt'ee', I was, used to be honisq selfj*, I became wise. 

The following sentences will help illustrate the expression of 
time in the Navaho verb: 

T'aa 'iidqq* hot hweeshne'go 'fnda yfnfya, I had already told 
him when you arrived (already I having told him then you 
Kintahgoo diikah nisin nt^f *aho*niittq, I was wishing we 
could go to town, but it rained (to town we (pi) will go I want it 


Shqq' dibe bitsi* deeshghat nmizingo shighandi nanidaah ni', 
remember, whenever you used to want to eat mutton you 
used to come to my home (remember sheep its meat I shall eat 
it you wanting my home at you repeatedly come it was). 

Yiskqqgo kwe'e naashaago shee naaki naahai dooleei, tomor- 
row I shall have been here two years (tomorrow here I walking 
about with me two years it will be). 

'Akgp nich'i' deeshdat f\t'§§ ndi shinaanish hol^Qgo biniinaa 
t'aadoo deyda da, I would have gone to see you but I had work 
to do (there toward you I shall go it was but my work existing 
because of it without I started going). 

Shd biighah hahonishtaa ht'ee' ndi t'aadoo hak'infshahf t'66 
nanfsdzd, I had looked for him all day, and not finding him I 
returned (sun proportionate to it I am searching for him it was 
but without ! am the one who finds him merely i returned). 

K*ad§£ dah diishaah nt'ee* nikihonHtq, I was about to start off 
when it started to rain (almost off I am about to start it was it 
started to rain). 

Bighandi yfniyaago yoo' 'ifyaa dooleei, he will have gone by the 
time you get to his place (his home at you having arrived away 
he has gone it will be). 

Kintahgoo t*ah doo dishaah da, I have never gone to town (to 
town still not I am in the act of starting to go). 

T'aadoo nddahf YtTqqgo biniinaa 'fiyqq*, he hadn't returned 
at sundown so I ate (without he is the one in the act of return- 
ing it (sun) having moved in because of it I ate). 

Objective yi- and bi- 

Transitive verbs, as a rule, do not require expression of the 
3rd person ordinary (bi-) object pronoun, although there is a class 
of verbs which does. Ordinarily, the 3rd person ordinary objective 
pronoun is expressed by zero in the 1st and 2nd persons singular 
and duoplural. In the ordinary 3rd person form of the transitive 
verb, the 3rd person pronominal object is represented by the 3rd 
person obliquative (3o.) yi-, indicating that on ordinary 3rd per- 
son subject (bi) acts on a mentioned 3rd person ordinary object. 

'awee' sh&fchf, I gave birth to a baby, 
'awee' shinftch[, you gave birth to a baby, 
'awee* yishch^ she gave birth to a baby, 
'awee* yizhch[, birth was given to a baby. 


The yi- of the 3o. person (yishch|) indicates that the 3rd ordi- 
nary subject (she) gave birth to a 3rd person ordinary object ex- 
pressed nominally by Wee\ baby, Yi- precludes the possibility of 
'awee' being taken as the subject of the verb, for it can only be 
the object. If the noun preceding the verb is the subject, then yi- 
is replaced by bi-, so *asdzqq bishchj, the woman gave birth to 
him. Similarly, nashdoitsoh yidiyootheef, he will kill the puma; 
nashdoitsoh bidiyootheet, the puma will kill him. 

The yi- of the passive form (yizhchj) indicates that the verb 
is transitive with respect to a definite 3rd person object (expressed 
as zero just as it is in the forms yishq, I am eating it, and yidq, it is 
being eaten). If yi- is replaced by indefinite (3i.) 'a-, we have: 
yidq. it is being eaten 
'adq, there is eating going on. 
yizhchf, birth was given to it 
'azhch[, birth occured (birth was given to something) 

In the passive forms of yi- and si- perfectives yi- indicates 
the transitivity of the verbal action to a definite object, just as it 
does in the imperfective transitive form yishq, I am eating it. Yi- 
is lacking in the passives of paradigms wherein there is no para- 
digmatic yi- prefix. Thus: 

'awee' yidoo+chitt, she will give birth to a baby. 

'awee' doolchfft, a baby will be born. 

'awee' yotchiit laanoo, would that she give birth to a baby. 

*awee' gholchiit laanaa, would that a baby be born. 

'atsi* yidoolbish, he will boil the meat. 

'atsf doolbish, the meat will be boiled. 

There is a group of verbs in Navaho which require the ex- 
pression of the 3rd person ordinary objective pronoun in the 1st, 
2nd and 3a. persons by the pronoun bi-, which becomes yi- in 3o. 
bfhooi'qq\ I learned it (yihoof'qq\ he learned it) 
bPneeKqqd, I measured it (yFneef qqd, he measured it) 
nabfdfdeeshkit, I shall ask him (nayidfdooikii, he'll ask him) 
bi*d6lo\ I cheated him (yi'deezlo*, he cheated him) 
nibideeshtW, I'll halt him (ni(y)idooWW, he'll halt him) 
bineltf, I laid him down (yineesti, he laid him down) 
bfnfsdzil, I can resist it (yfnftdzil, he can resist it) 

Postpositional prefixes usually require expression of the 3rd 
person pronominal object in all persons. Thus: 

bik'iigeed, I covered it with dirt (yik'iigeed, he covered it — ) 
bighanisht'q, I took it away from him (yighaft'q, he took it — ) 


Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 

It has already been noted in the discussion of the stem clas- 
sifiers that I often transitivizes zero and I class verbs, in a causa- 
tive sense, and that d sometimes renders passive, or detransitivi- 
zes, zero class active verbs. Thus: 

selif, I became; seiti*, I caused it to become, 
niseghiz, I turned around; nfseihiz, I turned it around. 
ndfNttoh, you will get wet; ndfHtfoh, you will make it wet. 
ch'eedeessit, I'll awaken him; ch'eedeesdzit, I'll wake up. 
yideeshshift, I'll blacken it; yideeshj[it, I'll get black. 

In this treatise, active verbs which are transitive with respect 
to a definite object (as yishq, I am eating it) are classified as tran- 
sitive verbs, while those which transfer their action to on indefin- 
ite object (as 'ashq, I am eating something) are termed intransi- 
tive. Actually, it is quite obvious that the act of eating cannot go 
on without an object. 

Thus it may be said that transitive verbs are often rendered 
intransitive by merely changing the object from a definite to an 
indefinite ('a- something). 

yiyqq , I ate it; 'fiyqq (^'a-fyqq'), I ate (something), 
yishq, I'm eating it; 'ashq, I'm eating (something), 
nish'iih, I steal it; 'anish'ijh, I steal (things), I'm a thief. 

Indefinite *a- is often represented only by its preceding (*), 
the vowel dropping out. Thus; 

nanish'uh, I repeatedly steal it; na'nish'iih (^na'anish'ifh), I 
repeatedly steal (something). 
Many verbs which are neither transitive nor intransitive (i.e. 
passive verbs) contain I or I, and passive verbs often appear with 
prefixed *a- or yi-. Thus: 

'fthosh, You are sleeping; ('ashhosh, I am sleeping). 

yilghot, you are running along; (yishghot, I'm running along). 

Indefinite Person and Impersonal Verbs 

Verbs which are neither transitive nor intransitive, i.e., pass- 
ive verbs, prefix the indefinite subjective pronoun *a-, someone, 
to render the sense impersonal. Thus: 

niteeh, he habitually lies down; 'aniteeh, indefinite someone 
lies down, lying down occurs (as in bikaa* dah 'anitehf, bed: 
upon it up lying down habitually occurs). 


sida, he is sitting; 'asdd, sitting occurs (as in bik'i dah asda- 

hi, chair: the one on which sitting occurs). 
siz[, he is standing; T az{, there is standing (or as a noun: stan- 
ding. Many such verbal nouns will be found in the dictionary) 
naalnish / he Is working; na'anish, there is work going on. 
didoolnish, he will start working; 'adidoonish, work will start, 
yaa naakai, they (pi) are doing it; baa na'akai, it is being 

done (by indefinite plural doers). 
chidf bik'udaazgo biniinaa bikee' deesdgph, weight on the car 
blew out its tire (something weighing on the car on account 
of it its tire (lit. shoe) exploded). 
The Navaho forms with indefinite subjective (or objective) 
'a- often correspond to English nouns of the type ending in -ing, 
-tion, -ment, etc. The Navaho forms still express mode and as- 
pect, however, for actually they are still verbs. 

'az'q, extension (si'q, it (round or bulky object, or land) sets; 
'az'q, something indefinite sets, there is setting. Cp. haz'q, it 
(space or area) sets, there is room.) 
na'alt'a', flying, flight, aerial navigation, 
'irlgheh, killing, murder (someone is being killed), 
'adiilghe, suicide (someone kills self). 

Verbs whose meaning is rendered intransitive by prefixation 
of indefinite objective 'a-, something, cannot reduplicate *a- to 
express both indefinite subject and indefinite object. Where both 
occur in the same word the indefinite subject is represented by ze- 
ro; the verb form being that of the passive (voice). 

'ayq, he is eating (something indefinite); 'adq, eating (of 
something indefinite) is going on (by someone indefinite). 

Active and Passive Voice 

There are two types of passive voice forms in Navaho. One, 
designated passive A, indicates no agent of the act, and refers on- 
ly to a definite noun object. The other, designated passive B, in- 
dicates indefinite pronominal 1 a- # someone, as the agent of the 
act. The B form can refer either to a definite noun object (the ob- 
ject being again represented in the verb by the pronoun bi-), or to 
o pronoun object. The two passives are herewith described. 

Passive A* 

This passive is formed by joining the verb prefixes, exclu- 
sive of those which represent pronominal subject, directly to the 


Stem classifier. In the passive the I classifier is replaced by I, and 
zero class verbs take the d classifier. Thus: 

1. f claw. 

dl99* neidooTah, he will skin the prairie dog. 
d\QQ f hdoorah, the prairie dog will be skinned, 
chidi bikee' yootbqs, he is rolling the tire along, 
chidf bikee' yilbqs, the tire is being rolled along. 

2, zero class. 

yoo yidoo'ish, he will string the beads, 
yoo* doot'ish, the beads will be strung, 
yoo* neiMsh, he repeatedly strings the beads, 
yoo' nat'ish, the beads are repeatedly strung. 
ch'il yiyq, he is eating the plant, 
ch'il yidq, the plant is being eaten. 

It is to be noted that such forms as "it will be skinned by 
me" are not used in Navaho. Rather, the active voice is used, 
giving "I will skin it." 

As we stated above, the passive A does not refer to other 
than noun objects. Thus the passive dibe yazhi yizhchj, the Iamb 
was born, cannot be altered to *shizhehf, I was born, nor can 
seesghi, of such a phrase as 'ashkii seesghi, the boy was killed, be 
altered to *shiseesgh{, I was killed. Passive B must be used in re- 
ferring to a pronoun object. 

Passive B. 

This passive is formed by use of the indefinite pronoun sub- 
ject "a-, as the agent of the act. Since the prefix di- is added to *a- 
the Passive B can be designated the *adi- passive. Whether this 
di- is the inceptive di- prefix of dideeshaat, I'll start going, or si- 
milar to di of *adi, self, is a moot question. Paradigms and exam- 
ples of the passive B are given herewith. The vowel (a) of indefi- 
nite pronominal 'a- is often dropped, only the glottal stop C) re- 
maining. Thus shi'dizhch|, 1 was born (not *shPadizhchi). 

shi'dizhchf, I was born shi'diisgh[, I was killed 

bi'dizhchf, he, she, they (dpi) ni'diisgh[, you were killed 

ni'dizhch[, you were born bi'diisghf, he,she was killed, 

was (were) born ho'diisghf, he, she was killed 

ho'dizhchi, he, she, they (dpi) nanihi'diztseed, we, you (dpi) 


was (were) born were killed 

nihi'dizhchi, we, you (dpi) was nabi'diztseed, they were kill. 

(were) born naho'diztseed, they were kill, 

danihi'dizhchi, we (dist. pi) ndanihi'diztseed, we (dist. pi) 

were born were killed 


hastiin yistin, the man was frozen (naturally) 
hastiin bfdistin, the man was frozen (artificially — by some- 
one acting as the indefinite agent) 

Further *adi- or B passive forms ore given herewith in the 1st 
person singular, with the 3rd person active for comparison. 

shidiyooiheet, he'll kill me shitbeezh, he's boiling me 

shidi'yoolgheet, I'll be killed shi'dilbeezh, I'm being boiled 

shiisxj, he killed me shishbeezh, he boiled me 

shi'diisgh[, I was killed shi'dishbeezh, I was boiled 

shiiiheh, he is killing me nasht+bish, he rep. boils me 

shfdiilgheh, I'm being killed nashi'dilbish, I am rep. boiled 

shiyofheei lago, I wish he would shoibeezh lago, I wish he would 

not kill me. not boil me 

shidiyolgheel lago, I wish I shfdolbeezh logo, I wish I 

wouldn't be killed would not be boiled 

shididooniit, he'll say to me shidoogh[[t, he'll eat me 

shidi'doo'nii'T, I'll be told shidi'doodiii, I'll be eaten 

shitni, he says to me shiyq, he's eating me 

shPdi'm, ! am being told shPdidq, I'm being eaten 

shidimiid, he said to me shffyqq', he ate me 

shi'doo'niid, I was told shfdoodqq*, I was eaten 

shidoniih laanaa, I wish he'd nashid([h, he rep. eats me 

tell me nashi'didfth, I'm rep. eaten 
shPdo'niih laanaa, I wish I'd be shoyqq' logo, I wish he would 

told not eat me 

shidoofbish, he'll boil me shPdodqq* lago, I wish I would 
shidPdoofbish, I'll be boiled not be eaten 


The imperative has no special form, but is rendered by the 
future tense forms (which are obligatory in force), by the imper- 
fective or progressive mode (when the act is to be carried out at 


once), and by the optative (when the act is to be carried out in the 
proximate future, and in a negative sense). To illustrate: 

1. Future used os an imperative, 

shaa dimddJ, come to me (you will come to me)! 

diit'ash, let's go (we two will go)! 

diikah, let's go (we plural will go)! 

bfni' shaa doogddt, let him come to me (let he will come to me)! 

2. Imperfective and progressive used as an imperative. 

ch'ininf+kaad, herd them out (you are in the act of herding 

them out)! 
ch'fninotkaad, herd them out (you dpi are in the act of — )! 
sha'nf'aah, loan it to me (a round or bulky object)! 
shaa ni'aah, give it to me (round or bulky object)! 
'adiitttddd, turn on the lights (light something on fire)! 
'anfttsees, turn off the lights (extinguish something)! 
naas yi'ndd-t, keep walking forward! 

The negative imperative, when immediate in force, is form- 
ed by suffixing the relatival enclitic -i to the verb, and prepound- 
ing the particle t'aadoo, without, don't. Thus: 

nini'ddh, deceive him (you are in the Get of deceiving him)! 
t'dadoo ninTddhi, don't (be in the act of being a) deceive(-r of) 

ydniitr, talk (you are talking)! 

t'dadoo ydnHtPf, don't talk (without you are a talker)! 
nanftkaad, herd them (about)! 
t'dadoo nanttkaadf, don't (be a) herd (-er of) them! 

The optative, in conjunction with the particle logo, let it be 
not, is used to render a negative imperative in the sense of a fu- 
ture admonition. Thus: 

ghodyqq' Idgo, don't (would that you might not) eat it! 

nod'ddi Idgo, don't place, park, it (as a car, or bulky object)! 

hatfodleeh Idgo, don't punish him! 

t*ddkd ch'endoosffd, don't awaken him» 

bik'idooltaat Idgo, don't step on it! 

bee nadone' Idgo, don't hurt him! 

bee btf hodlne' Idgo, don't tell it to him! 

The particle hdgo, come here, is used as a command, as in 
hdgo, kodi shit nanin6, come over here and play with me! 


Neuter verbs are also used as imperatives in a present sense, 
t'aadoo nahf'ndni sinizi, standstill (without you are one that 

moves you are standing)! 
t'dadoo shich'qqh sinizini, don't stand in my way (without in 

my way you are the one that stands)! 
nizee' *qq 'ahwiinisin, keep your mouth open (your mouth open 

you keep it (area or space)! 
Indirect imperatives are rendered as direct imperatives, as 
t'dadoo shqqh nfni'f nifniigo shit hoolne', he told me to tell you 

not to worry (without beside me your mind the one = don't 

worry about me you telling him to me he told; i.e. he told me 

you tell him don't worry about me)! 

The Deictic Prefixes 

There are three deictic prefixes (i.e. that designate, point 
out) which are to be found in the paradigms, and a word of descri- 
ption with respect to them will be of benefit. They are: 

1 . ji-, the 3a. verbal incorporated subjective pronoun, mean- 
ing he, she, one. 

jizlft', he, she, one, became 
jidoogddt, he, she, one, will go 
joogadt, he, she, one, is walking along 

Ji- sometimes becomes -zh-, -sh-, as in: 
bit 'azhdeesdg^ (instead of bit 'ajideesd^Qh), he shot it 
dashdiilghod (instead of dah jidiilghod), he started off running 

2. 'a-, the 3i., or indefinite subjective pronoun, someone. As 
we have noted it is the same in form as the 3i. objective *a- 

'aniteeh, someone habitually lies down 
'asdd, someone sits (sitting is done) 
*az(, someone stands (standing is done) 

As we have pointed out under Indefinite Person and Im- 
personal Verbs the indefinite (3i.) pronoun enters into the forma- 
tion of certain types of verbal nouns, as na'altV, flight, flying. 

3. ho-, ha-, are the pronouns which refer to space, area or 
place, as well as to impersonal it, or things. Thus: 

hodoott'izh, it (area) is blue 

halgai, it (area) is white 

haz'q, it (area or space) sets, has position = there is room 

h6tchxon, it (area, place) stinks 


hotTiz, it (area) is hard. 

halchin, it (area, or impersonal it) smells, has an odor 

halniih, it (impersonal) tastes, has a taste 

Verbal Incorporated Subjective Pronouns 

The deictic prefixes, given in the preceding section / function 
as subjective pronouns, ji- for the 3a. person, 'a- for the 3i., and 
ho-, ha-, in referring to space, area, etc. (the 3s. as it will be here- 
after designated). 

The elements indicating pronoun subject in the verb are 
highly variable, and will be best understood in studying the vari- 
ous paradigms. The 1st person singular is usually indicated by 
-sh-, as jn nishtf, I am. However, it may also be found as a high 
toned vowel, as in nVq t I brought it. 

The 2nd person singular is sometimes represented by -ni-, 
and sometimes by a high toned vowel. Thus nicha, you are crying 
but 'idiz, you are spinning. 

The ordinary 3rd person (corresponding to bi) is represented 
in the verb by zero. Thus 'ayq, he is eating ('a-, the indefinite ob- 
ject pronoun; -yq, imperfective stem of eat). Only in the 3o. (3rd 
person obi iquative) is reference made to an ordinary 3rd person 
subject. Thus yidiz, he is spinning it. 

The 1st person duoplural expresses we by means of a long 
vowel followed by a d, which is altered according to the following 
initial stem vowel in the same manner as that described for the d 
classifier. In the presence of I or f (which becomes I in the 1 st per- 
son duoplural) classifiers this d is dropped. Thus, niidl|, we are; 
ghoodxjih laanaa, would that we might stand up; diniilzeet, we 
will grow up. 

The 2nd person duoplural is represented by the vowel o, long 
or short in quantity, and with or without a final -h. Thus in the 
word ghohsq, you dpi are eating it; in doohteef, you dpi will be- 
come, and in soozj, you dpi are standing. 

Modal Prefixes 

One of the prefixes yi-, ni-, or si- usually occurs in the verb 
paradigm. There are several yi- prefixes similar in form, but not 
in meaning or grammatical force. One yi- commonly found pre- 
fixed in the imperfective mode has been called the peg element 
by such well known students as Sapir and Hoijer, because upon 


prefixation of the object pronouns, or of other prefixes, yi- is 
dropped. Another yi- is used in the perfective and in the progres- 
sive modes. It is not dropped upon prefixation of another element 
os in the case of the peg element. The latter, as it will be seen lat- 
er, is replaced by such prefixes as the iterative no-, optative gho-, 

Yi- of the perfective mode is completive in force, indicating 
that the act denoted by the verb stem is completed, and does not 
imply a durative or static condition as a result. 

yish'aat, I am carrying it along. 

taah yish'aah, I am in the act of putting it in the water. 

taah yi'q, I have put it in the water. 

The prefix ni- is often a terminative in force, or it describes 
an act as completed and resulting in a static durative condition. 
It is quite possible that this prefix may be cognate with ni* the 
noun meaning ground, earth. There ore two ni- prefixes, both no 
doubt derived from the same source. Thus niya, I came, arrived; 
niniya, I went as far as a point and stopped (as in kinji' niniya, I 
went as far as the house). Ni'q, I brought it; ni* nini'q, I set it on 
the ground. The noun ni* itself is used as a terminative in such 
forms as ni* nishtf, I am stopped (i.e. static). Further examples 
are herewith given: 

dmeeshdaai, I shall sit down (shall terminate the act of sitting 

down and thereafter be in a static durative state). 
nishdaah, I am \n the act of sitting down, 
neda, I have sat down. 

The ni- prefix always forms part of the inchoative verb form 
as in deesh|ff, I shall eat it, but bidPneeshfft, I shall start eating it. 

Likewise in the prolongatives, as dinoolghod, it ran (in) and 
stayed (chidf sei yiih dinoolghod, the car ran into the sand and 
stayed; i.e. got stuck in the sand). 

The prefix si- indicates or implies that the act is completed, 
and is in a durative static state, or is of durative static nature. 
It is illustrated by the form tse'naa ni'setk^g', I have been across 
by swimming( i.e. have swum across at some time or another), in 
contradistinction to tse'naa ni'nifkop', I have arrived across swim- 
ming (i.e. have terminated the act of swimming across). Similarly: 


sedd, I am sitting; in contradistinction to nedd, I sat down. 
sfg, it sets, has position (a round or bulky object), 
s6t'q, I keep it, cause it to set, have position. 

Theft- perfective does not occur with the future paradigm, 
and does not always occur with the imperfective. However, such 
forms as doh shish'aah, I am in the act of setting it (a round or 
bulky object) up (as on a shelf); hasinddh, climb up! etc. occur. 

Si- is widely used with neuter static verbs of the si'q type, 
and also in the perfective paradigms where it gives rise to a num- 
ber of irregularities. Both the regular and the irregular si- perfec- 
tive paradigms will be taken up under the heading Si-perfective. 

Sometimes the ni- prefix and the si- prefix seem to occur to- 
gether in certain forms such as rteezdd, he sat down (n- represent- 
ing ni- and -z- representing si-). 

In describing the perfective paradigm, the three categories 
of yi-perfective, ni-perfective and si-perfective are employd for 
practical reasons. This is not necessary in the imperfective para- 
digm because of the relative simplicity and regularity of its for- 
mation. The imperfectives formed with yi- and ni- are given side 
by side. 

Verb-incorporated Objective Pronouns 

















ho, ho 

ho, ha 


ho, ha 

ho, ha 











As we mentioned before, the 3. as object is usually represen- 
ted by zero, except in the 3o w where yi- is prefixed. Only in those 
verbs which require expression of the 3. pronominal object for all 
persons is bi used as pronominal object in other than the 3rd per- 
son. Thus bihool'qq', I learned it; shash bidiyooth&t, the bear 
will kill him, but diyeeshheet, Til kill him. 


The position of the pronominal object varies with the verb 
prefixes. The following presentation should serve to illustrate the 
use and position of this element. 

In the future, the object pronouns are merely prefixed to the 
verb, the pronoun having its position just before the future prefix, 
deeshteet, I'll carry him; nideeshteel, Til carry you; diRteet, 
you'll carry him; shidi'Hteet, you'll carry me; yidoo+teei, he'll carry 
him; nidoatteei, he'll carry you; 'ahidoolteet, they'll carry each 
other; danidiilteei, we (dist. pi) will carry you (sgl); dashidootteet, 
you (dist. pi) will carry me; deidoo+teet (=dayidoofteet), they (dist. 
pi) will carry him; da*ahidooltee+, they (dist. pi) will carry one an- 
other; naa nideeshteet, I'll carry you again; naadanidiilteei, we 
(dist pi.) will carry you again. 

Note that the reciprocal 'ahi- requires that the stem classi- 
fier I be changed to I. The reflexive 'adi causes a similar change, 
as in yaW, he is talking, but 'adil yalti', he is talking to himself. 

The following further examples of the incorporated object 
pronoun are given in tabular form. It will be noted that in the im- 
perfectives the pronominal object replaces yi, necessitating what 
is called a conjunct paradigm, 

taah yishteeh, I am putting him in the water, 
taah nishteeh, I am putting you in the water, 
taah ni+teeh, you are putting him in the water, 
taah niiteeh, he is putting you in the water, 
taah shftteeh, you are putting me in the water, 
taah yitteeh, he is putting him in the water, 
taah niilteeh, we (dpi) are putting you in the water, 
taah shotteeh, you (dpi) are putting me in the water, 

haashteeh, I'm carrying him up out. 
hanishteeh, I'm carrying you up out. 
hashf+teeh, you're carrying me up out. 
hayi+teeh he is carrying him up out. 
hashitteeh, he's carrying me up out. 
hahojilteeh, he (3a.) is carrying him (3a.) up out. 
ha*ahilteeh, they are carrying each other up out. 
hanaanishteeh, I'm carrying you up out again, 
handaneftteeh, he's carrying him up out again. 
hanaashMteeh, you are carrying me up out again, 
hanaashfiteeh, he's carrying me up out again, 
hanaadashitteeh, they (dist. pi) are carrying me up out again. 


Note that high toned nod-, again, raises the tone of a follow- 
ing vowel in some cases, and that when the 3o. yi- is added nod- 
becomes nddnd-, which in turn assimilates to the following (y)i- # 
and resultant nddndyi- becomes naartei-. The tone of distributive 
da- is not raised by preceding ndd-, so the syllable -shit- of hanaa- 
dashitteeh is not raised as is the same syllable in hanaashitteeh. 

ni' ninishteeh, I'm setting him down on the ground. 

ni' nininishteeh, I'm setting you down on the ground. 

ni' niiyftteeh, he's setting him down on the ground. 

ni' nishinftteeh, you're setting me down on the ground. 

ni* ninaaninishteeh, I'm setting you down again on the ground. 

ni' ninaanei+teeh, he's setting him down again on the ground. 

ni' ninaadashinotteeh, you (dist. pi) are again setting me down. 

taah yHt[, I put him into the water. 

taqh nfNt[, I put you into the water. 

taah shiiniJt[, you put me into the water. 

taah yiyftftf, he put him into the water. 

taah 'ahooltf, they put each other into the water. 

taah shitft[, he put me into the water. 

yishghal, I ate him. 
neeshghal, I ate you. 
shifnilghal, you ate me. 

nitt[, I brought him. 
ninf+tj, I brought you. 
shiinfttf, you brought me. 
yinfftf, he brought him. 
shinfttf, he brought me. 

ch'intttf, I took him out 
ch'fninfltf, I took you out. 
ch'inaaninfttf, I took you out again, 
ch'inaadaniniilti, we (dist. pi) took you out again. 

sh#b6ezh, I boiled him. 
shishfni+beezh, you boiled me. 
shishb66zh, he boiled me. 
nishett>£ezh, I boiled you. 
yishb£6zh, he boiled him. 
*ahishb66zh, they boiled each other. 
*dd£shb££zh, I boiled myself. 


'ddishinilbeezh, you boiled yourself. 
ndashishfnitbeezh, you boiled me again. 

Yi- of the progressive mode is not dropped like yi- of the im- 
perfective. One drops this prefix in yishghal, I'm eating him; 
nishghat, I'm eating you, but progressive yishteet, I'm carrying 
him along; neeshteet, I'm carrying you along (not *nishte&). Si- 
milarly in the perfective mode yishghal, I ate him; neeshghal, I 
ate you. 

yishteet, I'm earring him along. 

neeshteet, I'm carrying you along, 

yHteet, you're carrying him along. 

shiitteet, you're carrying me along. 

yoofteet, he's carrying him along. 

shootteet, he's carrying me along. 

'eeshteet, I'm carrying something indefinite fe- = 'a-) along. 

shijoorteet, he (3a.) is carrying me along. 

hojoofteet, he (3a.) is carryiny him (3a.) oiong, 

daniinfilteeh, we (dist. pi) are carrying you along. 

dashifnoiteeh, you (dist. pi) are carrying me along. 

dashilteeh, they (dist. pi) are carrying me along. 

dashijf+teeh, they (3a. dist. pi) are carrying me along. 

Reciprocal and Reflexive Pronoun Objects 
Reciprocal. The reciprocal, corresponding to English each 
other, one another, is rendered in Navaho by the pronominal pre- 
fix *ahi-. Its position corresponds to that of the other objective 
pronouns, but its presence requires that the * classifier be chang- 
ed to l r or that the d classifier be added. Thus: 

'ahiilreef, we (dpi) are carrying each other, 
'ahorteet, you (dpi) are carrying each other, 
'ahoolteef, they (dpi) are carrying each other, 
'ahijoorreef, they (3a. dpi) are carrying each other, 
da'ahnnfilteeh, we (dist. pi) are carrying one another, 
da'ahimorteeh, you (dist. pi) are carrying one another, 
da'ahflteeh, they (dist. p!) are carrying one another, 
da'ahijflteeh, they (3a. dist. pi) are carrying one another. 

'ahiit'i, we (dpi) see each other, 
'ahoht'f, you (dp!) see each other, 
'ahoot'i, they (dpi) see each other. 
*ahijoot'(, they (3a. dpi) see each other. 


Where the verb contains a postpositional prefix, reciprocal- 
ity is denoted by the prefix 'at- 'ahif- (V. postpositions). 

'a+ghaniit'q, we (dpi) took it away from each other, 
'alghanooht'q, you (dpi) took it away from each other, 
'a+ghait q, they (dpi) took it away from each other, 
'a+ghajft'q, they (3a. dpi) took it away from each other, 
'a+ghadaniit'q, we (dist. pi) took it away from one another. 

Reflexive. The reflexive, corresponding to English self, is 
formed by prefixation of 'adi-, self (as an object pronoun). 'Adi- 
also changes I to I, or requires a d classifier, and causes the same 
paradigmatic changes as those occasioned by prefixation of the 
object pronouns. Thus compare: 

yish'i, I see him neesh'i, I see you 'ddeesht'i, I see my- 

yinf'i, you see him shi'infi, you see me 'adimit'i, you see 

yoo'i, he sees him shoo'!, he sees me 'adoot'f, he sees him- 
jooM, he (3a.) sees shijoo'i, he (3a.) sees 'azhdoot'i, he (3a.) 

him me sees himself 

yiif[, we (dpi) see himniit*[, we (dpi) see you 'adiit'J, we (dpi) see 

ghoh'i, you (dpi) see shooh'i, you (dpi) see'adooht'i, you (dpi) 

him me see yourselves 

deiit'i, we (dist. pi) daniit'j, we (dist. pi) 'adadiit'[, we (dist. 
see him see you pi) see ourselves 

daoh'i, you (dist. pi) dashooh'f, you (dist. 'adadooht'f, you (dist. 

see him pi) see me pi) see yourselves 

dayoo'f, they (dist. pl)dashoo'i, they (dist. 'adadoot*[, they (dist. 
see him pi) see me pi) see themselves 

dajooX they (3a. dashijoo'f, they (3a. 'adazhdoot*[, they 

dist. pi) sees him dist. pi) see me (3a. dist. pi) see 


Verb Prefixes 

There is a large number of prefixes which are used for deri- 
vation of the various verbal meanings. Some are directional in 
force, some express manner, some are postpositions used as verb 
prefixes, etc. They replace, to a large extent, the adverbs of En- 


glish, and to some extent the English prepositions. The list here- 
with given is not exhaustive, but contains those prefixes which 
are most commonly and widely used. 

It is not always possible to assign an exact meaning to each 
of these prefixes, for the precise signification is often not clear. 
*qqh g beside (something indefinite) 

'qqh ndeesh'aat, I'll pawn it (set it down beside someone). 
'qq, open, 
'qq dideesht[^ 7 I'll open it (door), 
*qq 'at'e, it is open. 
*a-, into (an enclosure); out of sight, 
yah 'adeeshaat, I'll go in. 

'ahooftq, or yoo* 'ahooitq, it stopped raining (rained away out 
of sight). 
*d-, thus (?) 
*anf, he says (thus), 
'adeesh+iit, I'll make it (thus), 
'adin, there is none. 
'adaa-, to, about, from, self, 
'adaadideestsos, I'll remove it from myself (sheet like thingf). 
ni'ee' 'adaadiiltsoos, take off your shirt! 
'ado-, for self, 
'adadideesdzit, I'll take a swallow of it. 
ado-, close ('adaa', edge, orifice). 
*adadi'deeshjoi, I'll close it (as by stuffing weeds in it). 
'ado-, bida-/ hada-, down, 
'adadeesmas, I'll roll down. 

'ade-, above self, 
'ade'eshdq, I'm overeating (eating above myself). 

'idi-, self. 

'adideeshzhoh, I'll brush myself. 
'agha-, 'agha-, through (penetrating). 

'agha'deeshshish, I'll make a perforation, poke a hole. 

bighanisht'q, I'll take it away from him (lit. through him). 
'oho-, in two halves. 

'ahadeeshgish, I'll cut it in two. 
'ahee-, around (in a circle). 

'aheenfsh+i, I am making it flow around in a circle. 

*ahe£nfshghod, I ran around in a circle. 


aheeh, 'oheesh-, gratitude. 

baa f ahe6shnisin, I am grateful for it. 
'ahi-, apart. 

'ahideeshkat, I'll chop it apart. 
'ahi-, together. 

'ahidiili, they flow together. 
*ahi-, into. 

'ahiighi, it (e.g. water) extends into it (the land) (as a bay). 
'dka-, upon self. 

'akadeeszis, I'll put on a belt, gird myself. 
*dk'i- # on self. 

ak'idideesht *qq\, I'll take it off, put it on (hat). 
'ak'i-, on something indefinite. 

'ak'e'she+ch[, I wrote (lit. scratched on something). 
'dko-, that way, thus, correctly, 

'akot'e, it is that way, thus; it is correct. 

'akosh+aa, I made it thus; I made it right. 
'atnda-, back and forth. 

'a+naadeesh'dat, I'll carry it back and forth. 
'atna-, alternate, exchange. 

'atnadeesh'adt, I'll exchange their position. 
'aits'd-, away from each other. 

'a+ts'ddiit ash, we two will separate, part from each other, 
'ati-, harm, injury. 

'atideeshtfft, I'll punish, harm, him. 
'aza-, (from 'azee', mouth), action toward the mouth. 

'azanisht'aah, I'm kissing (in the act of moving my head to 
someone's mouth). 

bizanisht'aah, I'm in the act of kissing her. 
bee-, concerning, about, him. 

beedeiilniih, we (dist. pi) remember (about) him. 
bi-, against it. 

bidideesh+oh, I'll brake it (apply the brakes against it). 

bfyah, under and against it (bracing it). 

bida-, down. 

bidadeeshttish, I'll fall down. 
bik'i- on it. 

bik'iideeshgot, I'll cover it (with earth). 

bik'idideesh'adt, I'll uncover it (take the lid off). 


bindkd-, through it (perforating it). 

bindka'deeshnrt, I'll bore holes through it. 
bini, bind-, around it. 

bini'deeshadt, I'll walk around it. 

bind'dztT, it extends, is stretched, around it (as a wire). 

cho-, has to do with darkness. 

chahatheei, it is dark. 

chaha'oh, shade, shadow. 
chd-, (?). 

chdshk'eh, arroyo, wash, race course. 

chdt+'ish, phlegm, 
cho-, use. 

choyoot'i, he makes use of it. 
choo-, has to do with menstruation. 

chooghin se\[[\ I am menstruating (have become chooghin). 

chooghim, hunchback (because it is said that if one has inter- 
course with a menstruating woman he will become a hunch- 
ch'ee- (ch'i-, out plus na-, back), pertains to reawakening. 

ch'eedeessii, I shall reawaken him. 

ch'eedeesdziJ, I shall reawaken. 
ch'i-, horizontally outward, out of an enclosure. 

ch'ideeshaat, I shall go out (as from a house). 

nik'i shit ch'idoolghat, I'll run over you. 

da-, distributive plural, 
'adadidiijah, we (dist. pi) will spit. 

de-, del-, upward. 

de'ddeeshiut, I'll raise it (make it up). 

shikee* dendaashch'il, my shoes curled up. 
di-, indicates inception or beginning of an action. 

dideeshaat, I shall start to go. 

dideesh'aal, I shall start to carry it along (a bulky object). 

di-, pertains to fire, 
didideeshjah, I'll build a fire, 
didideesh'aaf, I'll put it in the fire. 

dim'-, a combination of di- and ni-. Indicates prolongation of 
the act or state, and a variety of other meanings, 
bichidi sef yiih dinoolghod, his cor got stuck in the sand (ran 
into the sand and stayed). 


bidiniish'q, 1 have my head against it (am holding it there). 

dinishgho 1 , I am a (fast) runner. 

adineesdzd, 1 walked in (and stayed, unable to get out), 
dzi- # -z-> -xh-, into space; into infinity. 

dzigai, white (line) runs into the distance. 

'azhdeeshtt'iil, Til siing it off into space. 
dzidza-, into fire. 

dzidza yiinil, he put them into the fire. 
dziits'a-, away from fire, water. 

dzi+ts adeesh'adt, I'll take it out of the fire or the water. 
ha-, up and out. 

hadeeshddt, I'll go up out; I'll climb up. 

bibeezh hayiTq, he pulled out his knife. 
ha-, ha-, (from -ka, for, after), for 

haseya, I went for (after) it. 

haniya, I'm here for it; I came after it. 

hadeeshzhah, I'll hunt (for) it (game). 
hada-, down (ib. 'ada-, bida-). 

hadadeesht+ish, I'll fall down. 

hadadeeshaa-f, I'll get down, dismount. 
hasht'e-, in readiness; prepared. 

hbsht'ediisdza, I got ready. 

hasht'eelyaa, it was prepared; made ready. 
hoshtV, aside, in readiness, in order. 

hasht'e ' niininil, he set them aside; put them in order. 
hi-, time after time, one after another. 

hideesh*aat, I'll carry it one time after another. 

hahinideeh, they are falling out one after another. 
hi-, in challenge; ambush. 

hinisdza, I went (in challenge). 

Na'nizhoozhfgoo joot yee ndaanehfgn baa hiniikai, we (pi) 
went to meet and challenge the Gallup basketball team. 

baa nihinisdza, I'm lying in wait for him; ambushing him. 
*i-, against (something indefinite). 

'fdideesh+oh, I'll put on the brakes (apply them against). 

*ii-, (?). 
'finisin, I keep it: 

'«-, (?). 

Tinisin, I have in mind. 

doo 'finisin da, I don't want to. 


jo- # jii-, pertains to emotions of hate, kindness, etc. 

joshba*, I am kind, merciful, 

bee baa jiiseba*, I treated him with it (as candy, pop). 

jiis&aa', I came to hate him. 
ka- # sickly. 

kanaashd, I am sickly (chronically). 
kee', footwear. 

kee' se'eez, I have my shoes on. 
k||h, into town; to market. 

kjih yighi, I hauled it to town, 
ki-, position leaning against. 

kinishdah, I'm sitting in a leaning position. 
kin-, (?) (possibly kin, house). 

kindeeshdaat, I shall menstruate (for the first time; formerly 
menstruating women were tabu and spent the period isolat- 
ed in a special structure). 
ko-, in this way. 

kot'e, in this way; it is this way. 

koyinishghe, I am called thus; thus is my name. 

kVfPa, I untied, loosened it (as in taking down the hair). 
k'i-, apart in two pieces. 

k'ideeshnish, I'll break it in two (as a string). 
k'i-, (?). 

k'idideeshleel, I'll plant it. 
teeh, into dirt, ashes. 

teeh yi'q, I put it into the dirt; I buried it. 
fee\ in the ground. 

lee* si'q, it is setting in the ground (within the soil). 
ti-, has to do with inherent quality. 

tigai, it is white. 

likon, it is inflammable. 

tikan, it is sweet. 
naa-, again. 

yah 'anaadeesht'aal, Til carry it in again. 
naa-, naa-, down, downward. 

naajin, black (as a streak) running down (as on a hillside). 

naalj, it drips down (as water through a leaky roof). 
naa-, no-, n-, about, around (without definite direction). 

naasha, I'm walking around. 


nonino, you're walking around. 

njigha, he (3a.) is walking around* 
noo-, no-, ni-, across. 

na'nizhoozh, bridged (na-, across; ' — 'a-, indefinite subject; 
ni-, horizontally; -zhoozh, slender objects lie parallel). 
naani-, to turn around. 

naanisisghod, I turned around running; ran there and turned. 
no-, repetition of an act or state. 

namshtat, I'm kicking him repeatedly. 

nashd[[h, I repeatedly eat it. 
no-, ni-, n-, action upward from the ground, up. 

ndideesh'aal, I'll pick it up, lift it. 

ndideeshdaat, I'll arise, stand up, get up. 
no-, ni-, n-, back (returning). 

rideeshdaat, I'll return, go back. 

ndeesh'aat, I'll take, bring, it back. 

nat'qq', back, returning back. 

nohi-, over, 
nahideesh'aat, I'll turn it over. 

ni-, indicates termination or static condition, 
niniya, I went as far as a point and stopped. 

niijin, black (as a streak running) to a point (and stopping). 

nfq, I brought it (terminated the act of carrying it). 

ni* ninf'q, I set it down on the ground. 
ni-, horizontally and parallel to the ground. 

ni'a, it extends horizontally. 
nihi-, add to (?) 

nihidideeshaai, I'll join it (a club, political party, etc.). 

shilu nihidideeshteet, I'll join the race (add my horse to it). 

nihi-, in many pieces, slices, etc. 
nihideeshgish, I'll slice it, cut it up. 
nihideeshtih, I'll smash it to pieces (as a box). 

niki-, on the surface. 

nikidePa, they are scattered around on the ground. 

nikididees'is, I'll step down onto the floor. 
niki-, against the surface. 

nikidideeshgoh, I'll fall (and strike the ground). 
niki-, nihi-, indicates inception, beginning. 

nikida'diJtsf, it has started to sprinkle (rain). 


nikihonittq, it has started to rain. 

nikideeshddt, I'll start back home(ward). 
ntsi-, <?). 

ntsinikees, you are thinking. 
ntsi-, (?). 

ntsidideesgoh, I shall kneel. 
shoi-, acquisition. 

shoideesht'ee^ I'll acquire it. 
so-, soh-, have to do with hope and entreaty (?) 

sodideeszjit, I shall pray. 

doo sohodeebeezh da, it is hopeless, beyond repair. 
taah, to-, into water. 

taah deesht+ish, I'll fall into the water. 

td'ddisgis, I'll wash myself. 
to-, to-, (from -tah, among), among. 

tadiiya, I've been among; been on a trip. 

bitaasha, I am walking among them. 

t'66 hootaasha, I am merely visiting (places) about. 
te- (from teen, deep water), in deep water. 

tehoaltsodii, a mythological monster (lit. the one that grabs 
one in the deep water). 
tsa- # body. 

tsdsk'eh, imprint of the body (where one has lain); bed. 
yad-, up (from, or cognate with ya, sky). 

ydddahidiilghqqt, we (dist. pi) will throw it up in the air. 
yaa-, straight up. 

yaa'a, it stands (extending) straight up. 
ya-, (?)• 

yashti', I'm talking. 

ya'at'eeh, it is good. 
ya-, embarrassment, bashfulness. 

yanisin, I am bashful, embarrassed. 
yo-, down. 

yaicieessit, I'll pour it. 

The Distributive Prefix Do- 
As in the case of some of the nouns, da- is also affixed in 
verbal complexes to denote a distributive plural. When more 
than two subjects are each performing or sharing in the action or 
state denoted by the verb stem, the distributive do- is added. 
*iidq, we (dpi) are eating; da'iidq, we (dist. pi) are eating. 


When da- is added to a verb it may occasion certain phone- 
tic alterations within the verb, depending on the nature of the 
preceding or following syllable. The more common changes are: 

da plus yi = dei da plus oh — daah (or daoh) 

da plus yii = deii da plus gho = dad (dagho) 

da plus ghoo = daoo 

da plus 'a — da* if another syllable intervenes between T a 
and the stem, but remains da'a if 'a immediately precedes 
the stem. Thus da'doodiii, they will eat (for *da*adoodjxO, 
but da'ayq, they are eating fayq, he, they dpi are eating). 

The prefixes ni-, na-, ni-, na- precede da, but lose their vo- 
wels generally to give, with da-: nda-, nda-, nda- nda- resp. 

The prefix da- has a definite position within the verb, vary- 
ing according to the other prefixes present. 

Da- follows: 

ha-, up out;for (hadadiit ad+, well carry it up out; hadadiil- 
zhah, we'll hunt it (game). 

ch'f-, horizontally out (ch'i'dadiit'ddt, we'll carry it out). 

Postpositions such as bi-, bik'i-, etc. used as verb prefixes (bi- 
dahwiidiiradt, we'll learn it; bik'ideiiljool ( = bik'idayiiljool) 
we covered it with brush). 

ni-, up, back, repeatedly (hdeiiljoot, we repeatedly carry it; 
yah 'andeiiljot, we repeatedly carry it in; hdadiit'q, we lift- 
ed it, picked it up). 

ndd-, again (ndddadiid[it, we'll eat it again). 

'a-, in (yah 'adeiit'q, we carried it in). 

ni-, down (ni* ndaniiVq, we set it down). 

na-, ni-, about (ndeTdh, they carry it about). 

Da- precedes: 

All objective personal pronouns affixed in the verb, unless they 
are the object of a postpositional verb prefix (nidiigish, we 
(dpi) will cut you; danidiigish, we (dist. pi) will cut you; but, 
bik'idadidiiltat, we'll step on it. da'ayq, they're eating). 
Verbal prefixes which denote mode, tense and pronominal sub- 
ject in the verb, with exception of repetitive nd-. These in- 

future di- as rn dadiidleef, we will become. 

yi-perfective as in taah deiit'd (dayiit'q), we put it in water 


ni-perfective as in naa daniit q, we brought it to you. 

si-perfective as in dasiidl[[' , we became. 

peg and progressive yi- as in deiidloh (dayiidloh), we are 
laughing; deimit'aah, we're carrying it along, 
hi- as in ndahee'na, we moved one after another; dah da- 
hididiit'aal, we will hang it up. 

di- inceptive as in dah dadidiit'aat, we'll start off carry- 
ing it. 

The affixation of da- in the progressive mode requires an al- 
teration of both prefixes and stem, the imperfective stem gener- 
ally being substituted for the progressive. Thus; 


defnii- plus imperfective stem = we (1st person dist. pi), 
demoh- plus imperfective stem = you (2nd person dist. pi) 
def- plus imperfective stem — they (3o. person dist. pi), 
dajf- plus imperfective stem — they (3a. person dist. pi). 


da'infi- plus imperfective stem = we 
da'fnoh- plus imperfective stem = you 
da'i- plus imperfective stem = they 
da'jf- plus imperfective stem = they 

Semeliterative nda- 

The prefix naa- is added to verbs to render the meanings 
again, another, some more (the latter two in conjunction with la\ 
a, an, some). In many zero class verbs the addition of naa- requi- 
res the d classifier, although this rule is not always observed, 
deeshieet, I'll become; naadeeshdleet, I'll become again, 
ta* yishq, I'm eating some of it; ta' naanashdq, I'm eating 

some more of it; or another one. 
taah yi'q, I put It in the water; taah naanasht'q, I again put 
it in the water. 

The addition of the d classifier requires a different 1st per- 
son singular infixed subjective pronoun in the perfective mode. 
In d and I class verbs -sh- represents the 1 st person singular sub- 
ject (I), whereas a high toned vowel indicates this person in zero 
and I class verbs. 


Furthermore, where ndd- stands before gho-, or replaces a 
prefix yi-, the nda- is reduplicated to give nddnd*. Thus compare: 
yish'ddf, I'm carrying it along; nddndsht'ddt, I'm again carry- 
ing it along, 
yishddl, I'm walking along; nddndshdddt, I'm again walking a. 
kj|h yigty, I hauled it to town; k[[h nddndshg[, I again hauled it 
to town (d classifier plus gh = g). 
A few paradigms for comparison should prove helpful. 

1 . Future tense. Stem 'da*, to handle a round or bulky object. 
















dpi 1. 

diit adt 


dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 



t. Imperfective (momentaneous). Stem 














dpi 1. 



dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 

da ji'aah 


. Perfective. 

Stem f q. 













dp! 1. 

nut a 



dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 



4. Progressive. 

Stem *dd+. 





yi aat 








dpi 1. 



dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 



5. Repetitive (Iterative). Stem 'ddh. 





nanit aah 




naaneit aah 


njit aah 


dpi 1. 

nent aah 


dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 



6. Continuative ( 

imperfect! ve). Stem 












nji ah 

ninaajrt ah 

dpi 1. 



dpi 2. 



dist. 1. 



dist. 2. 



dist. 3o. 



dist. 3a. 




7. Optative. Stem aa+. 

1 . ghosh'dat nadnaosht'adl 

2. ghoo'aat nadnaoot'adt 
3o. yo'aat naayot aai 
3a. joaat naajot'adi 

dpi 1. ghoot'adf nadndoot aa+ 

dpi 2. ghooh'ddt nddndooht'adt 

dist. 1. daootadt naadaoot'ddt 

dist. 2. daooh'adt ndddaooht'adt 

dist. 3o. dayo adt ndddayot'ddi 

dist. 3a. dajo adi ndddajot adi 

The Prefix na- 

The prefix nd- is added to verbs to indicate that the action or 
state denoted thereby is thought of as returning or reverting to a 
former state, or being done "over." It is much like English re- \n 
"i repaid him/' or back in "I carried it back." 

The prefix nd-, or the concept of "back to a former state," is 
often employed in Navaho in instances where it would be omitted 
and left to the imagination in English. For example, the concept 
of divorce requires addition of nd-, since it signifies literally "to 
go back apart; to reseparate," in Navaho. According to the Na- 
vaho manner of expression, the two parties concerned were not 
always together, so it is not an original separation, but a resepar- 
ation. Thus, 'alts'dniit'ddzh, we separated from each other (in 
which the separation could be original, or of momentary nature); 
'alts'dndniit'ddzh, we separated back, or reseparated from each 
other; we divorced each other, or got divorced. Similarly, 'ars'dd- 
bidi'doolt'eet, he will be discharged (lit. he will be put back away 
because he did not always work for the party who will discharge 

As in the case of the prefix ndd-, again, nd- usually requires 
addition of the d classifier in zero class verbs, although the rule is 
not always strictly observed. 

The addition of nd- occasions few irregularities in the para- 
digm. It undergoes certain phonetic alterations, becoming ni- or 
n- in many instances, especially where it occurs before a stopped 
consonant, as ndeeshdddi (not ^nddeeshdddt), I will go back. 
When nd- is prefixed to ndd-, the combination becomes nindd-, 
as nindddeeshdddt, I will go back again; I will return again. Sir 


milarly, in conjunction with iterative no-, the combination of the 
two prefixes becomes nind-, as in nindshdddh, I repeatedly go 
back; I repeatedly return. 

Often, especially in conjunction with the prefixes ch'i-, out 
horizontally, ha-, up out. and di-, fire, nd- is absorbed by the vo- 
wel of the prefix to give ch'ee-, (ch* ina-), had- (hana-), and dee- 
(*dina-), respectively. Thus, ch'gedeeshdddt, (for ch'inideesh- 
daat), I will go back out; hdddeesht'ddt (for hanideesht aa^ han- 
deesht'aat), I will take it back out; I will redeem it from pawn; 
deediifjee' (for *dinidii+jee'), I will rekindle the fire. 

A few further examples of nd- are given herewith: 

bich'f n'deesh+eel', I will pay him; bichV nind'deeshdleei. I will 
pay him back; I will repay him. 

'adeeshtiM', I will make it; f andeeshdliit, I will remake it; make 
it back to its original state; repair it. 

'ashtaa, I made it; *anashdlaa, I remade, repaired, it. 

k'endhasdltf, peace came (back); peace returned (not *k'ehaz- 
lil'/ which would presuppose that all preceding time had been 
occupied by war). 

'ii+haazh, I went to sleep; nd'iilghaazh, ! went back to sleep 
(note that the I classifier becomes I in this instance). 

The prefix nd- serves to render many meaning with a single 
stem, which are often rendered in English by distinct and unrelat- 
ed words. Thus, for example: 

yah 'iHtV, I put him in (as in jail); ch'eenf+tV, I released him, 
or took him back out (as from jail). 

didif+jee', I built it (a fire); deedii+jee , I rekindled it, or built 
it back up (a fire). 

nfya, I went; nanfsdza, I returned, or I went back. 

The Prefix hi- 

A prefix hi- added to the verb serves to render the idea of 
one after another, in contradistinction to group action. Thus: 
yah 'iikai, we (pi) went in (all at once as a group), 
yah 'aheekai, we (pi) went in (one after another). 

This prefix is used only when the subject of the verb, or the 
action denoted by the verb is plural (more than two). 

Used with active transitive verbs it gives the meaning of to 
perform the act one time after another, as in: 

deesh'dat, I shall bring it (once); hideesh'aat, I shall bring it 
one time after another (in succession). 


The affixation of hi- occasions some irregularity in the 3o., 
and sometimes of the 3a. person, as: 

yaa yidiyoo'aat (not *hiyidoo'aa+), he'll give it to him one time 

after another, 
yaa yiiz'q (not * hiyiz q), he gave it to him one time after 
In Navaho, hi-, or the concept one after another, time after 
time, etc. finds much wider use than in English where we often 
leave this detail to the imagination of the hearer. 

Thus we say "they went in/' wherein their entry or act of en- 
tering is the important idea; how they entered is irrelevant from 
our point of view. On the contrary, how they performed the act is 
also of importance according to the Navaho way of thinking. If 
they performed the act as a group one will say yah 'eekai, but if 
they entered one after another then one must say yoh 'aheeskai. 
Similarly, ndiziid, a month is passing, but nahidiziid, months go 
by one after another. In English we leave these aspects to the 
hearer's imagination, or ignore entirely the self evident fact that 
the months pass one after another, since they quite obviously can 
not pass as a group. To walk sideways is also expressed by hi- in 
Navaho. This is due to the manner of motion with the feet and 
legs when walking, or more properly shuffling sidewise. Thus 
naaniigo hideeshaat, I'll walk sideways; naaniigo heeshaat, I'm 
walking along sideways. 

The prefix hi- is used with different meaning in conjunction 
with other verb prefixes, as: 

baa hinisdz6, I approached him in challenge; baa nihinisdza, 
I ambushed him. 



There are two general types of paradigm, the disjunct used 
when no derivational prefixes occur, and the conjunct when deri- 
vational prefixes are added. The paradigmatic prefix, along with 
the incorporated subject pronoun are conjugated in a separate 
column for all persons, including the subjective pronoun referring 
to space, area, or place (ho-, ha-), and the passive voice. The 'adi 
passive voice form is given ,when possible, in parentheses below 
the ordinary passive, and with the 3rd person pronoun bi-, him, 
prefixed thereto. Thus yilghal, it is being eaten; (bi'dilghai, he is 
being eaten). The abbreviation P. stands for passive voice, and 
3s. for place or area as subject (i.e. ho-, ha). As in the foregoing, 
dpi stands for duoplural. The distributive plural is not given in 
these paradigms since, as we described in the section on distri- 
butive da-, it merely consists of prefixation of the element da- to 
the forms of the duoplural. 

There is no distinction between the 3rd persons singular and 
duoplural, so these forms translate he, she, it, they as the con- 
text requires. 

Imperfective disjunct. 

1 . -dlooh, to be cold (of a person being physically cold). 

2. -diz, to twist, spin (as the yarn in weaving). 

3. -leeh, to become. 

4. -ghat, to chew or eat (meat). 

5. -cha, to cry, weep. 

Person 1 2 3 

1 . yish- yishdlooh yisdiz yish+eeh 

2. ni- nidlooh nidiz nileeh 
3(o). yi- yidl66h yidiz yileeh 

3a. ji- jid166h jidiz jileeh 

3i. *a- *adiz * a leeh 

3s. ha- haleeh 

P. yi- yidiz 


' Q di- (bi'didiz) 

dpll.yii- yiidlooh yiidiz yiidleeh 

dpi 2. ghoh- ghohdlooh ghohdiz ghoh+eeh 

Person 4 5 

1. yish- yishghat yishcha 

2. ni- nilghai nicha 
3(o). yi- yilghat yicha 

3a. ji- jilghai jicha 

3i. a- 'alghaJ 'acha 

3s, ha- 

P. yi- yilghai 

*adi- (bi'dilghat) 

dpi 1. yii- yiilghat yiicha 

dpi 2. ghoh- ghotghaf ghohcha 

In the imperfective disjunct paradigms above, only the tran 
sitive verbs are actually 3o. in person. In the transitive verbs, yi- 
of the 3rd person is the obliquative pronominal he-him, but on the 
intransitive verbs (asyileeh, he is becoming) yi- is the peg ele- 
ment and the person is 3. Thus the designation 3(o). 

A prefixed object pronoun, as we have already seen, causes 
the peg element yi- to drop out, and the verb then takes a con- 
junct paradigm form. Similarly, other prefixes may replace yi- to 
produce various divergent conjunct paradigms. Below we will in- 
dicate again the changes caused by replacement of yi- by the ob- 
ject pronouns, and there will follow a number of paradigms in 
which the same prefix is replaced by other elements. 

To chew or eat meat. 

yishghat, I'm eating it nishghat, I'm eating you 

nilghat, you're eating it shilghat, you're eating me 

yilghat, he's eating it shilghat, he's eating me 

jilgha't, he's eating it shijilghai, he's eating me 

yilgha-r, it's being eaten shi'dilghat, I'm being eaten 

yiilghal, we're eating it niilghat, we're eating you 

ghotghat, you're eating it shotghat, you're eating me 


The paradigm retains the yi- prefix in all but the 3o. person 
as long as the pronoun object is the 3. (corresponding to bi) be- 
cause the 3. object is expressed by zero. In the 3o. peg yi- is re- 
placed by the obliquative yi-, he-him. (Thus, yi- of yishghat is not 
the same as yi- of yilghal). 

In the paradigmatic presentations given below the letter u 
stands for the vowel of the prefix, u for the same vowel when it is 
high in tone, and uu, uu, when the vowel is long. 

I m perfective conjunct I 

1. -teeh, to lie down. 

2. -diz, to spin, weave (in conjunction with indefinite object- 
ive 'a-, something, rendering thus an intransitive meaning). 

3. -baai, to hang it, tend it (a curtain like object). 

Person 1 2 3 

1. -ush- nishteeh 'asdiz dishbaat 

2. -u- n i teeh 'idiz df+baat 
3(o). -u- niteeh 'adiz yidiibaat 

3a. ji- jiniteeh 'ajidiz jidiibaat 

3L 'a- 'aniteeh adiz 'adiibaat 

3s. ha-, ho- 

P. -u- Cadiz) dilbaat 

• a di. (bi'didiz) (bi'dilbaat) 

dpll.-uii- niiteeh 'iidiz diilbaat 

dpi 2. -uoh- nohteeh 'ohdiz dotbaat 

An example of the 3s. form is hodileeh, it (the place) is in the 
act of starting to become; yoo* 'ahalzhood, it (the weather) is in 
the act of clearing off. 

The position of the deictic prefixes ji-, 'a-, ho-, varies. They 
may precede one prefix, but follow another. Thus, ho- precedes 
di- in hodileeh, but follows nao- in naahodidleeh, it (place) is in 
the act of becoming again. 

I m perfective conjunct II 

1 . -*neeh, to crawl (arrive crawling) . 

2. -food, to suck it (to a point, as far as a certain point). 

Person 1 2 

1. -ush- nish'neeh nisht'ood 

2. -u- nineeh nitt'ood 
3(o). -u- yfneeh yttt'ood 


ji neeh 





niilt ood 



3a. jii- 
3i. u- 
dpl 1. -uii- 
dpl 2. -o(h)- 

Imperfective conjunct III 

1 . -daah, to walk, go (with n- — to get up, arise). 

2. -joot, to handle non-compact matter as brush, wool, etc. (In 
the form given below with bik'i- it means to cover it with 
noncompact matter). 

3. -nnh, to suffer, have troubles and difficulties. 



1 . -uush- 


2. -uu- 


3(o). -uu- 


3a. -ji- 


3i. -'(a)- 


P. -uu- 

dpl 1. -uii- 

ndiit'aash ( 


dpi 2. -o(h)- ridoht'aash (d) bik'icrfjoor 

Imperfective conjunct IV 

1 . -dziih, to breathe (used with the meaning of speak out) 

2. -'aah, to handle a round or bulky object (to carry it up out), 

3. -na\ to crawl (to crawl about). 

4. -'aah, (ib. no. 2) (to carry it in, out of sight). 





1. -uush- 



2. -uni- 



3(o). -uu-, -i 




3a. -uji- 



3i. -u'a- 



P. -uu- 




dpl 1 . -uii- 



dpl 2. -uo(h) 

- -uuh- 






1. -uush- 



2. -uni- 



3(o). -uu-, -< 





3a. -uji- 

njPna 1 


3i. -u'a- 



P. -uu- 




dpl 1 . -uii- 



dpl Z -uo(h)- 




Neuter verbs defining states or qualities without reference 
to preceding time or action are conjugated in the imperfective 
paradigm. Two types of paradigm exist for the neuter verbs, cor- 
responding to the conjunct I and II already given. The two are 
herewith given together. 

Neuter (imperfective). 

l.-ll, tobe 

2. -daaz, to be heavy 

3. -t^ah, to be left handed; clumsy 

4. -din, to be absent, non-existent, exhausted 

5. -chip, to be red 

6. -yq, to be wise 

7. -zhoni, to be pretty 

8. -tsiz, to be shaky, trembly, nervous 

Person 1 




1. -sh- nish*{ 




2. -u- nH[ 




3. -u-, -u- nil[ 




3a. ji-, ju- jili 




3i. T- 'Ml Cidli) 



i idin 

3s. ha- ho- (holq) 



dpi 1. -ii- niidl[ 




dpi 2. -oh- noh*i 








1 . -sh- linishchff 1 




2. -u- tinfchiT 




3. -u-, -u-tichfp 




3a. ji-, ju- jilchff 




3i. *f- 'alchfi' 




3s. ha- ho-halchiT 


dpi 1. -ii- tiniichfP 




dpi 2. -oh- tinohchfP 





Another type of neuter uses the stem of the iterative mode, 
in conjunction with the prefixes of the imperfective. These verbs 
have no reference to preceding time or action, but indicate that 
one performs the act denoted by the stem — or more specifically 
that one is a performer of that act. They are made up in a man- 
ner similar to that described for the usitative, although they are 
not necessarily usitative in force. Such are 'adishdit, I play (or am 
a player of) the stick dice game (lit. I toss a slender object repeat- 
edly); diskos, I cough, am coughing, or have a cough. 

Neuter verbs are also formed by prefixing the ni- yi- and si- 
perfective prefixes to the perfective stem. The result is a neuter 
or neuter static form, as nimaz, it is spherical; yiftseii, it is dry; 
sidd he is sitting. 

The Perfective Mode 

There are three perfective paradigms, being distinguished 
by the perfective prefixes yi-, ni-, and si-. In neuter verbs, the 
perfective denotes a status or quality resulting from preceding 
action. The yi- perfective describes an act as just completed, the 
ni- perfective describes the act as completed and resulting in a 
static condition, while the si- perfective implies that the act is 
completed, and at the same time that it is durative and static. To 
exemplify the three perfectives: 

taah yf'q, I have (completed the act of) put(ting) it into water. 

naa nPq, I have brought (given) it to you. 

set'q, I keep it (cause it to set). 

Yi- Perfective 

The yi- perfective paradigms vary according to the stem 
classifier required by the verb stem. Thus, zero-f class verbs have 
a different paradigm from that of the d-l class. 

Yi- perfective disjunct. 

Zero and I class verbs 

1 . -nizh, to pluck it (herbs, beard, etc.). 

2. -cha, to cry, weep. 

3. -ts'ee', to eat mushy matter (as mush, gravy, jello). 

Person 1 2 3 

1 . yf- yfnizh yfcha yitts'ee* 

2. yinf- yfnmizh yinicha yimJts'ee' 
3(o). yf- (yii-) yiynnizh yfcha yiyntts'ee' 


3a. jii- jn'nizh jiicha jfitts'ee' 

3i. *ii-, *oo- *iicha 'oolts'ee' 

3s. hoo- 

P. yi- yi'nizh yilts'ee 1 

adi- (bi'di'nizh) ( bi'doolts'ee' ) 

dpll.yii- yifnizh yiicha yiilts'ee' 

dpi 2. ghoo- ghoonlzh ghoocha ghoofts'ee 1 

An example of the 3s. is hootf'is, it (area) became hard. 

d and I class verbs 

1 . -deel, to eat plural objects. 

2. -dlqq*, to drink it. 

3. -ghal, to eat it (meat). 

Person 1 2 3 

1. yish- yishdeel yishdlqq' yishghal 

2. yini- yfnildeel yinidlqq' yiniighal 
3o. yoo- yooldeel yoodlqq* yoolghal 
3a. joo- jooldeel joodlqq' joolghal 

3i. *oo- 'ooldeel 'oodlqq' 'oolghal 

P. yi- yildeel yidlqq' yilghal 

'adi- (bi'dooldeel) (bi'doodlqq*) (bi'doolghal) 

dpi 1. yii- yiildeel yiidlqq* yiilghal 

dpi 2. ghoo- ghooJdeel ghoohdlqq* ghootghal 

Yi- perfective conjunct. 

Zero and t class verbs 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -maaz, to roll (spherical or animate object) (to roll up out). 

2. -geed, to dig (to dig it up out; to mine it). 

3. -jool, to handle noncompact matter (carry it up out). 

4. -jool, ib. no, 3 (to carry it in, or out of sight). 

Person 1 2 

1 . -uu- haamaaz haageed 

2. -u(y)ini- ha(y)inimaaz ha(y)infgeed 
3(o). -uu- haamaaz hayi'fgeed 

3a. -jii- hajirmaaz hajiigeed 

3i. -'if-, -*oo- ha'iimaaz ha'oogeed 

P. -uu- haageed 

-*adi- (habi'doogeed) 


dpi I -uii- 



dpl 2. -uoo- 






1 * r 

1. -uu- 



2. -u(y)ini- 



3(o). -uu- 



3q. -jfi- 



3i. - m-, - oo- 



P. -uu- 






dpl 1 -uii- 



dpl 2. -uoo- 



Paradigm II. 

1 . -geed, to dig (to shovel dirt on it). 

2. -kg', to smooth it. 

3. -gaii, to whiten it. 

4. -kad, to sew (them together). 



1 . -uu- 
2. -uni- 
3o. -uu- 
3a. ji- 
i. - ii- 
P. -uu- 
dpl 1, -uii- 
dpl 2. -uoo- 


1. -uu- 

2. -uni- 

3o. -uu- 

3a. ji- 

3* »•• 
i. - ii- 

P. -uu- 


dpl 1. -uii- 

dpl 2. -uoo- 






































d and I class verbs. 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -na', to crawl (to crawl in, or out of sight). 

2. -dzii', to breathe, expire (to speak out). 

3. -ne', to tell. 

4. -zhiizh, to dance. 








r r r 


I r r ry f 

imi na 



-uu-, -oo- 









» » 1 » 


dpi 1. 




dpi 2. 


'oolV na' 














-uu- y -oo- 











dpi 1. 




dpi 2. 


hootne 1 


Paradigm II. 

1 . -'na, to move with household (to start moving). 

2. -dza, to walk, go (to arise, get up). 

3. -jif , to become black. 

4. -laa, to make it. 


























dpi 1. 


ndir na 

ndiffaazh (d) 

dpi 2. 



ndoohfaazh (d) 





1 . -uush- 



2. -uini- 



3(o). -uu- 



3a. ji- 




3i. -u 1 - 

» • . - t\ 


3s. hoo- 


P. -u- 



( abi'diilyaa) 

dpl I. -ii- 



dpl 2. -ooh- 

Ni- Perfective 


The ni- perfective is, practically speaking, a conjunct para- 
digm, inasmuch as the prefix ni- can be considered as replacing 
the yi- element just as it was noted in the conjunct forms of the 
yi- perfective. However, we shall continue to speak of disjunct 
and conjunct paradigms. By disjunct we shall refer to those para- 
digms wherein no other derivational prefixes precede or follow 
the ni- prefix. Under conjunct we shall list paradigms in which 
another prefix or prefixes precede or follow ni-, causing certain 
alterations and seeming irregularities. 

Ni- perfective disjunct. 
Zero and \ class verbs. 

1 . -mddz, to roll (a spherical object) (to arrive rolling). 

2. -bqqz, to roll it (a circular object) (to arrive rolling it). 

3. -jool, to handle noncompact matter (to bring it; as wool). 



1. ni- 


2. yini- 


3(o). -ni- 


3a. jinf- 


3i. am, 



P. yf- 


dpl 1 . nit- 


dpl 2. nooh- 























d and I class verbs 

1 . -'na', to crawl (to arrive crawling). 

2. -tt'dh, to trot leisurely along (to arrive trotting leisurely). 

1 2 

nish'na* nishtt'ah 

yini'na' yiniltl'ah 

yfna* yilt+'dh 

jf'na' jiltt'dh 


1. nish- 

2r r 
. yini- 

3. yf- 

3a. ji- 

I. I- 

dpl 1 . nii- 
dpl 2. noo- 





Ni- perfective conjunct. 
Zero and t class verbs 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -ti', to break it (to break it in two) 

2. -dlddd, to tear, rip it (to tear it in two) 

Person 1 

1 . -uni- 



2. -u(y)mf- 

k'finiti 1 


3o. -u-ni'- 



3a. -uzhni- 



JI. -u 1- 



P. -u- 






dpl 1 . -unii- 



dpl 2. -unoo- 



Paradigm II. 

1. -tfiizh, tosoakit. 

2. -tsxoi, to yellow (scorch) it. 

Person 1 . 

1. -unii- diniittt'iizh 

2. -unini- dininittt'iizh 
3o. -unii- yidiniittt'iizh 
3a. ji- jidiniitrt'iizh 

3i. *a- adintiJt+'iizh 








P. -unii- 





(bi'di niiltsxoi) 

dpl 1. -unii- 



dpl 2. -unoo- 





1 . -'aa\ to deceive him. 



1 . nil- 


2. nuni- 

r f rt » 

nnni aa 

3o. -nn- 


3a. jinif- 


3i. 'anoo- 





dpl 1 . nii- 


dpi 2. noo- 




1 . -'[[', to look at it. 



1 . nee- 

r r | » r ry 

neef u 

2. nfni- 

3o. -nee- 


3a. jinee- 

jineet \[ 

3i. anee- 

aneel i[ 

P. nee- 

neel \[ 



dpl 1 . niil- 

mil H 

dpl 2. noo- 


d and I class verbs 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -t*q, to handle a round or bulky object (to take it away from 
him by force). 

2. -ghod, to run (to return running; run back). 

Person 1 2 

1. -unish- bighanishtq nanfshghod 

2. -uyfnf- bighayfnft'q ndyfnflghod 
3(o). -ui-, -u- yighaft'q nalghod 


3a. -ujf- 

3i. -iTi- 
P. -uu- 
dpl 1. -unii- 
dpl2. -unoo(h)- 

bighaat q 


naniijee' (pi) 
nanoo(h)jee* (pi) 

Paradigm II. 
] . -t+ah, to stop (motion). 


1. -unish- 

2. -ui'ni- 

3. -uu- 
3a. -uji- 
3i. -u'f- 

dpl 1 . -unii- 
dpl 2. -unoo- 









Paradigm III. 

1 . -t*q, to handle a round or bulky object (to kiss her; lit. to 
move the head to her mouth). 

2. -ghil, to doze. 


1. -unesh- 

2. -unfim- 
3(o). -unoo- 

3a. -uzhnoo- 
3i. -u'noo- 
dpl 1. -unii- 
dpl 2. -unooh- 


izannnit q 








1 . -t*q, to handle a round or bulky object (to adopt him). 

2. -*eez, to step (to step down onto a surface). 
Paradigm IV. 


1. -unish- 
. -uim- 
3(o). -ee- 
3a. -zh- 





3L -ee- adaadeet'q niki'deel'eez 

*adi- (adaabi'deefq) 

dpi 1. -unii- 'adaadiniit'q nikidiniiTeez 

dpi 2. -unooh- 'adaadinooht'q nikidinoot'eez 

Si- Perfective 

The prefix si- assimilates to a following -zh, -sh, to become 
an -sh. Thus, sheshish, she+beezh, instead of seshish, setbeezh. 
A similar change occurs before -k, as in hashishke, instead of ha- 

Si- perfective disjunct. 

d, I, I, and zero class verbs. 

1 . -z[, to stand (to be standing). 

2. -'q, to handle a round or bulky object (to set it as in dah 
se'q, I set it up -— as on a shelf). 

3. -nil, to handle plural objects (to keep, have, them). 

4. -beezh, to boil it. 

5. -ch[, to give birth to it. 

Person 1 2 3 

1. se- sezj se'q sefnil 

2. sfni- sfnizj sfnf'q sfniinil 
3(o). si-, -s- siz[ yiz'q yisnil 

3a. jis-, jiz- jiz[ jiz'q jisnil 

i. as-, az- azi azq asnil 

3s. haz- — haz'q 

p yi z h- (sinil) 

'adi- (brdisnil) 

dpi 1. sii- siidzf siit'q siilnil 

dpi 2 soo- sooz[ soo'q sootnil 

Person 4 5 

1 . se- shetbeSzh shefch{ 

2. sinf- shfni+beezh shfnftehf 
3(o). si-, -s- yishb66zh yishch{ 

3a. jis-, jiz- jishbeezh jishchi 

3i. 'as-, az- azhbeezh 'azhchi 

3s. haz- 



P. yizh- 

dpl 1. sii- 
dpl 2 soo- 

Si- perfective conjunct 

Zero and t class verbs. 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -b[', to build a hogan. 

2. -kQQ, to swim (across). 

3. -ne', to play. 
4.-ts qq', to hear it. 
5. -tsq, to die (one). 



1 . -use- 

2. -usinf- 
3(o). -us-, uz- 

3a. -jis- 

3i. -u'a- 

3s. ho- 
P. -uz- 
dpl 1 . -usii- 
dpl 2. -usoo- 


1 . -use- 

2. -usmi- 
3(o). -us-, uz- 

3a. -jis- 

3i. -u'a- 

3s. ho- 
P. -uz- 
dpl 1 . -usii- 
dpl 2. -usoo- 

Paradigm II. 

1 . -tih, to be old, worn out. 

2. -ke, to be mean; to scold. 

Person 1 

1 . -usis- hasistih 

2. -usmf- hasfnftih 







usts qq 
isnts qq 

(bi 1 dizhchi) 





l • ■ I r r » 

n JISK99 

nisene 1 

nPsiiikgg 1 
ni 'soo+kgp' 







nisfi ne 

danee'no (pi) 
dasinoona (pi) 




3. -uus- 

3a. -ujis- 

3i. -u'as- 

dpl 1 . -usii- 

dpl 2. -usooh- 











Paradigm III. 

1 . -kan, to beseech, beg, him. 

2. -dlqqd, to believe it, him. 


1. -usis- 

2. -usfni- 
3o. -uoos- 
3a. -ujoos- 
3i. -u'oos- 

P. -oos- 

dpl 1 . -usii- 
dpl 2. -usooh- 















Paradigm IV. 

1 . -baa', to go on a raid, go to war. 

2. -baal, to hang it curtain like. 

3. -ya, to go, walk (Such forms as debaa', deya, etc. imply 
that one is in a state of having started to perform the verbal 
action without reference to the preceding act of having star- 
ted. Thus, deya, I cm on my way or I am going (to go); dah 
diiya, I started (going) off. Likewise: yiskqqgo Na'nizhoo- 
zhfgoodeya or deeshaat, tomorrow I will go to Gallup.). 


1. -e- 

2. -inf- 
3(o). -ee-, 

-eez-, -ees- 
3a. ji- 
3i. 'a- 
P. -ees- 
jpl 1 . -ee- 
dpl 2 -soo- 






del baal 





deezbaa 1 









deebaa* or di 

deelbaal or 

deet'aazh or 

siibaa 1 


dishiit'aazh (d) 




The following paradigms contain the ni- prefix and in some 
persons, notably the 3rd singular and duoplural, and the 2nd per- 
son duoplural, the si- prefix appears also. 

1 . tt ah, to prevent him. 

2. -da, to sit down. 

3. -'il, to steal it. 

4. -t[, to lie down. 

5. -ti'iid, to throw plural objects (to throw them away). 
Paradigm V. 

Person 1 2 3 







dpi 1. 

dpi 2. 







dpi 1. 

dpi 2. 

nooftt'ah or 


ji neezda 


nooke or si- 

nini [[ 
jineez [[ 
neet a 

noo'if or si- 
noo [i 



noo- or shinoo-teezh 




*ahoof- or 'ahisoot-tf'ffd 

d and I class verbs 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -*na\ to crawl (to crawl up; to climb). 

2. -'nad', to move (any part of the body). 

3. -doh, to get stiff muscles. 

4. -da 1 , to menstruate for the first time. 

Person 1 

1 . -usis hasis'no* 

2. -usmf- hasfnf'na* 













ha'as'na 1 


dpi 1. 




dpi 2. 






















kinijisda 1 





dpi 1. 



kinisiilda 1 

dpi 2. 




Paradigm II. 

1 . -dzil, to strain; to make an effort. 

2. -dli[', to become (to overcome; to be the victor). 












dpi 1. 




dee!-dzil or disiil- 

'ak'ehdeedlif or 

dpi 2. 




Paradigm ML 

1 . -ghod, to run (to run around it). 

2. -ghod, to run (to go and return running). 


1 . -usis- 

2. -usinf- 

3. -us-, -uus- 
3a. -ujis- 

3i. -u'as- 
dpl 1 . -ushii- 
dpl 2. -ushoo- 







binishiijee* (pi) 








nishiijee* (pi) 



The Progressive Mode 

The progressive mode of the active verbs describes an act 
performed while going along, and of the passive verbs an act pro- 
gressively taking place. Thus, active yishjit, I am carrying it along 
on my back; passive yishteei, I am progressively becoming (as 
e.g. older). The yi- prefix of the progressive is not the peg ele- 
ment yi-. It is not dropped upon addition of the pronominal ob- 
jective prefixes as in the case of peg element yi-. Thus, the peg yi- 
of yishq, I am eating it, is dropped with the addition of the inde- 
finite object pronoun 'a- # something, giving 'ashq, I am eating 
(something), not *ayishq, or 'eeshq. On the other hand yisbqs, I 
am rolling it along becomes, with addition of *a-, 'eesbqs (='ayis- 
bqs), I am rolling (something) along; I am going along in a wa- 
gon. Similarly, yishjii, I am carrying it along on my back ; but on 
addition of 2nd person objective ni-, you, it becomes neeshjii, I'm 
carrying you along on my back. 

The 3rd person (i.e. 3. and 3o.) of the active transitive verbs 
uses (y)oo-, whereas the intransitive or passive verbs use yi-. Thus, 
yoo'aat, he is carrying it along; but yigdaf, he is walking along. 

Furthermore, active transitive verbs require a different stem 
and different prefixes with addition of the distributive da-. Thus, 
yiiljit, we dpi are carrying it along on our backs; deiniiljiid, we 
dist. pi are carrying it along on our backs. (V. section on da-). 

Passive, or intransitive verbs con either change in the same 
fashion as the active transitive verbs with addition of da-, or they 
can retain the progressive stem, and continue regular in this res- 
pect/ Thus, deiidleet, or deiniidleeh, we are becoming; 
yiikah or deiniikaah, we dist. pi are walking along. The differ- 
ence is that in the regular form with progressive stem the action 
is thought of as being more of a group action, whereas with the 
change to an imperfective stem and the distinct set of prefixes 
it is more of an individual action, with each of the individuals 
in reference taking part in the action. 

Progressive disjunct paradigm. 
(Active verbs) 

1 . -jit, to carry it (along) on the back, 

2. -t[[*, to carry it (a slender object) (along). 





1 . yish- 

yish jit 


2. yf- 



3o. yoo- 



3a. joo- 



3i. 'oo- 



P. yi- 






dpi 1 . yii- 



dpl 2 ghoh- 



(Passive verbs) 

1 . -tt'ee+ / to trot (along) leisurely. 

2. -ttish, to fall (an animate object). 

3. -'nah, to crawl (along). 





1. yish- 




2. yi- 




3. yi- 





3a. joo- 




3i. 'oo- 




dpl 1 . yii- 




dpl 2 ghoh- 




The 3s. (referring to area, place, etc.) is formed with hoo- in 
the progressive. Thus, hooleet, it is becoming. 

Progressive conjunct 

A number of prefixes con be added to the progressive to 
form the conjunct paradigms. These ore given herewith grouped 

1 . -bqs, to roll it (a circular object) (to go in a wagon). 

2. -yot, to drive it (a small herd) along. 

3. -shot, to drag it (to turn around fragging it). 

4. -jit, to carry it (again) on one's back. 

5. -daat, to walk, go (to be returning) 
6 -daat', ib. no. 5 (to be going again). 

















no a ndyooshot 








na a ndoolzhot 







dpl 1. 




dpi 2 




*This paradigm results from the addition of the prefix ni-. In 
the distributive plural the forms are irregular. They are donii- 
dzood, danoohsood, deineeyood, and dazhneeyood. 








dpi 1. 
dpi 2 



naa jootj it 
















neiit'ash (d) nddneiit'ash (d) 
nddht'ash nddnddht'ash 

The Future Tense 

The paradigms of the future are formed with the progressive 
stem, and the prefixes of the progressive mode coupled with what 
may quite possibly be the inceptive prefix di-, as other students of 
the Athabaskan languages have pointed out. In the simpler 
forms di- immediately precedes the progressive prefixes, requir- 
ing the same type of conjunct paradigm as that required by the 
pronoun objects, for example; while in the more complex para- 
digms other prefixes are interposed between di- and the progres- 
sive prefixes. Thus, deeshchah (— di-yishchah), I shall cry; dii- 
choh (=di-yichah), you will cry, etc., and ndi'neeshhof (=ndPani- 
yishhot), I shall limp about; become lame. The variant paradigms 
are given below. 


Future tense. 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -chah, to cry, weep. 

2. -gish, to cut it; make an incision on it. 

3. -lee-f, to become. 

4. -bqs, to roll it (a circular object). 

Person 1 2 

l.deesh- deeshchah deeshgish 

2. dfi- difchah dffgish 

3(o). doo- doochah yidoogish 

3a. jidoo- jidoochah jidoogish 

3i. 'adoo- *Cadoochah) 'adoogish 

3s. hodoo- 

P. doo- doogish 

'adi- (bidi'doogish) 

dpi 1. dii- diichah diigish 

dpi 2 dooh- doohchah doohgish 

*The form actually used in place of 'adoochah is ha'doochah, 

there will be crying (out). 

Person 3 4 

1 . deesh- deesh+ee-f deesbqs 

2. dff- difleel dif+bqs 
3(o). doo- dooleet yidootbqs 

3a. jidoo- jidooleet jidoofbas 

3i. 'adoo- 'adoodleet 'adoo+bqs 

3s. hodoo- hodooleet 

P. doo- doolbqs 

'adi- (bidi'doolbqs) 

dpi 1. dii- diidleet diilbqs 

dpi 2 dooh- doohteet doolbqs 

A high toned prefix causes a corresponding alteration in the 
tone of the future prefixes. Thus: 

Paradigm II. 

1 . -beet, to pick (berries). 

2. -'ji*, to look. 



1. -udeesh- 

2. -udii- 
3(o). -udoo- 

3a. ji-, -uji = 
» a-, au- 
P. -udoo- 
dpi 1 . -udfi- 
dpl 2. -udooh- 


= ji- jidoobeet 

~uu- 'ifdoobeet 
y id i i beet 







The prefix hi- causes some irregularities in the 3rd person: 
Paradigm III. 

1 . -nih, to trade, buy, sell, it. 

2. -la, to gather or pick it back up. 

3. -tih, to break it up (as a box). 


1 . -hideesh- 

2. -hidff- 
3o. -diyoo- 
3a. -hizhdoo-, 

3i. -di'yoo- 
P. -hidoo- 
dpl 1. -hidii- 
dpl 2. -hidooh- 


1 . -hideesh- 

2. -hidff- 
3o. -diyoo- 
3a. -hizhdoo-, 

3i. -di'yoo- 
P. -hidoo- 
dpl 1. -hidii- 
dpl2. -hidooh- 


















nfdi*y°ol a 






Interposition of other prefixes between di- and the progres- 
sive prefix produces a variant (Cp. progressive neesot). 

1. Interposed ni-. 

Paradigm IV. 
1. -'iii, to look at it. 
2. -u*, to steal it. 

Person 1 2 

1. dineesh- 

2. dinii- 
3o. -dinoo- 
3a. j id moo- 
Si. 'adinoo- 

P. dmoo- 

dpi 1. dinfi- 
dpl 2. dmooh- 











inn [[+ 







2. Interposed *a- 

Further paradigms of this type will be found under the head- 
ing Inchoative verbs. 

1 . -tsqq+, to become pregnant. 

2. -hoi, to become lame; start to limp about. 


1 . di'neesh- 

2. df'nff- 

3. di'noo- 
3a. -zhdf'noo- 
3i. drnoo- 

dpl 1. df'nii- 
dpl 2. di'nooh- 









3. Interposed yi- 

1 . -heel, to kill one object. 

2. -dlat, to tear, rip (to rip the earth; i.e., to plow). 

Person 1 2 

1. diyeesh- diyeeshheef 

2. diyii- diyifiheet 
3(o). -diyoo- yidiyootheef 





3a. jidiyoo- jidiyoofheet nihozhdiyoofdlat 

3i. 'adiyoo- 'adiyoolgheet niho'diyooldlat 

P. diyoo- diyoolghee* nihodiyooldlaJ 

*adi- (bidi'yoolgheet) 

dpi 1. diyii- diyiilgheef nihodiyiildlai 

dpi 2. diyooh- diyootheet nihodiyootdlat 

The Usitative 

A usitative, indicating that the verbal action is performed 
habitually, is formed by prefixation of the imperfective prefix, or 
prefix complex to the iterative stem. All verbs do not possess a 
distinct stem for the iterative mode, but the imperfective mode 
forms can themselves be rendered usitative in force postpounding 
the particle *eh, usually. The following paradigms will exemplify: 

1 . -'aah, to handle one roun or bulky object (to place it, as in 
water; to take it, as to town). 

2. -ddh, to go, walk (to start to goj. 

3. -aah, ib. no. 2 (to enter; to go out of sight). 

4. -sho\ to drag it (to start to drag it). 

Person 12 3 4 

1. yish'dah dishaah 'iishdah dishsho' 

2. ni*aah dmddh 'aninadh disho' 
3(o). yi'dah dighaah 'ifghaah yidisho* 

3a. ji'aah jidighaah 'ajighaah jidisho' 

3i. atadh 'adidaah 'eedaah adilzho' 

3s. — hodighdah — 

P. yit*aah — dilzho' 

'adi (bi'dit aah) (brdilzho') 

dpll. yiitaah diit ash (d) 'iit'ash diilzho* 

dpi 2, ghoh'aah doh'ash (d) 'oh'ash dohsho* 

The following sentence will illustrate the use of the usitative: 
B6£sh shaWaah shijinfigo t*a<5 '6ko haash'dah teh, when he 
asks to borrow my knife I (always) pull it out right then (lit. knife 
to me lend it he saying to me right then out I habitually take it). 


The Iterative Mode 

The iterative paradigms are made up of the iterative prefix 
nd-, plus the prefix complex of the imperfective mode. Many 
verbs have a distinct stem in this mode. 

1 . -dleeh, to repeatedly become. 

2. -sho*, to repeatedly drag it. 

3. -ghat, to repeatedly eat it (meat). 

4. -zhah, to repeatedly hunt (for game) 

Person 1 2 

1 . ndsh- ndshdleeh ndshsho' 

2. nani- ndnfdleeh nanfsho' 
3(o). na-, nef- nadleeh nefsho' 

3a. hjf- njidleeh rijisho' 

3i. na'a- nd adleeh na'alzho' 

3s. nana- nahadleeh 

P. na- — nalzho' 

'adi- (nabi'dilzho*) 

dpll.neii- neiidleeh neiilzho' 

dpi 2. nah- nahdleeh nahsho' 

Person 3 4 

l.ndsh- nashghai nindshzhah 

2. nani- nanNghat ninanflzhah 

3(o). na-, net- neilghal ninalzhah 

3a. nji- rijilghat ninajflzhah 

3i. na'a- ncTdlgha+ nind'alzhah 

3s. nana- 

P. na- nalghai 

'adi- (nabi'dilghat) 

dpi 1. neii- neiilghat nineiilzhah 

dpi 2. nah- natghat nina+zhah 

As it will be noted in the paradigm above, the prefix na- of- 
ten raises the tone of a following vowel. 

Other prefixes may stand between na- and the imperfective 
prefix or prefixes. For purposes of comparison, the imperfective 
and iterative mode forms are given below, side by side. 

1 . -'[fh, to steal it. 

2. -'[[h, to repeatedly steal it. 

3. -zhish, to dance. 


4. -zhish, to repeatedly danee. 

5. -kaad, to slap him once. 

6. -ka', to slap him repeatedly. 



Imperfective Iterative 

Person 1 


3 4 

1. nish'jjh 


'ashzhish nd'ashzhish 

2. nV'iih 

r /iff* 

nam [in 

'flzhish na'i'lzhish 

3o. yini'i[h 


'alzhish nd'dlzhish 

3a. jini'ijh 


'ajilzhish rVjflzhish 

3i. 'anit*[ih 


'azhish na'dzhish 

P. nit'Uh 


'adi- (bidimt'iih) (ndbidi'nituh) 

dpi 1 . niit'i[h 


'iilzhish na'iilzhish 

dpi 2. noh'jjh 


'otzhish nd'o+zhish 





1 . hdiishkaad 



2. ndiikaad 


3o. neidiikaad 


3a. ni'zhdiikaad 



3i. ri'diikaad 


P. (ndbi'diikaad) (ninabfdiika*) 

dpi 1. ndiikaad 


dpi 2. ndohkaad 


Further exam 

pies are herewith 

given, in the 1st person sin- 

gular only, to show the variable positions of the prefix nd- (nf-, n- 






1 herd them out 



i whiten it 



1 close it (door) 



1 start to carry it 



1 swim about 



1 wash it 



1 cut it in pieces 



1 run up out 



1 hoe 



1 start to carry it 




























I plant it 

I crawl up out, climb 

I crawl in 

I move (to a point) 

I heat it 

I start to hop along 

I glue them together 

we see each other 

I kick it into space 

I search for it 

I play 

I lay it down 

I kiss her 

The translations given above are very general; if a complete 
understanding of any word meaning is desired it may be found \n 
the dictionary. 

It will be noted in the examples given above that the vowel 
of a preceding prefix often lengthens and raises its tone, absorb- 
the prefix na-. Thus: 

k'eedishdleeh for k'inddishdleeh, I repeatedly plant it. 
haanishtaah for handnishtaah, I repeatedly search for it. 
bizddndsht'ddh for bizandnfsht'ddh, I repeatedly kiss her. 

Distributive da- follows the iterative prefix na-. 
bmdadiidloh, we dist. pi repeatedly apply the brakes to it. 
'andeif nah, we dist pi repeatedly crawl in (out of sight). 
nda'iilzhish ; we dist. pi repeatedly dance. 
*ahmdadiilka\ we dist. pi repeatedly sew them together, 
td'dndadiigis, we dist. pi repeatedly wash ourselves, 
hdddaniitaah, we dist. pi repeatedly search for it. 

The iterative mode is often employed to express the fact that 
an act is customarily done. 

Dikwiididashq* 'azlff nisingo johonaa'di handsrVdah teh 7 when 
I wonder what time it is I take out my watch (lit. how many times 
could it be it has become I thinking sun (i.e. watch) I repeatedly 
take it out usually). 

The Optative Mode 

The optative mode expresses potentiality or desire. Its uses 
are various, and will be fully explained at the end of this section 


Optative disjunct. 

1. -le', to become. 

2. -jiid, to carry it on one's back. 

Person 1 

1. ghosh- 



2. ghoo- 



3(o). gho-, yo- 



3a. jo- 



3i, '6- 



3s. ho- 


P. gho- 




dpl 1 . ghoo- 



dpl 2. ghooh- 



In the conjunct paradigms initial gh- is dropped, as in the 
3o. form above where obliquative pronominal yi- replaces gh- re- 
quiring a conjunct paradigm. Thus: 

Optative conjunct. 

Paradigm I. 

1 . -diz, to twist (to spin, as in making yarn for weaving). 

2. -'neeh, to crawl (to start to crawl along). 

3. -ne', to pound (to pound, cut, it in two — as with an ax). 

4. -ne\ to tell. 

Person 12 3 4 




































dpi 1. 






dpi 2. 






Some prefixes with low tone lower the 6 of the optative. Usu- 
ally the vowel of the prefix then assimilates to o. 


Paradigm II. 

1. -nil*, to handle plural objects ( set them down;place them). 

2. -neet^ to move one's household (to completely move). 

3. -jiid, to carry it on one's back (to carry it in; out of sight). 





1. -uosh- 




2. -uo(6)- 

noon fit 



3(o). -(u)o-, -uo- 




3a. -ujo- 




3i. -u o- 

ni o niif 


Vol jiid 

P. -uo- 






dpl 1. -uo(o)- 




dpl2. -uo(o)h- 




It will be noted that in transitive verbs where 3o. objective 
pronominal yi- comes between the prefix and the optative -6-, as 
well as in the 3a. and 3i. persons, the -6- retains its high tone, and 
the vowel of the prefix (ni-, 'a-) does not assimilate to o. 

The prefix *a-, representing the 3i. pronominal object some- 
one, something, is absorbed or dropped in the optative, only the 
initial ('-) remaining. Thus 'osdiz, that I might spin (something). 
But 'a-, meaning into, out of sight, is not dropped. Instead, the 
vowel a assimilates to o and the optative vowel 6 is lowered in 
tone. Thus yah 'ooshjiid, (not *'aoshjiid), that I might carry it in 
on my back. In the 2nd person singular the 6 always remains 
high in tone, and a more accurate spelling of such a word as noo- 
neet would be noooneef (=ni66neet). 

A prefix yi-, the meaning of which is not clear, is found on 
certain verbs such as yideestseet, I shall see it, etc. In the optative 
paradigm this yi- becomes gh-. 

Paradigm III. 

1 . -tseet, to see it. 

2. -zjih, to stand up. 

3. -gaah, to whiten it. 


1. ghoos- 

2. ghoo- 


2 3 

ghooss[jh ghooshgaah 
ghoozjih ghootgaah 


3(o). ghoo- -oo- yoottseef ghooziih yoo+gaah 

3a. joo- joo+tsee* joozjih jootgadh 

3i. 'oo- 'ooltseel oodziih oolgaah 

P. ghoo- ghooltseet ghoolgaah 

adi- (bi'dooltseet) (bi'doolgadh) 

dpi 1. ghoo- ghooltseel ghoodzjih ghoolgaah 

dpi 2. ghooh- ghooltseet ghoohsijh ghootgadh 

The optative is used to express wish or desire, either nega- 
tively or positively; to express a negative imperative (V. Impera- 
tive); and as a potential. Particles such as laanaa, would that, 
logo, would that not, le', let it be, are commonly used with the op- 
tative, especially when the sense is one of wish or desire. Its vari- 
ous uses are given herewith: 

I. Potential. This is formed in conjunction with the verb 'at'e, 
it is. It is used principally in the negative sense "to be unable/' 
and is literally translatable as "it is not that I might (perform the 
verbal action)." 

doo 'ooshhaash 'at'ee da, I cannot go to sleep, 
doo dosha' 'at'ee da, I cannot go (i.e. start going), 
t'aadoo bee dosha*? da, I have nothing to go with (lit. without 
that with which I might start going). 

II. Desire. Positive desire is expressed by laanaa, would that 
(it be as I wish) — (Cp. Spanish ojald). 

Naakaiitahdi hoostseei laanaa, I wish I could see Mexico 

(lit. at among the Mexicans that I might see the place 

would that), 
yiskqqgo nahattqq' laanaa, I wish it would rain tomorrow. 
Negative desire is expressed by logo, would that not. 

yiskqqgo nahottqq' lago, I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow, 
'ooshhaash lago, I hope I won't go to sleep. 
The negative optative often renders the negative imperative. 
ghooyqq* lago, nidrnootheet sha'shin, don't eat it, it might 

kill you (lit. that you might eat it would that not, you it will 

start to kill perhaps), 
bee bit hoolne' lago, don't tell it to him! 
chidf t'aa 'akwe'e noo'aat lago, nee deidfnoo'nt, don't park 

the car there, they'll steal it from you. 
A particle t'aaka, don't, is also used with the optative. 

t'aaka ch^naoosfid, 'atniWaago *inda, don't awaken him 

until noon. 


The particles y§§ and le' are also used to express wish or de- 
sire, y§f with the future tense forms, and le' with other forms, as: 
deesdoi nadhodoodleet, it will get warm again, 
deesdoi naahodoodlee+§§, I wish that it would get warm again. 

beeso shee hodooleei, I shall come into possession of money, 
beeso shee hodooleet§§, I wish I'd come into poss. of money. 

nahodooit[[J, it will rain. 
nahodooft[[t§e, I wish that it would rain. 

nikida'dittsfgo yishdlosh le', let it be sprinkling as I trot along. 

'adinidi in le', let there be light! 

Inchoative verb forms 

Inchoative future and perfective paradigms, meaning to 
start to do the verbal action, are possible for many verbs, 
deeshiit, I'll eat it; bidi'neeshift I'll start to eat it. 
yiyqq\ I ate it; brniiyqq', I have started to eat it. 
*in*niyqq*ash, are you going to eat (lit. have you started to eat)? 
Note that the inchoative paradigms require expression of 
the 3rd person object pronoun by bi- # rather than by zero. 
The inchoative future and perfective paradigms are: 

Inchoative future. 

1 . -lift, to (start to) make it. 

2. -ghii-r, to (start to) eat (something — 'i- = 'a-, something). 

3. -bish, to (start to) boil it. 


1 . -di'neesh- 

2. -di'nff- 
3(o). -dPnoo- 

3a. -zhdPnoo- 
i. - di noo- 
P. -di'noo- 
dpl 1 . -di'nii- 
dpl 2. -df'nooh- 


1. -di'niesh- 

2. -dfnii- 
3(o). -df'noo- 



abidi nnliif 



















3a. -zhdi'noo- 
i. - di noo- 
P. -drnoo- 
dpl 1 . -dinii- 
dpl 2. -di'nooh- 






Inchoative perfective. 
Zero and \ class verbs. 

1 . -yqq\ to (start to) eat it. 

2. -beezh, to (start to) boil it. 

Person 1 

1. -mi- 

2. -n'ni- 
3(o). -'nii- 

3a. -zh'nii- 

3. i 
i. - nu- 

P. -di'nii- 

dpl 1 . -*nii- 
dpl 2. -'noo- 

i nnyqq 

in niyqq 

» ■ » - • * • » 

i nuyqq 


i rmdqq 

i nudqq 

d and I class verbs. 

1 . -ghal, to (start to) eat it (meat). 

2. -zhiizh, to (start to) dance. 
3.,-laa, to (start to) make it. 


1 . -'niish- 

2. -n'ni- 
3(o). -*nii- 

3a. -zh'nii- 
3i. -*nii- 
P. -dinii- 
dpl 1. -•nii- 
dpl 2. -noob- 
































'Aniid bPnii'eezh, I started stringing them (beads) a little 
while ago. 
'Aniid Yniiycjq*, a little while ago I started to eat. 


The inchoative verbs are used also in such forms as: 

1. shi'niitsq, I'm dying dichin shi'niith[, I'm hungry 

2. ni'niitsq, you're dying dichin ni'nii+h^ you're hungry 

3. bi'niitsq, he's dying dichin b.i'niith[, he's hungry 
3a. ho'niitsq, he's dying dichin ho'niith[, he's hungry 

3i. Tniitsq, death is occuringdichin Tniithi, there is hunger 
dpi 1. nihi'niind, we're dying dichin nihi^niighqq* ,we're — 
dpi 2. nihfniina, you're dying dichin nihi'niighqq' you're 

Shi'niitsq actually means "I have started to die/' and dichin 
shi'niith|, "hunger has begun to kill me/' 

There are a few irregular verb paradigms in which the verb 
is treated as a noun, and is conjugated by merely altering the pro- 
noun prefix. Thus: 

shiyooclViid, I am a liar (my iie).shidziil, I am strong 

niyooch'iid, you're a liar nidziil, you are strong 

biyooch'nd, he's a liar bidziil, he is strong 

hayooch'ifd he's a liar hadziil, he is strong 

ghooch'iid, lie 'adziii, there is strength 

nihiyooch'fid, we're liars nihidziil, we are strong 

nihiyooclVud, you're liars nihidziil, you are strong 

Another irregular type has a 3s. (area, space, impersonal it) 
subject. Thus, for example: 

sha hdch[*, I am angry (sha, for me; hach[', it is unpleasant?) 

na hdchf, you are angry (nd, for you) 

ba hach[', he is angry (bd, for him) 

ha hachf, he is angry (ha, for him) 

'a hachf, there is anger fa- for someone indefinite) 

niha hdchf , we are angry (niha, for us) 

niha hdchf, you are angry (niha, for you dpi) 

shit beehozin, I know about it (shit, with me; bee-, about it; ho- 

zin, there is knowledge — i.e. impersonal it knows) 
nit beehozin, you know about it 
bit beehozin, he knows about it 
hot beehozin, he knows about it 
'it beehozin, there is knowledge about it 
nihit b66hozin, we dpi know about it 
nihit beehozin, you dpi know about it 
nihit beedahozin, we dist. pi know about it 


The above forms are conjugated by merely altering the pro- 
nominal object on the postposition. Similarly, shit beehodooz[j+, I 
shall know about it; shit beehoozin, I came to know about it, or 
found out about it; shit 'eehozin, I have knowledge — i.e. know 
about something indefinite Cee-); shit hozhg, I am happy; shit 
Hkan, I like it (lit. it is sweet with me) etc. 



A few pages of text, cccompanied by a literal and a free 
English translation, are herewith given. A study thereof can give 
a much clearer concept of Navaho syntax and narrative form 
than can any amount of explanation. 

It will already have become apparent, through study of the 
grammatical analysis, that Navaho is a language concerned prin- 
cipally with expression of mode and aspect in the verb, rather 
than tense. This is but one of the features that set Navaho apart 
from English, although it might be described as one of the most 
important. It is one of the many factors that make precise trans- 
lation between the two languages difficult, and often inaccurate. 

It will be recalled that the postpositions replace the preposit- 
ions of English, occasioning a different word order from that 
which characterizes English, and this difference is further height- 
ened by the fact that many adverbial elements expressed by inde- 
pendent words, in English, are expressed by affixes to or within 
the verb, in Navaho. 

As we have already learned, Navaho does not form abstract 
verbal nouns as freely as English. In English, large numbers of 
nouns are produced by suff ixation of certain elements, such as 
-tion (inflation), -ment (resentment), -ness (swiftness), and many 
others, to adjectives, verbs, etc. Navaho tends to be more con- 
crete, and such verbal nouns as it forms usually retain an indefin- 
ite or an impersonal subjective pronoun, and still retain concepts 
of mode and aspect. 

Facility and accuracy of translation from one language to 
another depend, in large part, on the degree of similarity existing 
between the two languages. If they are as similar as English and 
Dutch, or Navaho and one of the Apache dialects, the difficulties 
of translation are minimized, and accuracy is at a maximum. On 
the other hand, when they are as dissimilar as Navaho and Eng- 
lish, the difficulties in making a precise translation from one to 
the other are often insurmountable. Both languages may be quite 
capable of expressing the same thought, but the manner of ex- 
pression characterizing the two languages may be extremely di- 
vergent in either case, and a literal translation from one into the 
other has little signification. For example, in English we say 
"council members/' whereas the Navaho expresses the same 


thought by means of the term "those upon whom metal lies up" 
(b£esh bqqh dan naaznih'gfi), referring to the metal badges that 
the council members wear. 

Too often White speakers employ phraseology, idiomatic 
expressions, similes and allegories in delivering discourses which 
must be extemporaneously translated, that baffle and confuse 
the native interpreter. The result is that he either misinterprets 
due to misunderstanding, or says something entirely at random to 
avoid embarrassment to himself. 

Use of abstractions, similes, allegories and idiomatic ex- 
pressions in speaking should be minimized, and entirely avoided, 
if at all possible. Instead of saying "incidence of tuberculosis on 
the Navaho reservation reached a new high in 1942, after which 
a sharp decline was reported. In view of this turn of events, a re- 
duced medical staff will suffice to maintain the Navaho populat- 
ion in "tip-top" condition for the duration," the White speaker 
would be better understood, and a better interpretation would re- 
sult if he said something like, "one year ago a great many people 
in the Navaho country had tuberculosis. Before then there were 
less people with the tuberculosis, and since then there are not as 
many people with tuberculosis, it is said. Because there are not 
very many people with tuberculosis now, less doctors can take 
care of the whole Navaho people, and keep them well until the 
war is ended." 

It is true that it is not considered good oratorical form to use 
"choppy," childishly simple, and to the orator, monotonous 
phraseology bristling with repetitions, as in the above modified 
form. However, such simple and lucid statements can be quickly 
and easily translated with a maximum of accuracy, whereas the 
orator using the first example would no doubt be horrified to find 
his vaunted oratory replaced by a translation distorting beyond 
recognition the point he was trying so euphoniously to convey; or 
perhaps he would find that he had lost his interpreter at the end 
of the first phrase, and that the latter had quoted him as saying 
"he says that a lot of you people have tuberculosis, and you must 
come to the hospital, but because they are fighting a war, there 
are not enough doctors to keep you all well now," or perhaps "he 
says that it has rained a lot this year, and the roads are so muddy 
he cannot go out over the Navaho country to help you until after 
the war." 


Such renditions of otherwise excellent and valuable speeches 
are far too common. Too often council members vote without 
Knowing, or without fully understanding, that for or against 
which they are declaring themselves. 

The more knowledge one has of the Novaho language, in 
this instance, and the pattern according to which the Navaho 
conceives and expresses his thoughts, the better will one be able 
to express himself in EngHsh of a type that can be translated and 
accurately conveyed to his audience — and the better will one be 
fitted to teach English to Navaho children in terms which they con 

The ideal would be to give all speeches to the interpreter be- 
forehand, and require him to make a written translation at his 
leisure — or to teach English in terms of Navaho, but these ideals 
cannot always be achieved. 

It is quite obvious that the Navaho language is not a primi- 
tive tool, inadequate for human expression, but a well developed 
one, quite as capable of serving the Navaho people as our lang- 
uage is of serving us. The mere fact that translation of English 
into Navaho is difficult does not prove, as some believe, that the 
Navaho language is a poor one, any more than difficulty of trans- 
lation from Navaho to English proves English to be poor. 

Novaho Texts With Literal Translation 

Mq'ii | doo | Gatbohi Coyote | and | Gray-rabbits 

Ga+bahf | mq'ii | ndilchqq'go | 
dayiittsqJ Hazho'6 | ndadees- 
t'ii'go | mda | "Mq'ii! j Mq'ii!" | 
daanfigo | yichY | hadadeesh- 
ghaazh. | Mq'ii | bich'f | ch'i- 
deeldlo'go | 'ani | jinf, | "Haala ] 
'ahoodzaa, ! sik'is j yazhi | da- 
neesk'ahishq' | haadaat'e?" | 

Gruy-rabbits | coyote | he-smelling-about] 
they- (dist. pi) saw- him. | Carefully | they- 
(dist. pi) having-hidden | then | "Coyote! | 
Coyote!" | they -{dist. pi) saying | they-to- 
ward-him | they- (dist. pi) started -to-shout- 
out. ] Coyote I toward-them | he-having- 
smiled | thus-he-said | it-is-said, |"What | 
happened! | my-friends | little | they- (dist. 
pi) are-fat ? | how-they(dist. pi) are?.| 

One | gray-rabbit | softly | he-says-thus | 
it-is-said, | "Somehow | coyote | we- (dist. 
pi) will-play-a-trick-on-him. | Rabbit 

La* 1 gatbahi | hazhoogo | 'a- 
n\ | jini 7 | "Haa'ishq* | mq'ii | bi- 
da'didiidloh. | Gah | bikagf | ta' | 

hdadidiiltSOS, | d66 | tse \ b'n || its-skin | one | we-(dist. pi) will- P ick-it-up| 


hadidoolbii* | oko | yich'i' | dah 
didoolghotgo | bighoo* J yee | ne- 

Mq'ii | 'alna | handdaahgo | 
rilef | gcrtbdhf | yazhf | danees- 
k'ahigffshq' | 'ayoo | daalkan | 
nizin | jinf. | Gah j \a | ayoo | 
dilgho' j lei' | bich'i' | ch elghod | 
jini. | Mq'ii | "Hago," | nf | jinf. 


1 r r 


Ga+bahi | ei | am | jmi, 
"Doodahei! | Nizee' | hatsoh j 
doo J 'ei | nighoo* j bik'i | yadaz- 
diidfnfgff [ bee | naa | 'ayahoosh- 

Mq'ii I galbahf | y§£ | yich'i' 
dah J diilghod | jinf. [ Gatbahf | 
tsek'iz | gone* | 'eelghodgo | mq'- 
ii | y#£ | 'ef | tse | yik'qqh | yfl- 
ghodgo | bich[[h jyiyfitood |jini.| 
Mq'ii | y§§ \ nafqo | 'anaattizh- 
go | gah | lei 1 [ tt 06+ | bee | dah | 
hidech'qqlgo | yiyii+tsq | jinf. [ 
Mq'ii [ gah | dah | hidech'ql^? j 
yich'i' I dah j diilghod \ jinf. 
Galbahf J t+'66t | deideesrs'qqd- 
go I mq'ii | 'asiih | jinf. | Gah | 
yazhi J tt'oot ! ndeidMTs'q'go j 
honaasii' [ mq'ii | k'asdqq* I tsF- 
deeya | jinf. | 

Gatbahf | haahg66sh[f | dloh 
nabigqqh I jinf. | Hodfina'go 
gahqq | nat'qq" [ haadeesdlo' 
jinf. ! *Ako | gahqq | yilghot 
nahalingo \ 'adayiilaa | jinf. 
'Ako I gahqq | tsetahd§e* 
ch'fdayiisxan | jinf. | *£i ! mq'ii 

and I stones | in-it | it-will-be-filled, | then | 
he-toward-it | off | when-he- will-start-to - 
run I his-teeth j he-by-means -of -it j he-will- 

Coyote I back-and-forth [ he-repeatedly- 
walking I those I gray-rabbits | little |they- 
(dist. pi) are-f at-the-ones- ? | very | they- 
(dist. pi) are-sweet | he-thinks | it-ia-said.| 
Rabbit | one | very | he-is-a-fast-runner | 
that-was | toward-him | he-ran-out | it-ia- 
said. I Coyote [ "Come-here!" J he-says | it- 
is-said. | 

Gray-rabbit | that-one | thus-he-says | it- 
is-said, | "No-emphatically! | your-mouth | 
area-big | and | those | your-teeth | on-them 
light-shines-the-ones-(dist, pi) | with- them) 
about-you [ I-am-suspicious."| 

Coyote I gray-rabbit | aforementioned | 
he-toward-him | off | he-started-to-run | it- 
is-said. | Gray-rabbit | rock -crack | inside | 
he-having-run [ coyote [ aforementioned | 
that-one | rock | he-against-it | he-having- 
run I his -nose | he-rubbed-it-against-it | it- 
is-said. | Coyote | aforementioned | back | 
he-having-fallen-again | rabbit | that-was | 
string I with-it | up | it-is-hanging [ he-saw- 
it I it-is-said. | Coyote | rabbit | up | it-is- 
dangling-aforementioned | he-toward-it |off 
he-started-to-run | it-is-said. | Gray-rabbitj 
string I they-(dist. pi) having-pulled-on-it | 
coyote I he-missed | it-is-said. | Rabbits | 
little I string | they-(dist, pi) repeatedly- 
pulling-on-it (jerking) | finally | coyote | 
nearly | he-became-mad | it-is-said. | 

Gray-rabbits | greatly | laughter | it-re- 
peatedly-kills-them | it-is-said. | Time-hav- 
ing-passed | rabbit-aforementioned | back | 
they-withdrew-it-back-up | it-is-said. | So- 
then I rabbit- aforementioned | he-is -run- 
ning-along | he-appearing | they-(dist. pi) 
made-him | it-is-said. | Rabbit-aforement- 


yiyiiitsq | jini. j Nahaskdd' J si- 
Uigo J yaa | nifna' | jini. j Ts'idd 
yich'f j dah | diilghodgo | gatbd- 
hi I ti'oot j ndddeideests'ggd | 
jini. | "Mq'ii! | Mq'ii! | Dm | doo 
yd ashgp | da!" | daaniigo | da- 

Gah | ydzhi | dn | tdadi | 'dko- 
hdayiidlaa | jini. | Dfrdi | 'azlif- 
go ! gah | tt'oot | bidiitT | y& 
fad | *dkpg | ndeistf j jinf. | *A- 
ko | dif [ mq'ii | yaa | nii'na' | ji 
ni. | 'Ako | 'inda | fad | bizddkd 
yich'f | dah | diilghod | jini. 
Gahqq | yinfjff+haz | doo | yi'nii- 
*aal j jinf. | Tse | gah | bikdgi 
bii* | shijaa' | y§£ | yinfjifthazgo 
bighoo' | *altso | nelstseed | jini. 
Gah | bikdd'dl^' | dah | nahdaz- 
tqqgo | hddhg66shf[ | 'andaa- 
dlohgo | adaani | Jini, | "Ni- 
ghoo* | y§§ | 'attso | 'ddin | doo- 
te'fdf! | K'ad | shif | dadiftsaat ! 
nighoo* ! 'ddingo f biniinaa. 


"Dooda! | Dooda! | Doo | t'dd 
k'ad | dasetsqq | da! \ HooPdd- 
goo | ts'fdd | doo | nihaa | nfndd- 
deesht*[[t | da/' | nfigo j mq*ii 
dilghoshgo | yicha | jini. j 

Gafbdhf ! 'ddaani | jinf, 
"Dooda! | Nizaad | doo | yd'd 
shpg | da. | Doo | noodldnf | da. 
Dasfnftsqqgo | yd'dt'eeh/' j 

'Addoo I mq'ii j neezt[ I jinf 
bi'niitsq ] nahalingo. | Nahid6 
mddz ! doo j bitsoo* I hdddeel 
jini. | Hddcha ] doo | *dko | *fn 


ioned { rocks-among-from | they- ( diet, pi) 
threw-it-out | it-is-aaid. | That | coyote | he- 
saw-it | it-is-said. | On-the-ground | he-ly- 
ing | he- to- it | he-crawled-up-to | it-is- 
said. | Really | he-toward-it | off | he-start- 
ed-to-run-when | gray-rabbits | string | a- 
gain-they-(dist. pi) pulled-on-it | it-is-said. 
"Coyote! | Coyote! | This-one | not | he-is- 
good | (not)," | they- (dist. pi) saying | they 
(dist. pi) are-shouting. 

Rabbits | little | this ] three-times thus- 
back-they-did | it-is-said. | Pour-times | it- 
having-become | rabbit | string | he-hangs- 
to-it ! aforementioned | just | there | they- 
(dist. pi) caused-him-to-lie | it-is-said. | So- 
then | then | just | intrepidly | he-toward-it| 
off | he-started-to-run | it-is-said. | Rabbit- 
aforementioned | he-bit-it | and | he-start- 
ed-to-chew-it | it-is-said. | Stones | rabbit | 
its-skin | in-it | they-are | aforementioned | 
he-having-bitten-them | his-teeth | all | he- 
killed-them | it-is-said. | Rabbits | above- 
him-from | up | they- (pi) sitting-about | 
greatly | they- (dist. pi) laughing | they- 
(dist. pi) say | it-is-said, | "Your-teeth | 
that-used-to-be | all | they-are-none | not- 
nice-one! | Now | probably | you-will-die | 
your-teeth | they-being-none |because-of-it 

"No! | No! | Not | just | now | I-am-dead| 
(not). | Forever | really | not | about-you 
(dpi) | again-I-shall-do (bother) I (not)," | 
he-saying | coyote | he-shouting | he-is- 
weeping | it-is-said. 

Gray-rabbits | thus-they- (dist. pi) Ray | 
it-is-said, | "No! | Your- word | not | it-is- 
good | (not). | Not | one-who-beli eves -you | 
(not). | You-being-dead | it-is-good." | 

And-then | coyote | he-lay-down | it-is- 
said, I he-has-started-to-die | he-appearing.) 
He-rolled-over | and | his-tongue | it-fell- 
out I it-is-said. I He-cried-out I and | then I 

da j daaztsq | nahalingo j kfhi- 
neezdeel | jinf. j 

Goh | hodabtsiid | jinf. j Ho- 
di'ina'go [ 'adaanf [ jinf | "Too | 
bina'adlo'; j faa | 'ako [ 'akof [[ \ 
feh. | Bikee' | hidees naa\ | Tse | 
bee | defnfilne'go | dadiyiil- 
gheet " | Galbahf | mq'ii y#? 
tse | yee | ylt | ndajis'ne* | jinf. 
Dif J yaa I noakaigo | 'adaanf | 
"Doo | hayooch'fid | da | doo | 
doo I yooch'ifd | dine | bee | bini'- 
jilo 1 ! da/' 

he-is-dead | he-appearing | he-stretched-out 

Rabbits | they- (diet, pi) watch-hira | it-ia- 
said. | Time-having-passed | thus-they (diat 
pi) say | it-is-said. | "Merely | his-trickery,| 
just | thus | thus-he-acts | usually. | His- 
foot I it-moved. | Rock | with-it | we-throw- 
ing-it-at-him | we-(dist. pi) will-kiU-him. K | 
Gray-rabbits | coyote | that-was | rock | 
they-by-means-of-it | they- with- (at) - 

him | they-(dist. pi) threw-it | it-is-said. | 
This | they-about-it | they-(pl) going \ thus- 
they- (dist. pi) say, | "Not | one-tells-lies | 
(not) | and | not | lies | people | with-them J 
he-fools-them (not).*' 

Free Translation 

The cottontails saw coyote sniffing around. After having hid- 
den themselves carefully, they began shouting at him, saying, 
"Coyote! Coyote?" Coyote, smiling, said to them, "Well, how do 
you do! How are my little fat friends?" 

One cottontail said, speaking softly, "Let's have some fun with 
coyote. We will get a rabbit skin, and fill it with stones. Then 
when he attacks it, he will break his teeth on it. 

As coyote walked back and forth he thought how appetizing 
one of those fat little cottontails would be. A rabbit who was a 
fast runner ran out toward him, it is said. Coyote said "Come 
here!" to him. 

The cottontail said, "I should say not! I am suspicious of your 
big mouth and your shining teeth." 

Coyote jumped at the cottontail, it is said. The cottontail ran 
into a crevice in the rock, and coyote ran into the rock and skin- 
ned his nose. When coyote fell back he saw a rabbit hanging by 
a cord. Coyote sprang after the dangling rabbit, it is told. The 
cottontails jerked the string, and coyote missed. The little rabbits 
kept jerking the string, and after while coyote almost went mad. 

The cottontails really died with laughter. After a while they 
withdrew the rabbit. Then they made the rabbit look like ft was 
running, and they threw it out among the rocks. Coyote saw that. 


Lying close to the ground he crept up on it. Just as he sprang at it 
the cottontails again jerked the cord, it is said. "Coyote! Coyote! 
He's no good/' they said shouting. 

The little rabbits did this three times. The fourth time they 
left lying there the rabbit that was tied to the string. Then this co- 
yote crept upon it. Then he sprang fiercely upon it. He bit the 
rabbit and started to chew it, it is said. When he bit the stones 
that were inside of the rabbit hide, he broke all of his teeth. The 
rabbits, sitting up above him, really laughed, as they said, "Your 
teeth are all gone, you worthless one! Now you'll probably die 
because you haven't any teeth." 

"No! No! I don't want to die now! I'll never bother you again," 
coyote said, shouting as he wept. 

The cottontails said, "No. Your word is worthless. No one be- 
lieves you. It is good that you die." 

And then coyote lay down as though he were dying. He rolled 
over and his tongue fell out. He let out a cry and then he stretch- 
ed out as though he had died. 

The cottontails watched him. After a while they said, "He's 
just fooling; that's the way he does. His foot moved. Let's kill him 
by throwing rocks at him." The cottontails threw rocks at him, it 
is said. While they were doing this they said, "One must keep his 
word and not trick people with lies." 

Sgtsoh | Venus | Gholghehigii 
Sq I Venus [ gholghehigii | 
t'eiyd | 'ayoo ] bits'adinfdfin | 
teh. | Too | 'e'eahigo | Ve- 
'aah J bich'ijigo j si'qq | teh, | 
doo I hai+kaahgo | sg'tsoh | haa- 
ghahigii | a+do | t'aa | *ef | 'at'e. 
'Alk'idqq' | dine | ta' | dfi | sg'- 
tsoh I t*66 | hi+iij[higo | si'anigfi | 
d66 | SQ'tsoh | haitkaahgo | haa- 
ghahigff | doo | t'aata'iigfi | a- 
r'ee I da | daanff | rtt'ef | jinf. 
Ndi f dfi I faaia'iigff | 'at'eego 
We'| jinf. | Dif | Venus | ghol- 
ghehfgff | johonaa'ei | bits'qqjr 

Big-star \ Venus j The-one-called 
Star | Venus | it-is-called-the-one | only | 
very | from-it-there-is -light | usually. | 
Just | when-it-customarily-goes-in (sun) ; 
it-moves-in (west) | being-toward-it | it- 
is (in position) | usually, | and | when-it- 
customarily-dawns | big-star | the-one-that- 
comes-up-out | also | just | that-one | it-is. | 
Upon-one-another-in-past (long ago) | peo- 
ple | some | this | big- star | just | when- it - 
becoming-dusk | the-one-that-is (in posit- 
ion) | and big-star | when-it-dawns | the- 
one-that-comes-up-out | not | just-that- 
which-is-one | they-are ( (not) [ they-(dist. 
pi) say | it-was I it-is-satd | But ! these I 


naaki | gone* | si qq | jini. | Ve- 
nus | bikdd'doo J johonaa'ei j bi- 
ch'i' | hastqdiin | doo J ba'qq | 
tsosts'idi ) mill | ntsaaigfi J tsin j 
sitq | jini'. | Nahasdzaan j bi- 
kdd'doo | Venus | bichY | t'eiyd , 
naadiin J hastqqdi | mnl j ntsaai- 
gfi | tsin | sitq | jini. | K'asdqq' | 
nahasdzaan | t'dd | yit | 'ahee- 
ni+tso. | Taa | k'ehozdon | *al- 
nil" j gone' | tsosts'idi | mifl | doo 
ba'qq | tsosts'idi | neeznddiin | 
tsin j sitq | jini. | Naakidi | neez- 
nadiin J doo | ba'qq | naadjfash- 
dlo* | neilkdahgo | t ad+dhddi 
johonaa'ei | yininddddh | jini | 
Jo | 'dko | t adtd'i | bee | nmd- 
hah. | Dff | so'igii | nahasdzaan 
nahalingo | fad f bf | nddghis | 
jini. | Naadijtdd' | doo | ahnfi'- 
go | 'ahenfnd alki'go | t ad+d'f | 
neilkddh | jini. | Venus | fad | 
alaji* | k os | bik'idilkophgo | 
biniinaa | bikdd* | tad | ahoo- 
t'ehfgfi | doo [ beehozin | da | ji 
nf. | Ndi | beehozingo | nitch'i 
bikdd' | hdlg | jini | 'Ako | ndi 
Venus | nahasdzaan | bilddh 
'dt'eego | bikdd* | deesdoi | jinf. 
Hddld | Venus [ bikdd'doo j jo- 
honaa ef [ bichT | tad | ahdni 
ndi | shff | k'osfgff | bee | doo 
hozhg | bikdd' [ deesdoi | da. 
Dine | la' | yaa | ntsfdaakeesgo 
t aadoo | le'e | yikdd* | dahind 
sha'shin | daanf | jini. f Ndi 
k'osigii | biniinaa [ doo | be6ho 
zin | da. 

just-that-which-is-one | they-being [ they- 
are j it-is-said. j This | Venus | the-one- 
that-is-called | sun (the-one-carried-about- 
during-the-day) | at-a-point-away-from-it 
two ] inside [ it-is (in position) | it-is-said. j 
Venus [ from-upon-it | sun j toward-it | six- 
ty ] and | in-addition-to-it | seven-times | 
thousand | the-one-that~is-big | pole | it- 
(they) set | it-is-said. | Earth | from-upon- 
it | Venus j toward-it | only | twenty-six- 
times J thousand | the-one-that-is-big |pole j 
it-sets | it-is-said. | Nearly | earth | just | 
it-with-it | they-are-equally-large. | Just | 
straight | middle | in | seven-times | thou- 
sand | and | in-addition-to-it | seven-times | 
hundred | poles | it- (they) set | | it-is-said. | 
Two-times | hundred | and | in-addition-to- 
it | twenty-five | it-repeatedly-becoming- 
day | just-one-time | sun | it-goes-around- 
it-repeatedly | it-is-said. | So | then | just 
one | with-it | a-year-repeatedly-passes. [ 
This | star-what-is | earth | it-appearing | 
just | it | it-whirls | it-is-said. | Twenty- 
| three | and [ being-half | they-repeatedly- 
moving-around-in-a -circle (clock hands) ' 
just-one | it-repeatedly-becomes-day | it-is- 
said. | Venus | just | always | clouds | upon- 
it-they-covering | because-of-it | upon -it f 
just | how-it (space, area) is | not [ about- 
it- there-is -knowledge | (not) | it-is-said | 
But | about-it-there-being-knowledge | air | 
on-it | it-exists | it-is-said. | Then | even 
(however) | Venus | earth | beyond-it | it- 
being | upon-it | it- (weather) is-hot) lit-is- 
said. | For | Venus | from-upon-it | sun | to- 
ward-it | just | it-is-near, | but | probably | 
those-which-are-cloudB | with-them ( not | 
extremely | upon-it | it-(weather) is-hot | 
(not). | People | some | they-about-it | they- 
(dist. pi) thinking [ some |thing | it-upon-itf 
they-(dist. pi) are-alive | maybe | they- 


(digit, pi) say | it-is -3 aid* | But | those-that- 
are-clouds [ because-of-them | not | about* 
it-there-is-knowledge | (not). 

Free Translation 

The star called Venus is usually very bright. Just at sunset it is 
in the west, and at dawn it is also the big star that comes out. 
Long ago, some people said that this big star that comes out at 
dusk and the big star that comes out at dawn are not the same 
one. This one which is called Venus occupies second place in dis- 
tance from the sun. From Venus to the sun there are sixty seven 
million miles. From Venus to the earth there are twenty six mil- 
lion miles. It is almost as large as the earth. Straight across it 
(its diameter) there are seven thousand and seven hundred miles. 
In two hundred and twenty five days it goes once around the sun. 
That is one year. This big star itself turns around just like the 
earth. There are twenty three and a half hours in a day. Because 
Venus is always covered with clouds, its surface features are not 
known. But it is known that there is air on it. However, Venus 
has hotter weather than the earth. For Venus is close to the sun, 
but probably the clouds keep it from getting too hot. As some 
people give it thought, they say that perhaps there is something 
alive on it. But because of the clouds it is not known. 


Definitions Of Terminology 

The following definitions of the terminology which has been 
employed in this book may prove helpful. It is to be noted that in 
several instances terms have been coined, due to the fact that ex- 
isting words which would otherwise have been used are ambigu- 
ous in meaning. 

Active verb: is one expressing action, instead of state or condition; 
thus, I am running, (in contradistinction to I am). V. neuter verb. 
Active voice: shows the subject as the doer of the verbal action; 
thus, the man is running. (V. passive voice). 

Affix: to fasten before or after a word; an element placed of the 
beginning or end of a word; a prefix or suffix. 
Aspect: distinctions in verbal action, such as between momentan- 
eous and continuative action. It describes the kind of action — 
whether durative, iterative, complete, incomplete, cursive, etc. 
Continuative: on aspect that describes verbal action as continu- 
ing or enduring. Thus, naasha, I am walking about. 
Deictic: that which points out; used in describing certain pronom- 
inal prefixes as, 'a-, ho-, ji-, in Navaho. 

Demonstrative (adjective, adverb or pronoun): which designates 
distinctly that to which it refers, as this, thus, thither. 
Durative: describes the action of the verb as continuing. It may 
also be durative and static, as neezda, he sat down (and remained 

Enclitic: a word which, in pronunciation, forms part of a preced- 
ing word. Thus, not, in English cannot; -goo, in Navaho hooghan- 
goo, to home, homeward. 

Imperfective: a mode denoting that the action of the verb has not 
been completed, but is in the state of being completed. It is often 
translatable by on English present tense, or by use of such words 
as "in the act of," "about to," etc. Thus, dah diishaah, I'm in the 
oct of starting off. Taah yish'aah, I am putting it into the water. 
The imperfective may be continuative, momentaneous, or repeti- 
tive in aspect. 

Infix: to fasten within a word; an element placed within a word. 
Thus, sh is referred to as the infixed subject pronoun in yashti\ I 
am talking. 

Iterative: a mode of the verb denoting repetition of the verbal act- 
ion. Thus, nashdaah, I repeatedly go. 


Mode: is that distinction in verbal form denoting the manner in 
which the verbal action or state is conceived, whether complete, 
incomplete, iterated or repeated, progressively taking place, de- 
sired, etc. 

Momenta neous: an aspect describing action as taking place in a 
split second, as, taah yi'q, I put it in the water (the act of putting 
requires but a second). 

Neuter verb: is one expressing existence or state without refer- 
ence to preceding action. Thus, sida, he is sitting; nishtf, I am. 
Object (of a verb): is that noun or pronoun upon or toward which 
the verbal action is directed. The object may be direct or indirect; 
thus, in give it to me, the pronoun it is the direct object, and to me 
is the indirect object. 

Obliquative: a term used to describe a 3rd person pronominal 
form in Navaho, wherein the 3rd person subject is expressed as 
acting upon a 3rd person object, and both subject and object are 
represented in the same syllable yi-. Thus, yiyq, he is eating it. 
Optative: a verbal mode which expresses wish or desire. Thus, no- 
h6ttqq' laanaa, would that it would rain! 

Passive verb: is one which, by virtue of its signification, is intran- 
sitive. Thus, I am running. 

Passive voice: shows the apparent subject of the verb to be the re- 
cipient instead of the agent of the verbal action. Thus, the man 
was killed. 

Perfective: is a mode denoting that the verbal action is complete 
or concluded. It is usually translatable by a past tense form 
of English. Thus, taah yf q, I put it in the water; neezda, he sat 
down; seesgh[, he was killed. It is often durative or static, or dur- 
ative and static in force, as in sida, he is sitting (has sat down, and 
remains in a sitting position — a si-perfective neuter verb). 
Postposition: a particle referring to direction, position, time, etc. 
which connects a noun or pronoun, usually in an adverbial sense. 
It corresponds to the English preposition (placed before, but is 
placed after, instead of before, the word it modifies; thus,^ the 
name postposition). Thus, for the man; hastiin ba, man for-him. 
Postpound: to place after (this word was coined to replace ambi- 
guous postpone). Thus, in the sequence submarine chaser, the 
word chaser is postpounded to submarine. 
Prefix: to fasten before; an element fastened before a word. Thus, 


postpone, wherein post- is a prefix, or an element prefixed to 


Prepound: to place before (coined to replace prepose). Thus, in 

the sequence man-killer, the word man is prepounded to killer. 

Progressive: is a mode of the verb which describes the action as in 

progress, as in I am walking along. 

Pronoun: is a word used in place of a noun. Thus, he in place of 

Repetitive: is on aspect denoting repetition of the act, or an act 

repeatedly done. 

Semelfact-ive: is an aspect of the verb denoting action which is 

done once. Thus, taah yf'q, I put it in the water. 

Semeliterative: denotes action repeated once again, as in naa- 

nasht'q, I brought it again. 

Static: denotes duration of a state without motion. Thus, sida, he 

is sitting. 

Stem: is the element representing the verbal idea in unmodified 

form, and which remains unchanged (in Navaho) throughout a 

given inflection or paradigm, and is changed for mode and aspect 

only by phonetic alterations. 

Stem classifier: is an element prefixed immediately before the 

stem, and possessing certain grammatical functions in Navaho. 

There are four stem classifiers, namely, *, I, d, and zero. 

Suffix: to fasten to the end of a word; an element fastened to the 

end of a word. 



containing a basic vocabulary of present 
day Navaho with the fundamental 
inflectional forms of all verbs 


Robert W. Young 
Specialist in the Navaho Language 

William Morgan 
Indian Assistant in the Navaho Language 

First Edition 

A Publication of the Education Division, 

U. S. Office of Indian Affairs 





The present dictionary has been compiled to meet the de- 
mands of White people who are interested in acquiring practical 
knowledge of the Navaho language; to aid native draftees in 
meeting the linguistic problems involved in their new environ- 
ment; to aid school children in building up an adequate English 
vocabulary, as well as to use the component parts thereof correct- 
ly and effectively; and to help the White teacher teaching English 
in the reservation schools. Secondarily, it may be of use to ethno- 
logists and to students of comparative linguistics, although its 
aim is a more practical one, and it is not written primarily for the 
use of scientific investigators. 

Many problems are present in the compilation of a bilingual 
dictionary. Firstly, one would have to be a specialist, or at least 
have great knowledge, in every field of science in order to give 
perfect translations of all terms involved, and to include all the 
words in the language. The present dictionary does not presume 
to constitute a perfect work, but the compilers have defined the 
words to the best of their ability, with the hope of rectifying errors 
in subsequent editions. 

The purpose has nor been to create a complete work, to 
which nothing need be added in the future. Such a presumption 
would be inconsistent with the fact that languages are active and 
growing, not static and fossilized. As time passes, especially with 
the word-coining stimulus afforded by the present conflict, new 
terms and phrases will appear in both the English and Navaho 
languages. Thus, it is proposed that periodic revisions of the 
dictionary be made, which would grow in completeness and be- 
come more and more adapted to the needs of those using it as 
time goes on. The authors of the present work hope to be laying 
the foundations for a future dictionary, and it is their hope that 
they will receive contributions from many sources. 

For a number of years anthropologists, linguists, traders, 
missionaries and scientists in many fields, have been working 
with the Navaho people. Many of these workers have been, and 
are, specialists in certain branches of science such as botany, bio- 
logy, ethnology, cosmology, religion, etc., and as such are far bet- 
tertjuaiified to define those terms pertaining to their particular 
fields than are persons not specialized therein. Therefore, it is 

hoped that those individuals will contribute to future editions of 
the dictionary, with full assurance that they will receive credit for 
their part therein. The Navaho people should also make any 
contributions or suggestions which, in their estimation, would 
improve the work. In short, contributions and constructive criti- 
cism will be most welcome. 

Method Of Word Entry And Instructions For Use Of The 


Due to the character of the Navaho verb, it is impractical to 
merely give rules for its inflection. Such rules would have too 
many exceptions, and would only serve to complicate the matter 
of verb conjugation. Thus, with respect to this part of speech, 
the first person singular of derivational forms is entered under 
the general stem entry, followed in parentheses by the second, 
third (3. or 3o., and 3a.), of the singular, and the first and second 
persons duoplural. In a second parenthesis is given the adi- pas- 
sive form. This method entails considerable repetition, since 
many verbs are similarly conjugated, but such repetition is justi- 
fied inasmuch as a person can look up a verb and immediately 
find the desired inflectional form. 

In the Navaho-English section, verbs are first entered under 
the stem forms, and subsequently under the derivational forms. 
The stems are given in the following order: progressive, imper- 
fective, (continuative or neuter imperfective is in parentheses 
whenever such occur), perfective, iterative, and optative. 

Thus, an exemplary stem entry would be: 
leet, leeh (l|, I9), Ijf, dleeh, le*, to become; to be. 

Under this stem entry would be found the derivational en- 
tries, in the first person singular, with the other inflectional forms 
in parentheses, as: 

1 . to become; to be; to come into existence. 

F. deesh-teet (dif, doc, jidoo, dii, dooh) I. yish4eeh (ni, yi, ji, yii, 
ghoh) Prog. yish-teet v (yi, yi, joo, yii, ghoh) P. se-lu (sfnf, si, jiz, 
sii, soo) R. nash-dleeh (nanf, na, hji, neii, nah) O. ghosh-te 1 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

The tense or mode of the verb is indicated Dy a letter, as F. 
for the future tense, I. for the imperfective mode (momentaneous 

or continuative in aspect, as the signification may indicate), C-l. 
for continuative imperfective, P. for perfective, R. for iterative 
(repetitive), and 0. for optative. Others will be found \n the list 
of abbreviations given at the end of this section. 

The stem, it will be recalled, is the last syllable in the Nava- 
ho verb, and is preceded by the paradigmatic prefixes (those that 
show person, mode, etc. in the verb, and which are therefore vari- 
able), and by the derivational prefixes (the adverbial and other 
elements which modify the abstract stem and derive the various 
meanings, and which are more or less invariable from person to 
person, and mode to mode). In the dictionary entries, the stem is 
setoff from the preceding prefixes by a hyphen, meaning that the 
stem remains constant (barring certain phonetic alterations) for 
that particular conjugation or inflection. If one or more of the 
derivational prefixes remain invariable throughout a given con- 
jugation, it too is set off from the variable elements by a hyphen. 

Thus, the entry F. deesh-teet (dii, doo, jidoo, dii, dooh) can 
be reconstructed as: deeshteet (I shall bcome), dfileet (you will be- 
come), dooleet (he, she, it will become), diidleel (we duoplural will 
become), doohteet (you duoplural will become). In such an entry 
as F. 'adi-deesh-zhoh (difl, dool, zhdool, dill, doot), the recon- 
struction would be: adideeshzhoh (I'll brush myself), adidfilzhoh 
(you'll brush yourself), 'adidoolzhoh (he or she will brush -self), 
'adizhdoolzhoh (he or she will brush -self), 'adidiilzhoh (we duo- 
plural will brush ourselves, 'adidoolzhoh (you duoplural will brush 

Thus, it will be evident that the part immediately before the 
stem is that part which undergoes changes to show person, while 
the part which follows (the stem) remains constant, and anything 
which may precede and be separated from the variable portion by 
a hyphen also remains constant, so that which is contained in 
parentheses after the 1 st person singular verb entry is the part of 
the verb which is inflected, and the constant elements must be 
added thereto, the stem following, and the constant derivationaf 
prefixes preceding. 

In such on entry as R. ni-nas-tsi* (nanf, nef, najf, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-), to repeatedly kill them, the second parenthetic form is 
the 'adi- passive. It will be noted that ni- was set apart as a con- 
stant derivational prefix, so the reconstruction of the passive will 
be nin6bi*ditsi\ not *n6bi'ditsi\ This should be carefully born in 
mind to avoid making errors. 


It will hove been noticed in the examples used in the forego- 
ing, that the stem undergoes certain changes with respect to the 
initial vowel. These phonetic alterations of the stem-initial vow- 
el will be explained in the following section. 

We have already described the Navaho verb, and it will be 
remembered that the stem exhibits a number of variant forms, 
corresponding to the different modes and aspects. However, the 
stems are always listed with the progressive stem first. At first ir 
will prove difficult to look up a Navaho word, since the interested 
person may not know the progressive stem form. However, he will 
probably be able to find it by looking down the list of stems that 
have the same initial consonant as the one which he is seeking, 
and with time and practice he will be able to look up words with a 
minimum of difficulty. 

If a person wants to look up an English word in terms of Na- 
vaho, he will look up the English word on the English-Navaho side 
of the dictionary. There, after the English infinitive (in the case 
of a verb), he will find the progressive stem of the corresponding 
Navaho verb, plus the order number of its entry under the stem, 
and will then procede to look it up in the Navaho-English part. 


There are several phonetic alterations which affect the stem 
initial consonant when preceded bv ^he stem classifiers, the in- 
fixed subjective pronoun, and the d that occurs in the 1st person 
duoplural of zero class verbs. This latter d produces changes 
identical with those produced by the d classifier (except in the 
case of s and sh initial stems). These phonetic alterations are 
given herewith, and should be memorized. 

1. Zero classifier occasions no changes of the stem initial, but 
in zero class verbs d is inserted in the 1st person dpi and in the 
passive, occasioning the same changes of the stem initial as will 
be noted below under d classifier. 

2. D classifier combines with * to give t\ with gh to give g; with 
I to give dl; with m to give 'm; with n to give 'n; with s to give dz 
(or Iz); with sh to give j (or Izh); with y to give 'y; with z to give dz; 
with zh to give j. It sometimes gives dl or Iz with on \ initial stem. 
It is possible that some t+ initial stems may result from the com- 
bination of dand +. 


3. L classifier combines with stem initial h to give Igh; with I to 
give t; with s to give Iz; with sh to give Izh. 

4. t classifier combines with stem initial gh to give *h; with I to 
give t; with z to give ts; with zh to give bh. 

Thus it follows that the same stem may often be found under 
M9 h !9' % s|xjdx, sh zh j, t|l|dl. In other words, the stem 
initial consonant will be h with a zero or I classifier; gh with I 
classifier. Stem initial (*) will remain (*) with zero, I, or t classi- 
fier, but will become t* with the d classifier S*em initial s will re- 
main s with the zero or \ classifiers, but becomes z with the I 
classifier, and dz with the d classifier, etc. 

When the stem initial consonant is sonant (gh, I, z, zh), it 
usually changes to its corresponding surd form (h, f, s, sh) when 
preceded by a surd (h, s, sh, t). Thus. 

nis-sin (nisin), I want it; noh-sin, you (dpi) want it; but ninf- 
zin, you (sgl) want it. Similarly, nish-ti, lam; noh-+[, you (dpi) 
are; but nf-lf, you (sgl) are. 

This rule does not always hold, however, as in such forms as 
yinishghe, I am called; 'adfshzhooh, I am brushing myself; *aka- 
deeszis, I'll put on my belt; heeshghat, I am wriggling along; 
yishghoi, I am running alcng, etc. This variation is indicated in 
the ensuing paradigms by writing a sonant initial stem with its 
corresponding surd in the first person singular entry, and writing 
the stem as sonant initial only when it remains so throughout the 
paradigm. Thus, under the sonant initial stem gheh will be found 
the entry 'iish-heh, and the second person will be Mi-gheh. On 
the other hand, under the stem gheet, the entry form yinish-ghe 
will be found, indicating that this stem will not change phone- 
tically in accord with the rule described above, regardless cf the 
surd that may precede it. 

It must be remembered at all tines that; 
1 . The d classifier is inserted in the passive forms of zero class 
verbs, as well as in the 1st person duoplural, so: ni'q, I brought 
it; niit'q, we (dpi) brought it; bi'deefq (or yft q), it was brought, 
ninil, I brought them; nii'nil, we (dpi) brought them; bfdee'nil 
(oryPnil), they were brought. selif, I became; siidlif, we (dpi) 

2.1 class verbs change ♦ to I in the 1st person dpi and in the 
passive. Thus, diyiftheet, you will kill it; diyiilgheet, we (dpi) 
will kill it; bid i'yoolg heel (or diyoolgheet), it will be killed. 

3. The I classifier becomes! in the 2nd person dpi. Thus, ml- 
Wot, you (sgl) are blinking; notk'ot, you (dpi) are blinking. 

4. In zero class verbs, s initial stems usually change s to Ix in 
the 1st person dpi and in the passive, while those with sh initial 
usually change sh to Izh. Thus, dees-sot, I will blow it; diilzof, 
we dpi will blow it; bidi'doolzot (or doolzof), it will be blown. 

Other irregular alterations of the stem initial will be pointed 
out under the stems thus affected. 

Signification of the Navaho Modes and Tenses 

Remember that the initial: 

1 . F. stands for future tense; naa deesh'aai, I'll give it to you. 

2. I. stands for imperfective mode, and is translated either as 
a simple present, or with the phrase "in the act of," (the latter 
especially with the momentaneous aspect); naa nish'aah, I am in 
the act of giving it to you, or I am giving it to you. 

3. C-L stands for continuative imperfective, and is translated 
as a simple present; naasha, I am walking about; beesh naash- 
'a, I carry a knife. 

4. P, stands for perfective mode, and is translated by a past 
tense form in English; naa nf'q, I gave it to you; I have given it to 

5. S-P. stands for the si-perfective, (in contradistinction to the 
yi- and ni- perfectives marked simply P.); sheJbeezh, I boiled it. 
Also the si-perfective neuters, as seda, I am sitting. (V. neuter) 

6. Prog, stands for progressive mode, translated by a gerund 
plus auxiliary "to be" in English; yishaat, I am walking (along). 

7. N. stands for neuter, translated as a present tense in English; 
yinishtq', I am holding it; I have ahold of it; nish+[, I am; and the 
si-perfective neuters, seda, I am sitting; sezi, I am standing, etc. 
Another type of verb marked as neuter, although it is not really a 
neuter, is that type which joins the prefix complex of the imper- 
fective mode to the stem of the iterative (like a usitative, but with- 
out the concept of habitual ity); diskos, I have a cough; I cough; I 
am coughing (wherein the act of coughing is not composed of a 
single cough, but of repeated coughs); adishdit, I play stick dice; 
I am playing stick dice; I am a stick dice player (wherein one re- 
peatedly tosses a slender stiff object: the stick). 

8. U. stands for usitative, translated as a present; haash'aa 
teh, I take it out (usually, or habitually). 


9. R, stands for the iterative mode, translated usually as a pre- 
sent tense, or as a present with the addition of an adverb, such as 
always, repeatedly, time after time, etc.; hanash'aah, I take it 
out time after time, repeatedly or always. 

10. 0. stands for the optative mode, translated in older English 
by the phrase "would that," and in present day English by "(I) 
wish that." Thus, nahdftqq' laanaa, I wish that it would rain; 
would that it might rain. 

Remember also the uses of ht'§§' (it was), and doolee+ (it will 
be) in making tense and other distinctions with the verbs, as: John 
yinishghe, I am called John; John yinishghee doolee+, I will be 
called John; John yinishghee rit'§£\ I was (or used to be) called 
John; nishii, I am; nishl[[ dooleet, I will be; nish+[i hf £#', I was (or 
used to be); nishtii dooleet nt'|£', I would be, etc. 


The following relative order has been assigned to the letters 
of the alphabet: a b ch d e g h |*| i j k 1 I m n 
o s t w x y z. 

It is to be noted that consonantal diphthongs, as well as long 
(double) vowels, are not treated as single sounds. Thus, the sound 
represented by dl will not be found under a dl-entry, but under d. 
Similarly, eb, ech, and ed, will precede ee. This makes for a maxi- 
mum of analogy with the English system, and should facilitate 
the finding of words. 

The glottal stop, l'|, is treated as a consonant in all positions 
with exception of the word-initial. It occurs in word-initial posi- 
tion only when it immediately precedes a vowel, and in such cases 
the word is entered as though it were vowel initial. Thus, 'ama, 
mother, will be found under a, not under |*|, The same applies to 
the verb stems, with the result that *aa+ will be found under a. 

Nasoral vowels immediately follow the corresponding oral 

Abbreviations Used In The Dictionary 

C-l. continuative imperfective. Eng. English. 

Cp. compare. F. future tense 

d dual number. f. s. female speaking. 

dist. pi distributive plural, I. imperfective mode. 


mat. maternal. pi plural number.. 

m. s. male speaking. Prog, progressive mode. 

N. neuter. R. iterative mode. 

0. optative mode. S-P. si-perfecive. 

P. perfective mode. sgl singular number. 

pat, paternal. V. see. 




'do, there (remote) 
'aa, there (close at hand) 
'dddff \ from there 
'aad§§ ', from there 
'dadi, there (at) 

'dadi niit'dazhgo 'inda 'adii- 
6\[\ t we'll eat as soon as we arrive 
'aadi, there (at) 

'aadi sidd, there he sits. 
'ddddd, from there on; and then 

shash yiyiisx[ 'dddoo shf n(- 
set'ah, he killed the bear and 
then I skinned it. 
'ddddd bik'iji', after that 

'aadoo bik'iji* nikinfya, after 
that I went home, 
'oa hasti\ care, respect, baa has- 
ti', care or respect toward it (as 
a fragile object, ceremony, etc.) 
'aahwiinit'i bd hooghan, court- 

'aa'a/ii, magpie 
'ddhsita', cervical 
'aa 'adiniih, venereal disease 

baa 'adiniih, he has venereal 

'aa 'dhdlydanii, bodyguard 
'dd*, *aah ('ah), J q f ddh, *ddt (O), 
to handle one bulky object; any- 
thing roundish and hard, as a 
bottle, boulder, book, hat, box, 
cor e wagon, knife. 

The following are used with 
Hie stem 'ddf only. 

1. to plot against him. 

F. * bizee* dideesh- aa* (didff, yi- 


didoo, jididoo, didii, didooh) (di- 
doot'ddl) I. bized' dish-'aah (di, 
yidi, jidi, dii, doh) (dit'aah) Prog. 
bizee' yish-'ddt (yi, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) P. bizee' de-'q (diini, yi- 
deez, jideez, dee, disoo) (deest'q) 
R. bizee' hdfsh-'aah (ndi, neidi, 
nizhdf, ridii, hdoh) (hdit'ddh) O. 
bizee* dosh-'ddt (doo, yido, jido, 
doo, dooh) (dot'adi) 
* bizee' becomes yizee' in 3o. 

2. to start it (a song). 

F. sin ha-dideesh-'aai (didii, idi- 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (bi- 
di'doot'daf) I. sin ha-dish-'aah 
(di, idi, zhdi, dii, doh) (bi'dit'aah 
P. sin ha-dii-'q (dfinf, idu, zhdif, 
dii, doo) (bfdoot'q) R. sin hG- 
hdish-'ddh (ndi, neidi, nizhdi, ri- 
dii, hdoh) (nabi'dit'aah) O. ha- 
dosh-'aat (doo, ido, zhdo, doo, 
dooh) (bi'dot aai) 

3. to start (singing). 

F. ha-di'deesh-'ddt (di'dn, di'- 
doo, zhdi'doo, di'dii, di'dooh) I. 
ha-'dish-'aah ('di, 'di, zh'di, 'dii, 
'doh) P. ha-'dn-'q Cdnni, 'dii, 
zh'dii, 'dii, 'doo) R. ha-rVdish- 
'aah (ri'df, h'df, nizh'df, h'dii, ri'- 
doh) O. ha-'dosh-'adt ('doo, 'do, 
zh'do, 'doo, 'dooh) 

4. to be sunup; to rise (sun). 
F. ha'doo'dai I. haVaah P. ha- 
'ii'q R. hana'dt'ddh O. ha'o'dai 

5. to be mid morning. 

F. dah 'adidoo'ddl I. dah 'adii- 
'aah P. dah 'adii'd R. dah n'dii- 
t adh O. dah 'adoo adf 

6. to be sun light; to be day. 




Prog, 'oo adi 

7. to be noon. 

F. 'aini'doo'aat I. 'aine'e'aah 
'alnTnTq R. 'a+nind'dt'ddh 

8. to be evening (mid after- 
noon to sunset). 

F. yaa 'adidoo'ddi I. yaa *adi- 
'aah P. yaa 'adeez'q R. yaa nf'- 
dft adh O. yaa ado adt 

9. to be sunset; to go down. 

F. Vdoo'dd+ I. 'eVaah P. iiiq 
R. 'and'dt'ddh O. 'o'd'ddt 

10. to take it off or put it on 
(a hat). 

F. 'dk'idi-deesh-t adi (dif, idoo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) Cdk'ibidi'doo-) 
I. ak'i-dish-t'aah (di, idi, zhdi, 
dii, doh) ( ak'ibi'di-) P. akM- 
desh-t'q (difni, idoo, zhdoo, dii, 
dooh) Cdk'ibi'doo-) R. 'dk'i- 

ndish-t'ddh (ndi, neidi, nizhdi, 
ndii, ndoh) ( ak'indbi'di-) O. 
ak'i-ddsh-t'ddt (ddd, ido, zhdo, 
doo, dooh) ('dk'ibi'do-) 

11. to remove the lid from it. 
F. *bik'i-dideesh- ad! (didff, idi- 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (bi- 
drdoot'ddl) I, bik'i-dish- aah (df, 
idi, zhdi, dii, doh) (bi'ditaah) P. 
bik'i-dfi-'q (dnni, idii, zhdii, dii, 
dooh) (bi'deet q) R. bik'i-ndish- 
'ddh (ndf, neidi, nfzhdf, ndii, n- 
doh) (ndbi'dit'ddt) O. bik'i-dosh- 
'dd+ (doo, ido, zhdo, doo, dooh) 

* bik'i- becomes yik'i- in 3o. 

12. to put a lid on it; cover it; 
patch it (an inner tube). 


F. *bidadi-'deesh-'ddi ('dii, *doo, 
zh'doo, 'dii, 'dooh) (bidabidi'doo 
t'ddl) I. bida-di'nish-'aah (di'ni, 
'dee, zh'dee, di'nii, dfnoh) (bi- 
dabi'deet'aah) P. bida-di'ni-'q 
(dfi'ni, di'ni, zhdi'ni, di'nii, df- 
noo) (bidabi'deet'q) R. bida-rV- 
dfsh-'ddh (n'df, ri'df nizh'df, rV- 
dii, h'doh) (bidandbi'dit'ddh) O. 
bida-'ddsh-'ddl ('ddd, 'do, zh'dd, 
'doo, 'dooh) (bidabi'dot'ddt) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

13. to accuse him. 

F. bik'iho-dideesh-'ddi (didfi, di- 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (di- 
doot'ddt) 1. bik'iho-diish-'aah 
(dii, dii, zhdii, dii, dooh) (dii- 
t'aah) P. bik'iho-dii-'q (dini, dii, 
zhdii, dii, doo) (diit'q) R. bik'i- 
rdho-diish-'ddh (dii, dii, zhdii, 
dii, dooh) (diit'ddh) O. bik'iho- 
doosh-*dd+ (doo, doo, zhdoo, doo, 
dooh) (doot'ddt) 

Shilif smRhf dishnfigo bik'i- 
hodii'q, I accused him of killing 
my horse. 

14. to turn it over to him; to 
just forget about It; to call it 
even; to just let it go. 

F, baa dideesh-'ddf (didii, yidi- 
doo, jididoo, didii, didooh) (bidi 7 - 
doot'ddi) I. baa dinish-'aah (di- 
ni, videe, jidee, dinii, dinoh) (bi*- 
deet'aah) P. baa dim-'q (diinf, 
yidini, jidini, dinii, dinooh) (bi'- 
deet'q) R. baa ndfsh-'ddh (ndi, 
neidi, nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) (ndbi'- 
dit adh) O. baa ddsh- ad+ (doo, 
yido, jido, doo, dooh) (bi'ddt*ddfl 


*bac becomes yaa in 3o. 

Shikeyah taji' baa dini'q, 1 
turned over part of my land to 
him. Beeso t'aatd'i shqqh ha- 
yiiTaa ht'§e', ndi shibeeso *adin- 
go biniinaa t'66 shaa yidiniq, I 
owed him a dollar, but s\nce I 
had no money he just let it go. 

15* to hire him. 

The noun naanish, work, is 
prepounded to the forms given in 
no. H. Thus, naanish baa dini- 
'q. I hired him; gave him work. 

16. to give up in a fight. 

The particle t'66, merely, is 
prepounded to the forms giver 
in no, 14. Thus, t'66 baa dini'q, 
I gave up (or gave in) to him. 

17. to prohibit it to him. 

F. *bits a-dideesh-'aat (didfi, i- 
didoo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) 
(didoot'aat) I. bits'a-dinish-'aah 
(dini, idee, zhdee, dinii, dinoh) 
(deet'aah) P. bits'a-dini-'q (dff- 
m, idinf, zhdinf, dinii, dinoo) 
(deet'q) R. bits'a-ndfsh-'adh 

(hdf, neidi, nizhdi, hdii, hdoh) 
(ndit'aah) 0. bits'a-dosh-'aal 
(doo, ido, zhdo, doo, dooh) (do- 
*bits'a~ becomes yits'a in 3o. 

18. to permit him. 

F> *ba-di'deesh-'aat (di'dif, di'- 
doo, zhdi'doo, di'dii, di'dooh) I. 
ba-di'nish-'oah (di'nf, 'dee, zh'- 
dee, di'nii, di'noh) P. ba-di'nf-'q 
fdiini, di'nf, zhdi'ni, di'nii, dP- 
noo) R. ba-n'dish-'aah (rVdf, rV- 
dr, mzh'di, n'dii, n'doh) O. ba- 


'dosh-'dal ('doo, 'do, zh'do, 'doo, 
*ba- becomes ya- in 3o. 
Shighan gone' biidootkaaf bi- 
niighe badi'nfq, I permitted him 
to spend the night in my house. 

19. to give it up; quit it. 

F. yoo' 'adideesh-'aai Cadidif, 'ii- 
didoo, 'azhdidoo, 'adidii, 'adi- 
dooh) I. yoo' 'adish-'aah ('adi, 
'iidi, 'azhdi, *adii, 'adoh) P. yoo' 
'adti-'q (adiini, 'iidii, 'azhdii, 'o- 
dii, 'adooh) R. yoo' 'andish-'aah 
fandf, 'aneidi, 'anfzhdf, 'andii, 
'andoh) O. yoo' 'adosh-'aat ('a- 
doo, 'iido, 'azhdo, 'adoo, 'adooh) 
Na'asht'oh yoo 'adideesh- 
t'aat, I'll give up smoking. 

20. to be irascible. 

N. *ayoo shf-nf si'q (ni, bf, ha, ni- 
hi, nihi) Only the pronoun pre- 
fixed to -ni, mind, changes. 

The following have to do with 
the general concept of "to han- 
dle/' and occur with f aaf, as well 
as with the other stems herewith 

There ore twelve verb stems 
referring to the handling of vari- 
ous objects. They are given here 
with the derivational prefix com- 
plexes which ore common to all, 
with certain semantic limitations 
which are self evident. 

After each of the following 
stems, the stem classifier is indi- 
cated in parentheses, (0) repre- 
senting the zero classifier. This 


classifier must be prefixed to the 
stem whenever the stem is join- 
ed to the paradigmatic and deri- 
vational prefixes conjugated 

gheef, gheeh (ghe), gh£, geeh, 
gheeh (0), to handle a pack, bur- 
den or load; anything bundled or 
loaded together, as a load of 
grain, sheep, etc.; whether it be 
handled by hand, or by wagon. 
jilt, jdah (jaah), jaa\ jih, jddh (0) 
to handle plural separable ob- 
jects, usually of small size and 
large number as shot, sand, bugs 
seeds, strings, etc. It con also re- 
fer to animate objects, as on 
armful of puppies for example. 
jtt, jiid (jid), jid, ji', jiid (I), to 
handle anything by means of the 
back; as a load, pack, baby, ba- 
bies, etc. 

jot, >oot (jool), jool, jol, joot (I), 
to handle non-compact matter, 
as wool, hay, brush, tangled hair 
or cord, etc. 

kaat, kaah (ka), kq, kaah, kaat 
(0), to handle any substance or 
number of things in a vessel; as 
in a pail, box, basket, pan, dish. 
leet, le (le), la, dleeh, leet (0), to 
handle a slender, flexible object; 
as a rope, snake, one hair, strip 
of bark, sapling, green branch. 
This stem is also used in refer- 
ring to an unknown object, such 
as something, anything. 
nil, nitl (jaah), nil, nit, ni.t (0), 
to handle plural objects, anima- 


te or inanimate. This stem refers 
to a smaller number than jih; as 
two or three shot, puppies, books 
or ropes. 

fee*, teeh (te), tj, teen, feel (I), to 
handle one animate object; as a 
baby, sheep, snake, bug ,man. 
fill, *Hh («n), fq, t«h, tijl (0), to 
handle a slender stiff object; as 
a pole, dry branch, stick, cigaret 
or rod. 

Hoh, Heeh (tteeh), flee', tfoh, 
Heeh (0), to handle mushy mat- 
ter; as mush, mud, mortar. 

tsos, tsoos (tsoos), fsooz, tsos, 
tsoos (I), to handle a flexible and 
flat object; as paper, cloth, cur- 
ed hide, sheet, blanket, etc. 

1. to carry or pull if up out; to 
get it away from him (without 
using force), beat him to it (wifh 
prepounded biyoa); to recover a 
fumble at football (with pre- 
pounded biyaa and the stem 


F. ha-deesh- (dii, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidTdoo-) I. ha-ash- 
(ni, i, ji, ii, ah) (bi'di-) P. hda- 
(hdini, hayii, hajn, haii, haoo) 
(habi'doo-) S-P, ha-se- (sinf, iz, 
jiz, sii, soo) (bi'dis-) R. ha-ndsh- 
(nanf, nef, naji, neii, nah) (nabf- 
di-) U. ha-ash- (ni, i, ji, ii, ah) 
(bi'df-) O. ha-osh- (66, yo, jo, 
do, ooh) (bi'do-) 

Bikeyah biyaa haa'q, I took 
his land away from him. 

2. to carry it out horizontally; 


to moke it (o fact) known (with 
the stem 'odt). 

F. ch'i-deesh- (dif, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. ch'f- 
nish- (ni, i, jf, nii, noh) (bi'dee-) 
P. ch'f-ni- (fni, inf, zhni, nii, noo) 
(bi'dee-) R. ch'i-nash- (nanf, 

nef, riji, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. 
ch'oosh- (ch'66, ch'fyo, ch'fjo, 
ch'oo, ch'ooh) (ch'fbi'do-) 

3. to start to carry it along. 

F. di-deesh- (dn, yi-doo, ji-doo, 
dii, dooh) I. dish- (di, yidi, jidi, 
dii rich) S~P. de- (dint, yideez, 
jideez, dee, disoo) R. ndfsh- (n- 
df, neidi, nfzhdf, ndii, ndoh) U. 
dish- (di, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) O. 
dosh- (doo, yido, jido, doo dooh) 

4. to start off with it. 

F. dah di-deesh-(ib. 3.) I. dah 
diish- (dii, yidii, shdii, dii, dooh) 
P. doh dii- (dini, yidii, shdii, dii, 
doo) R, dah ndiish- (ndii, neidii, 
nizhdii, ndii, ndooh) O. doosh- 
(doo, yidoo, jidoo, doo, dooh). 

5. to pick it up; to lift it; to 
find it; to choose it. 

F. ndideesh- (ndidii, neididoo, 
nizhdidoo, ndidii, hdidooh) (na- 
bidi'doo-) I. ndiish- (ndii, neidii 
nizhdii, hdii, ndooh) (nabidi'dii-) 
P. ndii- ridini, neidii, nfzhdii, n- 
dii, ndoo) (nabidi'dii-) R. nf-na- 
diish- (nadii, neidii, nazhdii na- 
dii, nadoh) (nabidi'dii-) O. 

ridosh- (ndoo, neidoo, nizhdo, n- 
doo, ndooh) (nabidi'do-) 

6. to be carrying it along (with 


propounded dah it means to be 
holding it up). 

Prog, yish- (yi, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bi'doo-) 

7. to bring it; take it; arrive 
carrying it; give it (with pro- 
pounded (b)aa, to (him). 

F. deesh- (dii, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. nish- (ni, yi, 
ji, nii, noh) (bidi'dee-) P. ni- (yi- 
nf, yini, jini, nii, noo) (bi'dee-) 
R, nash- (nanf, nei, riji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) 0. ghosh- (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 

8. to take it; bring it; put it 
(with such propounds as kjjh, in- 
to town, taah, into water, teeh, 
into the soil = bury). 

F. deesh- (dff, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- (ni, yi, 
ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) P. yf- (yfnf, 
yiyii, jff, yii, ghoo) (bi'doo-) R. 
nash- (nanf, nei, njf, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. ghosh- (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 

9. fro stop c& Trying it; to set it 
down (with propounded ni'); to 
set it down on it (with propound- 
ed bik'i); to carry it as far as a 
point and stop; to put it away 
(with propounded hasht'e*); to 
pawn it (with propounded 'qqh); 
pawn it to him (with baah). 

F. ni-deesh- (dn, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. ni-nish- 
(nf, yi, jf, nii, noh) (bi'dee-) P. 
ninf- (nffnf, niinf, nizhnf, ninii, 
ninoo) (nibi'dee-) R. ni-nash- 
(nanf, n6f, najf, neii, nah) (nabi*- 


di-) O. noosh- (noo-, niyo, njo, 
noo, nooh (nibi'do-) 

10. to lend it to him. 

F. ba'deesh- (ba'dii, ya'doo, ba- 
zh'doo, ba'dii, ba'dooh) (ba'- 
doo-) I. ba'nish- (ba'ni, ya'i, 
ba'ji, ba'nii, ba'noh) (ba'i-) P. 
ba'ni- (ba'iini, ya'ni, bazh'ni, 
ba'nii, ba'noo) (ba'i-) R. band'- 
'dsh- (band'i, yand'd, ban'ji, 
band'ii, band'oh) (band'd-) O. 
ba'osh- (ba'66, ya'6, ba'jo, ba'- 
oo, ba'ooh) (ba'd-) 

11a. to carry it out of sight; to 
carry it into an enclosure (with 
prepounded yah, into); to carry 
it away (with prepounded yoo\ 
away into invisibility); remove it, 
take it to one side (with pre- 
pounded nahji\ aside). 
F. 'adeesh- fadii, 'iidoo, 'azhdoo 
*adii. 'adooh) fabidi'doo-) I 
nsh- fani, ii, aji, M, oon) (a- 
i di-) P* ii- ( nni, ayn, ajii, u, 
'oo) ('abi'doo-) R. 'andsh- ('a- 
ndni, 'anef, 'ariji, 'aneii, *andh) 
Candbi'di-) O. 'oosh- ('oo, *ayo, 
'ajd, 'oo, 'ooh) Cabi'do-) 

lib. to carry it in or away by 
making several consecutive trips 

F. 'ahideesh- Cahidif, 'iidiyoo, 
'ahizhdiyoo, 'ahidii, 'ahidooh) 
Cabidi'yoo-) I. 'ahish- fahi, 'a- 
yii, *aj if , 'ahii, 'ahoh) Cabi'dii"-) 
P. 'ahe- Cahfnf, 'ayiiz, 'ajiiz 
*ahee, ahoo) ('abi'diis-) R 

'andhdsh- Oandhf, 'andyii, 'anf- 
fii, 'andhii, andhoh) fandbi'- 


dii-) O. 'ahosh- ('ahoo, 'iiyo, 
'ajiyd, 'ahoo, 'ahooh) Cabidi'yo-) 
1 1c. to carry it back in; to re- 
place it with it (with prepound- 
ed hich'qqhjT, in its place). 

F. 'andeesh- Cahdif, 'aneidoo, 
'anfzhdoo, 'andii, 'andooh) ('a- 
ndbidi'doo-) I. 'andsh- ('andni. 
'anef, anijf, 'aneii, andh) Ca- 
ndbi'di-) P. 'andd(sh)- ('aneini 
'andyoo, 'anjoo, 'aneii, 'andoo) 
Candb : 'doo-) R. 'ani-ndsh- (nd- 
r\\, r\e\, ndji, neii, ndh) (nabi'di-) 
O. 'cndosh- ('andoo, 'andyo, an- 
jo, 'andoo, 'andooh) Candbi'dd-) 

12. to keep it, have it (use the 
stem of the perfective). 

S-P. set- (sin ft, yiz, jiz, siil, soot) 

13. to carry it about (use the 
continuative imperf. stem). 

C-l. naash- (nani, nei, nji, neii, 
naah) (nabi'di-) 

14. to divide up, share, it (re- 
ferring to a single object the sig- 
nification is to divide it in halves 
but with reference to plural ob- 
jects it means to divide them up), 
F. 'atts'd-deesh- (dff, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. 'aJ- 
ts'd-nish- (ni, i, ji, nii, noh) (bi'- 
dee-) P. 'atts'd-nf- (fnf, inf, zhnf, 
nii, noo) (bi'dee-) R. 'atts'd- 
ndsh- (ndnf, nei', rijf, neii, ndh) 
(nabi'di-) O. atts'd-oosh- (66, 
yd, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'dd-) 

15. to take it down (as from a 
shelf, peg, limb, etc.). 


F. ndi'deesh- (ndfdii, na'iididoo, 
ndizh'doo, ndi'dii, ndi'dooh) (ni- 
bidi'doo-) I. n'diish- (n'dii, na'- 
iidii, nizh'dii, n'dii, n'dooh) (ni- 
bidi dii-) P. n'dii- (ndf ni, na'ii- 
dii, nizh'dii, n'dii, n'doo) (nibi*- 
doo-) R. ni-na'diish- (na'dii, na'- 
iidii, nazh'dii, na'dii, nd'dooh) 
nabi'dii-) O. n'doosh- (n'doo 
na'iidoo, nizh'doo, n'doo, 

n'dooh) (nabi'do-) 

16. to hang it up (with pro- 
pounded dah, up). 

F, hidideesh- (hididii, yididoo, 
hizhdidoo, hididii, hididooh) (bi- 
di'diyoo-) I. hidiish- (hidii, yidi- 
yii, hizhdiyii, hidii, hidooh) (bi'- 
dii-) P. hidii- (hidini, yidiyii, hi- 
zhdiyii hidii, hidoo) (bi'dii-) R. 
na-hidiish- (hidii, idiyii, hizhdi- 
yii, hidii, hidooh) (bi'dii-) O. hi- 
doosh- (hidoo, yidiyoo, hizhdi- 
yoo, hidoo, hidooh) (bi'diyoo-) 

17. to take it out of the fire; to 
take it out of the water; to catch 
large quantities of fish (with the 
stem ghee*). 

F. dzfits'a-deesh- (dii, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dodh) (bidi'doo-) I. 

dzftts'a-nfsh- (ni, iyii, jii, nii, 
noh) (bi'dee-) P. dzftts'a-nf- (f- 
ni, nti, zhnff, nii, noo) (bi'dee-) 
R. dzfits'a-nash- (nanf, nei, nji, 
neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. dzfits'a- 
oosh- (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

18. to add it (them) to it. 

F. *bfn£i-deesh- (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (binabidi'doo-) I. bf- 
neish- (nei, nayii, njii, neii, no- 


oh) (binabfdii-) P. **bi-neish- 
(neini, nayii, njii, neii, ndoo) (bi- 
nabi'dii-) R. bi-neish- (nei, na- 
yii, njii, neii, naoh) (binabi'dii-) 
O. bi-naoosh- (66, nayoo, hjoo, 
naoo, naooh) (bmabi'doo-) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
**Stems with initial ', gh, n, or I 
add the d classifier (giving t'aat, 
geet, *nit, etc.) requiring -sh- in 
the IstsgL t class verbs do not 
have -sh- in the 1st sgl but retain 
the t, so bfneit- for bineish-. 

19. to save it, take it to safety. 

F, yisda-deesh- (dif, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yisda-sh- 
(nf, i, ji, ii, h) (bi'di-) P. yisda-a- 
(ini, yn, jif, ii, oo) (bPdoo-) R. 
yisda-nash- (nanf, nef, njf, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. yisda-oosh- 
(66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

20. to take it away from him 
by force (zero class verbs require 
d classifier). 

F. *bigha-deesh- (dii, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. bi- 
gha-nish- (nf, f, jf, ii, oh) (bi'dee) 
P. bi-ghanish- (ghafnf, ghai, 
ghajf, ghanii, ghanooh) (ghabi'- 
dee-) R. bigha-nash- (nanf, nef, 
njf, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. bi- 
gha-oosh- (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) 
* bigha- becomes yfgha- in 3o. 

21. to be (in position) is ren- 
dered by prefixing perfective si- 
to the perfective stem in the sgl 
and naax- in the pi. 


si'q, sigh[, sinil, etc. in the sgl, 
and naaz q, naaztq, naaznil, etc 
in the pi (with exception of the 
stem tsos which has si+tsooz in 
sgl and naastsooz in pi). 

22. to take it bock out of 
pawn; take it back out (zero 
class verbs require d classifier)* 
F. hdd-deesh- (dii, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. ha-ndsh- 
(ndni, nef, nji, neii, ndh) (hddbi*- 
di-) P. hand-ash- (fnf, yoo, joo, 
ii, oo) (bi'doo-) R. hani-ndsh- 
(ndnf, nef, ndji, neii, ndh) (ndbi*- 
di-) O. hana-oosh- (66, yo, jo, 

00, ooh) (bi'do-) 

23. to carry it back and forth. 
F. 'aina-adeesh- (ddff, neidoo, 
dzhdoo, ddii, adooh) (dbidi'doo-) 

1. 'atnd-ndsh- (dni, nef, djf, neii, 
nah) (ndbi'di-) P. 'aind-ndsh- 
(nefnf, nef, djf, neii, ndoo) (bi'- 
doo-) R. 'atna-ndsh- (ndni, nef, 
naji, neii, ndh) (nabi'di-) O. *at- 
nd -ndoosh- (naoo, dyo, djo, doo, 
aooh) (ndbi'do-) 

24. to exchange their posi- 

F. afnd-deesh- (dff, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. 'at-ndsh- 
(ndnf, nef, ndjf, neii, ndh) (ndbi'- 
di-) P. 'atnd-nf- (fnf, fz, jfz, ii 
ooh) (bi'doo-) R. 'a+ndnf-ndsh- 
(ndnf, nef, najf^ neii, ndh) (ndbi'- 
di-) O. 'a+nd-oosh- (66, yo, jo, 
oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

25. to put it into the fire. 

F. di-dideesh- (didff, ididoo, di- 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (bidi'- 


doo-) I. di-dish- (df, idi, zhdi, 
dii,doh) (bi'di-) P. di-dii- (dfini, 
idii, zhdii, dii, doo) (bi'doo-) R. 
di-hdish- (ndi, neidi, nizhdi, ndii 
ridoh) (ndbi'di-) O. di-dosh- 
(doo, ido, zhdo, doo, dooh) (bi*- 

26. to set it up (as on a shelf) 

F. dah deesh- (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. dah 

shish (si, yi, ji, sii, sooh) (bi'di-) 
P. se,( sfnf, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) (bi'- 
dis-; R. ndsh- (ndnf, nef, njf, ne- 
ii, ndh) (ndbi'di-) O. ghosh- 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoO, ghooh) (bi'- 

27. to carry it too far. 

F. ha-didfneesh- (didinii, ididf- 
noo, zhdidfnoo, didfnfi, didmooh) 
P. ha-dinesh- (dfnfnf, idinees, 
zhdinees, dfnee, dfnoo) R. hdd- 
dfnfsh- (dfnf, idfnf, zhdfnf, dfnfi, 
dfnoh) O. ha-dfnosh- (dfnoo, i- 
dfno, zhdfno, dfnoo, dfnooh) 

28. to turn it over. 

F.ndhideesh- (ndhidff, neidiyoo, 
ndhizhdoo, ndhidii, ndhidooh) 
(ndhibidi'doo-) I. ndhideesh- 
(ndhidee, neidiyee, ndhizhdee, 
ndhidee, ndhidooh) (ndbi'diyee-) 
Prog, ndheesh- (ndhff, neiyoo, 
njiyoo, ndhii, ndhooh) (ndbi'di- 
yoo-) P. ndhidee- (nahidiinf, 
neidiyee, ndhizhdee, ndhidee, 
ndhidoo) (ndbi*diyee-) R. nfnd- 
hideesh- (nmahidee, nineidiyee, 
nfndhizhdee, nmahidee, nfndhi- 
dooh) (nfndbi'diyee-) O. ndhi- 



doosh- (ndhidoo, neidiyo, nahi- 

zhdoo, nahidoo, nahidooh) (r\Q~ 


*aal, 'a, V Caad), 'aah, 'a', to 

send, order, command. 

1. to send him off. 

F. dideesh-'aat (didiit, yididoat, 
jididoot, didiil, didoot) (bidi*- 
dool-) I. dish- 'a (dit, yidit, jidit, 
ditl, dot) (bi'dil-) P. det-V (dmit 
yidees, jidees, deel, disoat) (bidi'- 
deesV) R. ndfsh-'aah (ndit, nei- 
dit, nizhdit, ndiil, hdat) (nabi'- 
dil-) O. dosh-*a' (doot, yidot, ji- 
dot, dool, doot) (br do!-) 

2. lo send him. 

The future and imperfective 
of 1. are used. P. 'ftt-'a' Omit, 
'aynt, 'ajnt, 'ill, *oot) Cabi'doo!-) 
R, 'a-nash-'aah (nanit, neft, njft, 
neiil, nat) (nabPdii-) O. oosh-'a' 
Coot, ayot, 'a jot, 'ool, 'oot) Ca- 

3* to order, command, him. 
F. deesh-'aat (dnt, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yish-'a 
(nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'dil-) P. 
yft-'aad (yfnit, yiyiit, jut, yiil, 
ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. nash-'aah 
(nanft, neit, hjit neiil, nat) [no- 
bi'dil-) O. ghosh-V (ghoot, yot, 
jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

4. to p!an; to govern. 
F. naho-deesh-'aat (or *aat) (dii, 
doo, zhdoo, dii, dooh) (doot'aat) 
C-l. na-hash-'a (ho, ha, hoji, 
hwii, hoh) (hat'a) P. na-hose-'q 
(sinf, haaz, hojiz, hosii, hosoo) 
(hast'q) R. nina-hash-'aah (ho, 


ha, hoji, hwii, hoh) 0. na-hosh- 
'aat (hoo, ho, hojo, hoo, hooh) 

Bd nahash'd, I plan for them; 
govern them. 

5. to order him about. 
C-l. naash-'a' (nanit, neit, njit, 
neiil, naat) 

6* to take orders; to be a ser- 
vant; to run errands. 
C-l. naash-'a* (nanil, naal, njil, 
neiil, naat) 

7. to be lazy; to refuse to take 

N. doo yish-'aa da (ni!, yil, jil, 
yiil, ghot). doo yiTaa da, he will 
not take orders; he is lazy. 

8. to become or be ill; get sick. 
F. *bqqh dahwiidoo'aat I. bqqh 
dahoo'aah P. bqqh dahoo'a' N. 
bqqh dahaz'q R. bqqh dah 
nahoo'aah O. bqqh dahoo'aah 

*The above forms ore given for 
the 3. person only. It is conjuga- 
ted by altering the pronoun ob- 
ject of the postposition (b)qqh. 
'oat, 'aah, *$q' *aah, *aat, to 

1 . to learn it. 

F. *bihwii-deesh-'aat (diit, doot, 
zhdoot, dii I, doot) (doo-) I. bi- 
hoosh-'aah (hoot, hoot, hoji it, 
hwiil, hoot) (hoo-) P. bf-hoot- 
y qq (hwiinit, hoot, hojiit, hwii!, 
hoot) (hoo-) R. bfna-hoosh-'aah 
(hoot, hoot, hojiit, hwii I, hoot) 
(hoo-) 0. bi-hoosh-'aat (hoot, 
hoot, hojoat, hool, hoot) (hoo-) 
*bf- becomes yi- in 3o. 


2. to toko training. 

This is the same as no. 1, ex- 
cept that indefinite 'i- replaces 
definite bi. Thus, 'ihoot'qq*, I 
trained, or took training. 
qqh haa'a, debt 
'qqh hadtT, (saddle) fringes 
'qqh ha'ajeeh to da'diisootigii, 
chicken pox, varicella 
'qqh dahaz'q, ailment, sickness 
'qqh dahoyoot'aafii, disease 
'qqh 'azla, pawn 

'gal, 'qqh (q), 'qqd, 'qqh, 'qqh, to 
reach (in quantity as water). 

1. to come up; rise (water). 

F. dinool'qqt I. neel'qqh Prog. 
'anool'qql N. neel'q P. neel- 
'qqd S-P. nees'qqd R. nanil'qqh 
0. nol'qqh 

to tse bits[jji' dinool'qqi, the 
water will come up to the bottom 
of the rock. 

2. to revert back to a former 
level; lo go beck down (with pro- 
pounded yaa, down); to come 
back up (with prepounded dei, 

F. hdf'noorqqt I. na'neePqqh 
Prog, na'nool'qqt R, ndi'nifqqh 
0. na'noPqqh 

to yaa ndf*n6orqqt, the water 
will go back down. 

3. to measure up to it; to be a- 
ble; to be able to afford it. 
F. *bi'df-neesh-'qqi (mil, nool, 
zhdinool, niil, noot) N* bi-neesh- 
'q {ninil, nil, zhnil, niil, nooD P. 
bf-neesh-'qqd (nffnfl, neel, zh- 
neel, niil, noot) R. bfna-nfsh- 


*qqh (nil, neel, zhneel, niil, not) 
0. bi-n6sh-*qq+ (nool, nol, zhnol, 
nool, noof) 

bi- becomes yi- in 3o, 

doo binesh'qq da, I am un- 
able, ninesh'q, I can do any- 
thing you can. doo shininil'qq 
da, you're not "up to me." 

4. to measure it. 

F. bi-di'neesh-'qqt (di'nifi, di'- 
noot, dizh'nool, di'niil, di'noot) 
(di'nool-) I. bi-'neesh-'qqh (neet 
'neel, zhYieet, 'niil, 'noot) ('neel-) 
P. bi-'neel-'qqd (n'nit, 'neet, zh- 
nee+, 'niil, 'noot) ('neel-) R. bina- 
*neesh-'qqh ('neet, neeJ, zh'neet, 
'niil, no*r ('neel-) O. bi-'nosh- 
'qqh ('nooi, 'not, zhnol, 'nool, 
'nool) ('not-) 

* bi- becomes yi-, in 3o. 

5. to be insufficient for it; to 
fall short of it; to be unable to 
afford it. 

F. bi'oh di-neesh-'qqt (nfil, nool, 
zhnool, niil, nool) N. bi'oh 
neesh-'q (ninil, neel, shneel, niil, 
noot) P. bi'oh nesh-'qqd (ninil, 
neel, shneel, niil, nool) R. bi'oh 
na-nish-*qqh (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, 
nol) 0. bi'oh nosh-'qqh (nool, 
nol, shnol, nool, noot) 

* bi'oh becomes yi'oh in 3o. 
sha'a+chinf bi'oh neesh'q, I am 

unable to support my family. 
'a, to extend (a slender stiff obj.) 

1 . to extend; point. 
haa'a, it extends up out; deez'a, 
it extends along; 'ii'a, it extends 
into (as a hole); nV6 t it extends 


horizontally; ninTa, it extends to 
a point (where it terminates); na- 
ni'a, it extends across; naoa, it 
extends downward; yaa'a, it ex- 
tends straight up. deigo deez- 
'a, it slants upward; yaago deez- 
% 6, it slants downward; naani igo 
deez'a, it extends horizontally; 
deigo yaa'a, it projects vertically 

2. to cause if- to project up out 
P. hda+-'a (ham ft, hayiit, hajiit, 
haiil, haoot) (habi'dool-) 

3. to cause it to project verti- 
cally; to hold it vertically. 

P. ya-at-'a (inil, yiM, jiit, iil, oof) 

4. to hold it horizontally. 

P. det-'a (dinft, yidees, jidees, 
dee I, disoot) 

5* to hold it into an enclosure. 

P. yah 'ift-'a fifnit, 'ayut, 'ajiit, 
''iil, oot) (yah 'abi'dool-) 

6. to hold it pointed at, or a- 
<j3«nst him. 

P. bidiit- a (bidinit, yiidiit,, bizh- 
dut, bidiil, bidoot) 

shibee'eldooh nidii+'a, I have 
my gun pointed at you. 

7 \ to be worried; concerned. 
P. shi'diit- a (ni'diit, bPdiit, ho'- 
diit, nihrdiit, nihi'diit) 

8. to occupy an area (pi obj.). 
N. neil-'d (noot, yil, jil) 

me t oq yil qq nt §§ , all peo- 
ple, dzit bqqh yas yfl'a, the mt. 
Is snow capped, shikeyah bi- 
kaa'gi tsin t*66 'ahayoi yM'a, my 
land is covered with trees. 


9. to owe; to be indebted to* 

This meaning is rendered by 
orepounding -qqh, alongside 
(one) to the verb forms that fol- 
low. The idea is literally that the 
creditor (the subject of the verb) 
causes something to project up 
out alongside the debtor (the ob- 
ject of the postposition -qqh. So, 
nqah haal'a, you owe me (I cause 
it to project out beside you); naa- 
ki beeso shqqh haynt'a, I owe 
him two dollars (he causes it to 
project out alongside me). 
P. haat-'a (hainrt, hayffi, hajift, 
haiil, haoot) 

10. to be noisy; to make noise. 
N. ha-hwifnish-'a (hwiinil, hoot, 
hoji'r't, hwiil, hoot) 

t'aadoo hahwiinit'ahi, don't 
make so much noise! 
'abani, buckskin 
'abqqh naatT, border strand (of 
the warp of a rug) 
'abe\ milk (bibe*; be'abe 1 ) 
'abe* 'astse\ udder 
*abid, stomach 

f abid dikini, duodenum (also 'a- 
bid dijooli) 

'abizhi, paternal uncle, or aunt 
'achashjish, diaphragm 
'acha'ashk'azhi, kidney 
'acheii ('achaii), maternal grand 
1 achi, birth 
'achijh, nose; snout 
'achfjshtah, nostril 
'acho, maternal great grandmo- 



'acho', genitalia 
'acho* bighffzhii, testicle 
'acho' bizis, prepuce 
'achxoshtt'ddl, sur-cingle; cinch 
'dch'dqh neilgheii, shield. 
'ach'dhdyah, armpit 
'ach'e'edqq', yard; dooryard 
'ach'e'e, daughter; niece (daugh- 
ter of one's sister) (f.s.) 
'ach'ii', intestine 
'ach'ii' bits'dni'nisq, appendix 
'ach'iidiil, large intestine 
'ach'ii' dootf'izhi, small intestine 
'ach'ooni, comrade; partner 
'ach'ozh, calf of the leg 
'ach'oozhlaa', elbow 

'oddddit'dhi, stopper; lid 
'adddh gonaa dah sitdnigii, neck 
'odaa', lip 

'addghaa', mustache; whiskers 
'addghi', throat (inside) 
'ado', nephew (son of one's sis- 
ter (m. s) 

'add'i, uncle (mother's brother) 
*ddah ndnidaahii, chairman 
*ddah sitq, top crossbeam of the 

'addjoozh, epiglottis 
'addziz, glottis 
adqqdqq', yesterday 
'adee', gourd; dipper; spoon; 
horn (bidee\ his horn; be'adee', 
his gourd; dipper; spoon) 
'adees'eez, linear foot. t'aaia- 
hadi 'odees'eez bnghahgo, one 
foot long. 

'adeezhi, younger sister 
'ddi, elder sister 


'adigqsh, witchcraft 
'ddin, nothing; zero; none 
'adinidiin, light (be'adinidim) 
'adilghe, adultery 
'ddistsiin, stirring stick 
'adldanii, drunkard 
'adoh, muscle 

'adoh bits'id, tendon; ligament 
"adoh dah diik'qqd, cramp 
'adokeedi, beggar 
'agaan, arm 

'agaan bita* sitdni, humerus 
'agqqldd', lower arm; ulna 
'agqqstsiin, scapula; shoulder 

'ogqqziz, sleeve 

'aghdadi, favorite; extreme; su- 
perlative; best, dn 'aghaadi shil 
fikan, this is my favorite 
aghacT, wool; fur; pubic hair 
(bighaa*, his pubic hair, wool; 
be'cghaa' his (sheep) wool) 
'aghaa* hindcTcmishdi, woolen 

Vghd'deeidiaad, x-ray 
'agha'dtit'aahii, defense attor- 
ney; lawyer 

'eghdhwiizidi, laxative; purge 
'aghdhwsizedi 'ak'ohigii, castor 

'aghddt, rattle (be'aghaat) 
'aghddf nimazigii, gourd rattle 
'agh$$zhii, egg; testicle (bi- 
gh^zhii, her egg; his testicle 
be'agheezhii, his (hen's) egg) 
'ogheezhii bits'iil, egg shell 
'aghid, chest; sternum 
*aghi' hodiltd, heartburn 
'oghi'd??' dil, hemorrhage 



'oghih, breath 

'aghdchaan, tartar (on teeth) 

'aghdk'iz bee na'atsii, toothpick 

'aghol, marrow 

'aghoo', tooth; teeth 

'aghoo' bee yich'iishi, toothbrush 

'aghoo' diniih, toothache 

'aghoo' yinaalnishi, dentist 

'aghos, shoulder 

'aghdtsiin, gums (of teeth) 

'aghozhah, eyetooth 

'agizii, chronic rheumatism 

'a god. knee 

'agodist'dni, kneecap 

'ah, 'ah, 'oh, 'ah, 'ah, to skin 

1. to skin, butcher, it. 

F« hdeesh-*ah (hdfri, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, hdiil, hdoot) (nabidi 1 - 
dool-) I. nash-'ah (non\\, neit, 
hjfi, neiil, ndl) (nabi'dil-) P. ni- 
set-'ah (nisfnit, neis, hjis, nfsiil, 
nisool) (nabi'dis-) R, nf-nash- 
'ah (nanft, neit, najfl, neiil, no\) 
(nabi'dil-) O. na-osh-'ah (66*, 
yot, joi, ool, ooi) (bi'dol-) 

nand'ah, skin it! gah nash- 
'ah, I am skinning the rabbit. 
'ah, 'ddh, 'ah, 'ah, 'ah 

2. to blame him. 

F. *bik'iho-deesh-'ah (dfi, doo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) (doot'ah) I. 

bik'f-hash-'aah (ho, he, hoji, 
hwn, hoh) (hat'aah) P. bik'i- 
hose-'ah (hosfni, haz, hojiz, ho- 
sii, hosoo) (hast'ah) R. bik'ina- 
hash-'ah (ho, ha, hoji, hwii, hoh) 
(hat'ah) O. bik'f-hosh-'ah (hoo, 
ho, hojo, hoo, hooh) (hot'ah) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 


shilif daaztsqqgo nik'fho- 
deesh'ah, if my horse dies I'll 
blame you. 

'ah, 'ddh, 'aa 1 , *ah, *ddh, to de- 

1. to deceive, fool, him. 

F. dfneesh-'ah (dinfi, yidinoo, ji- 
dmoo, dinfi, dinooh) (bidf'noo- 
t'ah) I. nosh-'aah (nfni, yino, ji- 
no, nii, noh) (bidi'not'aah P. 
nfi-'aa* (nimi, yinfi, jini, nii, noo) 
(bidi'neet'aa') R. na-nosh-'ah 
nini, yino, zhno, nii, noh) (nabi- 
di'not'ah) O. nosh-'adh (noo, 
yino, jino, noo, nooh) (bidi'no- 
t'aah) haishf[ bidinoo'ah, some 
one will fool him. 

2. to lure him in; trick him in- 
to entering. 

F. yah 'abidfneesh-'ah ('abidfnfi, 
'iidfnoo, 'abidi'zhnoo, 'abidmfi, 
abidfnooh) ('abidi'noot ah) I. 
'abinish-'aah fabini, 'ifni, 'abi- 
zhni, 'abinii, 'abinoh) ('abidi'nf- 
t'aah P. *abinff-'aa' Cabiniini, 
'iinn, 'abizhnn, 'abinii, 'abinoo) 
Cabidfnoot'aa') R. 'anabinish- 
f ah fanabini, 'aneini, 'anabizh- 
ni, 'anabinii, 'anabinooh) ('ana- 
bidi'nt'ah) O. 'abinosh-'aah 

('abinoo, 'iino, 'abizhno, 'abinoo 
'abinooh) ('abidi'not'aah) 

'a- con be left off, and the 
postposition biih, into it, substi- 
tuted. Thus, chidf bight' gone* 
yah 'abidmeesh'ah or chidf biih 
dineesh'ah, I'll lure him into the 



'ahqqh, abreast; side by side, 
silaago d££' 'ahqqh naazQgo yi- 
kah +eh, soldiers usually march 
four abreast. 
*a hdchj\ anger 
'ahadit'ddn, joints 
'ahaghai, wither (of horse, etc.) 
'aha'deet'aah, treaty; agree- 

'ahsedeetdq', of equal thickness 
or depth. 

'aheejolgheedi, baseball game 
'aheeft'e, the same; similar 
'Gheemlddds, of equal weight 

cheertildiil, the same in size (as 
animals, people, logs, etc.) 
'aheeniineez, of the same length 
'aheeniftsddz, of the same width 
'aheeniitso, same in length, size 
'ahbtni Cabini)/ morning 
'chbinigo dcfaddnigii, breakfast 
*ahi f fog; mist 

'ahi(ds)noolin, similar (dist. pi) 
in appearance 
'ahidVniisq, adhesion 
'ahidziskeii, married couple. 
'ahiga, combat 

ahif hane*, conversation 
'ahineel'q, equal to each other; 
in a state of balance. 
'ahidoltq'go, all together; count- 
ing all. hastiin bitsi* taa\ bighe' 
t'eiya naaki, 'ako t*ad 'a+tso 'a- 
hiooltq'go 'ashdla* ba'afchfnf 
the man has three daughters and 
two sons, so all together he has 
five children. 

'dhonitteel, (relatively) wide. 
'dhoodziil, energy 


Vddn, hole; burrow (ba'aan). 
'd'dhwiinit'f, kindness 
'ajddd, leg 

'ajddd bit<T sitdm, femur; thigh 

'ajaaghi 1 , inner ear 
'ajaaghi' ddddinibaali, eardrum 
'ajaaghi' hodiniih, ear ache 
*ajaa\ ear; ear lobe 
'ajdnil, fringe (of a shawl, etc.) 
'ajdstis, shin 

'ajeeht'iizh, wax (from the ear) 
'ajee', axle grease 
'ajeets'iin, thorax 
'ojei dishjool, heart 
'ajeits'iin, trunk of the body; 

*ajei yilzolii, lungs 
'ojei yilzolii biih yitk'aaz, pneu- 

*ajei yflzolii bik'esti'igii, pleura 
'ajHchii', anus; rectum 
'ajoozh, vagina 
'akdd' yih§§s, itch; pruritis 
'akddz, tonsil; gland 
'akdgi, skin 

'akdgi 'dndolingi, complexion. 
'akdisddhi, Milky Way 
*akai, leather 
'akat 'aghddt, hide rattle 
*akaf bee 'ak'aashi, strop 
'akai bisttee'ii, cowboy 
'akdshri'o, body hair 
'akee*, foot; feet 
'akedinibini, toes 
'akeghos, bunion 
'akenii', arch of foot (also 'ake- 
'akeshgaan, toenail, hoof, claw 



'okeshgaon 'aghddi, hoof rattle 
'aketal, calcaneous, heel bone 
'akeH'dah, sole (of the foot) 
'aketf'661, root 
'akets'iin, tarsus; ankle joint 
'akezhoozh, toes; phalanges of 
the foot 

*dko, then; so then; so. \\\ bike- 
tsnn be'setl g, 'ako doo nizaad- 
goo 'adoogaat da, I hobbled the 
horse so he won't go far. 
'dkodei, up there, 'akodei ha'a- 
tiin, the road goes up there. 
'dkohgo 'inda, when; then, 
chizh kf 'ahiditkaat 'akohgo *in- 
da nichY n'deeshleef, when you 
'dko 'inidida, then, 'a+tso k'i*- 
chop some wood I'll pay you. 
dfilaago 'dko 'fnidi'da hooghan 
'adeesh+itt, when I've finished 
planting then I'll build a home. 
'dkone', there inside. 'akone' 
hoozk'az, it is cold there inside, 
'dkonaa, across there, 'akonaa 
tsin naa'nkeez, the tree fell a- 
cross there. 

'dkoyaa, down there. 'akoyaa 
to ril[, down there a river flows. 
"dk99, thereabout; to there, 'a- 
kgg diit'ash, let's go there. 
*dkQ9, here and there. 'akgg 
tsin 'adaaz'a, here and there a 
tree sticks up. 

'dkwe'e, right there. *dkwe*6 to 
haal{, there is a spring there. 
'dkwii, there. *akwii shiba' ,wait 
for me there. 
'ak'ddn, flour (be'ak'aan) 


'ak'ddn dich'izhi, cornmeal; 
cream of wheat 
'ak'aashjacT, pelvis; ilium 
'ak'ah, lard fat, tallow, grease, 
vaseline (bik'ah; be'ak'ah) 
'ak'ahkQ', oil; kerosene; oil lamp 
'ak'ahkg* biih yit'i'i, lamp wick 
'ak'ah 'aghdhwiizidigii, castoi 

'ak'ah diltti i, candle 
'ak'ai\ hip; pelvic bone 
'ak'e'elchi, writing 
'akTiilchj, nightmare 
'ak'inaalzhoodi, harrow 
ak'inaazt T, harness 
'ak'is, sibling or maternal cou- 
sin (of the same sex) 
'ak'os, neck 

'ak'osdoolghoti, atlas bone 
'ak'99', seed 

'alddhji, on the farther side. *a- 
laahjf naa'o+f k'fdnla, I planted 
the beans on the farther side. 
'014911* siziinii, leader. 
'afqgji' naaziinii, leaders. 
'alah, sibling or maternal cousin 
(of opposite sex) 
'dla', hand 

'dlcT 'ahqqh dade'dhigii, knuck- 

'dldk'e, hand; area of the hand 
'dldshgaan, fingernails 
'dldstsii', beard (of grain) 
'dldtah, tip; extremity. 
'dldtf'ddh, palm (of hand) 
'dldtsiin, wrist 
'dlats[|ts'in, wrist bones 
'dldtsoh, thumb 



'dldxhooxh, fingers; phalanges 
of the hand 

'ol'jigi, the technique of mak- 
ing; how it is made. 
'dliil, magic; supernatural power 
'alixh bikddx, prostate gland 

'alohk'e', pancreas 
a 166s, rice (be'aloos) 
*ai, 'add, *ah, 1 ah, 'add, to toss a 
flat flexible object. 

1. to drop it (one flat flexible 

F. ndeesh-'ai (ndii, neidoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) (nabidi'doo- 
t'ai) I. naash-'aad (nani, nei, 
nji, neii, naah) (nabi'dit'aad) P. 
naa-'ah (neinf, nayu, njff, neii, 
naoo) (nabi'doot'ah) R. ni- 

nash-'ah (nanf, nef, hjf, neii, 
nah) (nabi'dit'ah) O. na-osh- 
'aad (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'do- 

2. to lose it (one flat flexible 

F. yoo' 'adeesh-'ai Cadfi, Midoo, 
'azhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) ('abidi'- 
doot'af) I. yoo* 'iish-'dad Cani, 
'ii, 'ajii, 'ii, 'ooh) fabi'dit'aad) 
.yoo ii-ah(nni, ayn, ajn, n, 
'oo) Cabi'doot'ah) R. yoo 1 'a- 
nash- ah ( anam, aner, anji, a- 
neii, 'anah) Oanabi'dit'ah) O. 
yoo oosh- aad ( oo, ayo, ajo, 
'oo, 'ooh) Cabi'dot'aad) 
'at, *aa*, *aal, *at, 'act, to chew 
a hard object (corn, ice, candy, 
gum, etc.). 


1 . to chew, eat, it. 

F. deesh-'at (dii, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doot'at) I. yish-'aat 
( ni / yi/ \h y''/ ghoh) (bi'dit'aaf) 
P, yi-'aal (yinf, yiyif, jfi, yii, ghoo) 
(bi'doot'aal) R. nash-t'a+ (nani, 
ne\ t hji, neii, nah) (nabi'dit'at) 

0. ghosfv'aaf (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo 
ghooh) (bi 'dot'aaf) 

'at, 'ad, 'ah, *ah, 'ah, to loosen, 
1. to untie; loosen; take down 
(the hair). 

F, k'e-'deesh-'af Cdif, 'iidoo, zh'- 
doo, 'dii, 'dooh) Cbidi'doot'aO 

1. k'e'-esh-'ad (f, e, ji, ii, oh) 
(bi'dit ad) P. kV-fi-'ah (fini, fi, 
jfi, 'ii, 'oo) (bi'doot'ah') R. k'e- 
na'-ash-'ah (f, a, jf, ii, oh) (bi*- 
dit'ah) O. kV-osh-'ah (66, yo, 
jo, ,oo, 'ooh) (bi'dot'ah) 

'dtah 'aleeh, conference, conven- 
tion, meeting 

'dtchini, children (ba'aichinO 
'atch'ishji, on both sides* or 
either side. 
'dfch'iidi, few; little 
'atdo', also; too. shil[i' 'atdo* 
'oodlqq', my horse drank too. 
'atdxehe, tanner 
'afhosh, asleep 

*o¥qq, different; apart; distinct; 
separate, 'a+'qq ndaninil, sepa- 
rate them one from the other! 
*aVqq 'ddaat'eii, different kinds 
'ot'pg dine'e, (different) tribes 
'afiitnii, prostitute; whore 
*afk*£i, mutually related (as kin) 
'afk'esdisi, candy (be alk'esdisi) 
'atk'esgix, twisted. 



"afk'idqq', long ago. 'a+k'idqq 

1 ayoo ndaha-ftin rit^e* jini, it is 

said that long ago it used to rain 

c lot. 

^atk'iniilgizh, jerky; jerked meat 


'atndhdddlddd, oblique fracture 

*otnir # center; middle (be'atniT) 

'atni'ni'q, noon 

'oftaas'ei, assorted; various 

^altah, mixed; different, t'ad 

1 aitso 'attah 'adaat'eego nisin, I 

want them all different. 'atk'es- 

disi tse bit 'a+tah la, there are 

stones mixed with the candy. 

'ofta'ninil, alternation 

^ok'ef, kin; relatives 

'ak'idadidisi, bandages 

'ak'Sdahi'iiiti, saddle blanket 

'att'qq, in spite of their wishes) 

to their dismay; malgre lui. 

'attij\ bow (be'attjr) 

'atttfrTddl, bowstring 

*6lt*Q*i f shallow; thin 

'dftse, first 

'otts'qqhji, on each side; on both 


'attVqq' deenini, pick 

'dlts'iisi, little; small 

*dfts*ddzi, slender; slim 

'cmd, mother; maternal aunt 

*amd sdm, paternal grandmother 

*omd ydzhi, niece (daughter of 

one's sister) (m. s.) 

1 ona6\ eyes 

*anaa', war 

'nnoashashi, Santa Clara Pueblo 

*d naozj, representatives. 

'onanish, business (shinaanish) 


'anaai, elder brother 
'anaasdzi, ancient people; ene- 
my ancestors 
'anddiz, eyelash 
'andgaii, white of the eye 
'ana'i, enemy (be'ena'f) 
'andk'ee, eye socket; ocular area 
'andli, paternal grandfather or 

'andts'iin, eyebrow; supraorbital 
'andzhiin, pupil (of the eye) 
'andziz, eyelid 

'andziz bii' dighozhi, trachoma 
'aneest'fj', theft, burglary 
'ane'eshtit, snot; nasal mucus 
'anichxooshtf'ah, the corner of 
one's eye. shinichxooshtt'ah bee 
dee'{[\ I looked out of the cor- 
ner of my eye. shinichxoosht+'ah 
bee neet'if, I looked at him out 
of the corner of my eye. 
'dnihwif'aohis, judge 
am an, stem (bam an) 
'cni'iihfii thief; burglar 
'oni'if, thievery 

'amid, recently. *aniid nayiis- 
nii\ he recently bought it. 
'dniidi, recently. 'anifdf daaz- 
tsq, he recently died. 
'anil', face 
'anii', waist 
'dnii\ nares 
'rtRNshlttcT, cheek bone 
'aniitsj', cheek 
'amk'ide'dni, halter 
'dnildiil, large; bjg 
'anili, rags 
'dnittso, large; big. dn ch'ah 



shilaah 'aniitso, this hat is too 
big for me. 
'anitY, fence 

'anitT bit 'adaalkaaii, staple 
'dnt'ffh, poison 
'aoo', yes 

*dsaa', pot; dish; bowl; drum 
(be'esaa' or be*esa') 
'asaa' bee yiltqzhi, drumstick 
'dsaa' dddeesft'dnigii, pot drum 
'dsaa* ditdni, dutch oven 
"asaa" to bee naakdhi, pail 
'asdzdni, woman; wife (be'es- 

'asdzdni bahostiin daaztsdnigii, 

'asdzdni da'iigisigii, laundress 
'asdzoh, inch. hastqqdi 'as- 
dzoh, six inches. 
'aseezj, gossip 

*asgq\ pelt; hide, (bisgq'; be'- 

'ash, *aash Cash), *ddzh, 'ash, 
'aash, dual stem of walk, go, etc 
(V. goal) 

'ashchitnii, parents (bishchfinii) 
'ashch'gh, fit; hysteria 
'ashdla'ajf nda'anish, Friday 
'ash like, boys. 
'dshjjh, salt (be'ashjih) 
'dshfjh, Salt Lake, N.M. 
'dshjjh fikan, sugar 
'ashja'ariinii, opportunity; "op- 
portunity maker." 
'ashkii, boy 

'as'ah, long (time), doo 'as'ah 
sedaa da, I cannot sit long. 
'as'ahgdd, a long time (endur- 
ing), tsi'^dp'ii doo 'as'ahgoo 


dahinaa da, flies do not live long, 
dii ke 'as'ahgoo nqqh dmoot- 
nah, these shoes will last you a 
long time. 

'dsitq, lower crossbeam (on loom) 
*6 sizf, representative (ba sizji). 
'asnddhii, captor 
'dszoli, light (in weight) 
'dtdd\ forehead 

'atahazhosh, muscle under fe- 

f otah nahaztseed, general anes- 

'dtdsiil, perspiration 
'ateei, ventral area 
"ateli, spleen 
'cteel stftsooz, apron 
'atiin, trail; road (bitiin, his own 
trail; be'atiin, his road) 
'afoo', soup; juice; stew; gravy 
'af-><?\ leaf 

'df'ahigo, in a little while, 'at'o- 
higo dah didiit'ash, we'll start 
off (d) in a little while. 
*at'a* f wing 
'at'eed, girl 
'at'eeke, girls. 
'at'og, clavicle; collarbone. 
'att'aa', rump; buttock. 
'aH'eeyah dah sinils, single tree. 
'aH'eeyoh dah sinili bd ni'dhigii, 
double tree. 

'ari'eeyah dah sinili bit 'ii'dhigu, 
wagon hammer (queen bolt). 
*art*eh, crotch (between legs). 
'atf'izh, bile. 

*afPd!-sin, upper and lower loom 
*6fc5gq\ ribs 



'atsd, eagle. 

'atsd biyddzh, February. 
'atsdgah, side (of the body). 
'at-sq, belly; abdomen (inside). 
'atsq hcf ii'eel, miscarriage. 
'dtse, first. 

'df-se choo'|ihii, first aid. 
'atsee*, tail. 

'atseettsoii, western red tail 

'atsek'ee, lap. sitsek'ee dah si- 
da, he is sitting on my lap. 
'atseziii, lumbar. 
*ats\\ daughter; niece (daughter 
of one's brother) (m. s.) 
'atsi', flesh; meat (bits['; be*a- 

Vtsiighqq\ brain. 
'atsiighqq' bik'esti'igii, menin- 
ges; membranes that cover the 

'atsiigha 1 , mane. 
'af-sii', hair. 

Vtsiin, stem (bitsiin). 
'atsiifr'ddd, crown (of the head). 
'atsiit'ddd to 'dlneeh, baptism. 
'atsiits'iin, head; craneum. 
'atsiiyah, back of head; occiput. 
'afrsili, younger brother. 
'ctsiniWish, lightning; electri- 

'ttsinilH'ish bee 'adimdiin, elec- 
tric light. 
'el-soi, grandchild. 
'Gtsoo', tongue. 
'atsxil, female genitalia. 
'ats'dozV, limb; bough (of man 
or of a tree) (bits'aozV). 
*ats*doxV k'egeesh, amputation 


ats'ee\ navel; umbilicus. 
ots id, sinew; tendon; ligament, 
otsiis, body. 

atViis doo hindanii, corpse. 
cts iistsin, skeleton. 
atsoos, blood vessel; nerve. 
ats'oos dootf'izhigii, vein. 
atsoos Hchrigii, artery. 
ats'oosfVddz, capillary. 
ats'oos yita', pulse. 
ots'ooz naaztseed, local anes- 

ats'os, down; downy feathers. 
owdaiya, jail. 

awdalyaai, prisoner; convict, 
awdalyaa hdtsaai, penitentiary. 
awdalya yaa 'dhdlydni, jailer. 
awce 1 ! baby (be'awee'). 
owee 1 biyaaidt, placenta. 
owee' hayiidz£isii, midwife. 
cfwee' yii* niteht, crib. 
aweeshchiin, doll. 
aweets'ddl, cradle; cliff rose 

cyaedi docre'igii, underclothes. 
ayaedi *ee', underclothes. 
dyaanda, no wonder, 'ayaanda 
yidloh, no wonder you are laugh- 

ayaats'iin, chin; jaw. 
ayaayddh, throat (outside). 
oyattyddh d#h 'iighe', goiter. 
ayaayddh niichaad, mumps. 
ayddzh, son; nephew (son of 
one's sister or brother), (f. s.) 
ayahdidi'nif, incense. 
ayahoolni, suspicion. 
aydni, bison; buffalo. 
aydni bito', lyanbito, N.M. 



'oydigo, exceedingly; remarka- 
bly, 'ayofgo shit hozhg, I am 
very happy. 

'aydo, very, 'ayoo deesk'aaz, it 
(weather) is very cold. 
'aydogo, very, 'ayoogo nitchxon, 
it smells very bad; stinks terri- 
bly, 'ayoogo nit hoghee*, you 
are very lazy. 
'azaaH'661, rein. 
'azddrTi, bridle. 
'azdgi, esophagus; gullet. 
'ozahor'dgi, palate. 
'oza'azis, pocket (biza'azis). 
'czandrsihi, clinical thermo- 

'azdzi, ancestor (bizdzi). 
'azeedich'ir, chilli; pepper (be- 

azeedich , n , ) ( 

'ozeedeenili, hames (of harness). 
'azeedeerdni, collar (harness). 
'azeedi, cousin (daughter of 
one's paternal aunt, or of one's 
maternal uncle). 

azeediilch'tfii, (or tjidaq ) f blue 
flowered lupine. 
*azee', medicine; drug. 
'azee', mouth. 

'azee'adifidi tizhinigii, iodine. 
'azee* bddhddzidii, poison. 
'azee' bd hooghan, drug store. 
'azee* bee 'iilghdshi, ether. 
'azee'etfohi, liniment. 
'azee'iitchihigii, mercurochrome 
'azee'iif'inf, doctor; physician. 

'azee'iif'ini na'atgizhigii, sur- 

'azee* tikoni, alcohol. 

'azee* rtayiitniihi, druggist. 


'azeenitchin, peppermint plant. 
'azee' si'dni, bit (on the bridle), 
'azeeti'ohii, blue-eyed grass. 
'azhq — ndi, even though, 'a- 
zhq hasistih ndi 'ayoo 'eesh'i, 
even though I am old I see well. 
'azhee', saliva. 

azhee, father. 
*azhi, voice. 

azhi\ torso; body. 
'azhiih, bast. 
'azid, liver. 
'ozis, bag; sock. 
'aziz, penis, 
'azddl, corn tassel. 
'azoot, trachea; windpipe. 
'azopz, stinger (bizppz). 


boo, to him; about it. baa nVq t 

I gave it to him. baa hashne', I 

om telling about it. 

baahadzidii, poison. 

bddh, bread. 

bddh bighan, outdoor oven. 

bddh bil 'dl'mi, yeast. 

bddh 'dl'jjgi, bakery. 

bddh dd'dka'i, crackers. 

bddh 'iirini, baker. 

bddh tikani, cake ; doughnuts; 


bddh tikani ndhineesrs'ee'igii, 

cinnamon rolls. 
bddh ydzhi, buns. 
baa', component of many femi- 
nine personal names. Its mean- 
ing is probably warrior. baa- 
ts'osf, Slender (warrior) Girl. 
boat, boah (ba*), bo* — , — . 



1. to treat him with kindness; 
be merciful, good, to him; to aid 
him (with contributions of food, 
money, shelter, etc.)* 

F. jiideesh-baat (jiidii, jiidoo, ji- 
jiidoo, jiidii, jiidooh) I. jiinish- 
baah (jiinf, joo, jijoo, jiinii, jii- 
noh) U. jiinish (or joosh) -bcT 
(jiini, joo, jijoo, jiinii, jiinoh) P. 
jiise-bcf (jisinf, jooz jijocz, ji- 
sii, jisoo) 'atk'esdisi bee baa 

jiiseba', i treated him to some 
candy, naaldlooshil baa jiinish- 
ba' teh, I am kind to animals. 
bddtk'iisji, beside it; parallel to 
it. baatk'iisji yfnddt, walk be- 
side it! 

badshzhinii, jet (stone). 
bddtis, over it. kin bddtis joot 
'ahn+han, I threw the ball over 
the house. 

bqqh, beside it. 'atiin bqqhgi 
tsin 'n'd, the tree stands beside 
the road. 

bqqh, edge; border (bibqqh). 
dd'dk'eh bibqqhgi shighan, my 
home is at the edge of the field 
bqqhdgii fdt'eii), sin; crime, 

bqqh ha'tizhahi, cup. 
bd, for him; in favor of him. bd 
'ddeeshKit, I'll make it for him. 
bah, bddh (booh), boa 9 , boh, 
bddh, to make war. 
1. to start on a raid. 
F. dideesh-bah (didif, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) f. dish-bddh 
(di, di, jidi, dii, doh) P. de-baa* 
(dfnf, deez, jideez, dee, disoo) R. 


hdish-bah (ndi, ridf, nizhdi, ndii, 
ndoh) 0. dosh-bddh (doo, do, ji- 
do, doo, dooh) 

2. to be going along on a raid. 
Prog, yish-bah (yf, yi, joo, yii, 

3. to raid about; go raiding. 
F. ndeesh-bah (ndn, ndoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) C-l. naash- 
baah (nani, naa, nji, neii, naah) 
P. nise-baa' (nisfnf, naaz, njiz, 
nisii, nisoo) R. ni-nash-bah (nd- 
nt f nd, naji, neii, ndh) 0. naosh- 
baah (naoo, naoo, njo, naoo, na- 

4. to return from a raid. 

F. ndeesh-bah (ndif, hdoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) Prog, nddsh- 
bah (ndd, naa, njoo, neii, nah) 
P. ndni-baa' (nefnf, nani, ndzh- 
n», ndnii, ndnoo) R. ni-ndsh- 
bah (nanf, nd, ndjf, neii, ndh) O. 
ndosh-bddh (ndoo, ndoo, njo, 
ndoo, ndooh) 

5. to storm, raid, a city. 
(3rd person dist. pi) 

F* kiih dadoobah I. k|ih daa- 
bddh P. kQh daazbaa' R. kj[h 
ndaabah 0. k[ih daoobddh 

6. to storm city after city. 
(3rd person dist. pi) 

F. kiih dahidoobah I. k[[h da- 
habddh P. kijh dahaazbaa' R. 
kijh ndahabah 
bdhdlydahii, absentee 
bahastiin naakii, bigamist (i.e. 
one with two husbands). 
ba'aan, in addition to it. dfz- 
ditn doo ba'aan d(f, 44. 



ba atV, his faults. 

bd'orra'i, teacher. 

bat, baai, baal, bat, boat, to 

suspend a curtain like object. 

1. to hang it up. 

F. dideesh-bat (didn't, yididoot, 
jididooi:, didiil, didoot) (bidi 1 - 
dooi-) L dish-boat (dit, yidit, ji- 
dit, diil, dot) (bi'dil-) P. det- 
baai (dini'f, yidees, jidees, deel, 
dooi) (bidi'dees-) R. ndfsh-bat 
(hdii, neidit, nizhdit, ridiil, ridot) 
(nabi'dil-) O. dosh-baat (doot 
yidot, jidot, dooi doot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to hold it up (as a curtain). 
N. yfnish-baal (yfnfi, yinit, jinfi, 
niil, not) (ni-) 

bayoodzm, Paiute. 

bos, bags, hqqz, bqs, bqqs, to 

roil (a circular, wheel like object) 

1. to drive it {cor, wagon) up 
out (as from a hole, uphill, etc.). 
F. ha-dees-bqs (dift, idoot, zh- 
dcor, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
ha-as-bqqs (nil, it, jit, iil, ot) (bi'- 
dil-) P. haat-bqqz (hainii, hayut- 
hajd't, haii I, haoot) (habfdool-) 
R, ha-nas-bqs (nan ft, neft, njit, 
neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. ha- 
os-bqs (66+, yot, jot, ool, oot) 

2. to start off driving it (car). 
F. dah didees-bqs (didiit, yidi- 
doot, jididooi, didiii, didoot) I. 
dah diis-bqqs (diit, yidiit, jidiit, 
diil, doot) P. dah diii-bqqz (di- 
nii, yidiit, jidiit, diil, doot) R, 
dah hdiis-bas (hdiii, neidiii, ni- 


zhdiii, ndiil, ndoot) O. dah doos- 
bqqs (doot, yidoot, j idoot, dooi, 

3. to start rolling it along. 

F. didees-bqs (didiii, yididoot, ji- 
didooi, didiil, didoot) (bidi'dool-) 
I. dis-baqs (dit, yidit, jidii, diil, 
dot) (bi'dil-) P. dei-bqqz (dinit, 
yidees, jidees, dee I, disoot) (bi*- 
dees-) R. ndi's-bqs (rid ft, neidit, 
nizhdit, ridiil, ridot) (nabi'dil-) 
O. dos-bqqs (doot, yidot, jidot, 
dooi, doot) (bi'dol-) 

4. to drive it out (horizontally 
as a car from a garage). 

F. ch'f-dees-bqs (diii, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
ch'i-nis-bqqs (nit, it, jit, niil, 
not) (bi'deel-) P. chV-nfl-bqqz 
(in ft, in it, zhnii, niil, noot) (bi'- 
deel-) R. ch7-nas-bqs (ndnii, 
neii, rijit, neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) 
O. ch'oos-bqqs (ch'oot, ctViyoi, 
ch'fjoi, ch'ool, ch'oot) (ch'fbPdol) 
shichidi chidf ba hooghand^ 1 
ch'fniibqqz, I drove my car out 
of the garage. 

5. to be driving or rolling it a- 
long (a car, wagon, etc.). 

Prog, yis-bqs (yfi, yoot, joot, yiil, 
ghat) (bi'dool-) 

6. to arrive (driving or rolling 
it); to go (by car or wagon). 

F. dees-bqs (dnt, yidoot, j idoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. nis- 
bqqs (nit, yii, jit, niil, not) (bi'- 
deel-) P. nft-bqqz (ymii, yinit, 
jinii, niil, noot) (bi'deel-) R. 
nas-bqs (nanit, neii, rijfi, neiil, 




fit, nd'oot, ri'joot, nd'iil, ndot) 
P. nd'nfi-bqqz (nd'ffnft, nd'nPt, 
ndzh'nit, nd'niil, nd'noot) R. nf- 
na as-bqs (na if, na at, na jit, 
nd'iil, na'ot) O. nd'ds-bqqs (na'- 
dot, iVjot, nd'ool, nd'ooi) 

10* to turn it around (car, etc.) 

F. naa-nidees-bqs (nidi it, nei- 
doot, nizhdoot, nidiil, nidoot) 
(ndbidi'dool-) I. naa-nds-bqqs 
(ndnit, neit, hjft, neiil, ndt) (nd- 
bi'dil-) P. naa-niset-bqqz (nisi- 
nit, neis, njis, nfsiil, nfsoot) (nd- 
bi'dis-) R. naani-nds-bqs (nd- 
nit, neit, ndji+, neiil, nd+) (ndbi*- 
dil-) O. naa-ndos-bqqs (ndddt, 
ndydt, nfjdt, ndool, ndoot) (nd- 

1 1 . to turn around (in a car or 

F. naa-ni'dees-bqs (ni'dui, ni'- 
doot, nfzh'doot, ni'diil, nf'doot) 
I. naa-nd'ds-bqqs (nd'it, nd'dt, 
rVjit, nd'iil, nd'at) P. naa-ni'- 
set-bqqz (nf'sfnit, nd'ds, n'jis, 
nf'siil, ni'soot) R. naanf-nd'ds- 
bqs (nd'it, ndat, nd'jft, nd'iil, 
nd'ot) O. naa-nd'osbqqs (nd*- 
6dt, no6\, ri'jof, nd'ooi, nd'oot) 

12. to park it (car, wagon). 

F. ndees-bqs (ndift, niidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) I. nf-nis- 
bqqs (ntt, ytt, jit, niil, not) P. 
ninft-bqqz (nffnit, niinft, nizhnit, 
niniil, ninoot) R. ni-ndsbqs (nd- 
nit, neit, ndjit, neiil, ndt) O. 
noos-bqqs (noat, niyot, njot, nool 

ndt) (nabi'dil-) O. ghos-bqqs 

(ghodt, ydt, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

7. to drive or roll it in (as into 
the garage). 

F. yah 'adees-bqs ('adiit, 'iidoot, 
'azhdoot, 'adiil, 'adoot) Cabidi'- 
dool-) i. yah 'iis-bqqs ('anil, 'iit, 
ajiit, 'iil, ooi) (abPdil-) P. 'fit- 
bqqz fiinit, 'aynt, ajiit, 'iil, *oot) 
Cabi'dool-) R. 'a-nds-bqs (ndnit, 
neit, rijit, neiil, ndt) (ndbfdil-) 
O. 'oos-bqqs Coot, 'aydt, *ajot, 
'ool, 'oot) Cabfdol-) shichidf 
chidi bd hooghan gone* yah y \\\- 
bqdz, ! drove my car into the ga- 

3. to go, make a trip (by auto 
or wagon). 

F. 'a-dees-bqs (diit, doot, zhdoot, 
diil, doot) I. 'a-dis-bqqs (dit, dit, 
zhdit, diil, dot) Prog, 'ees-bqs 
Ciit, oot, ajoot, Mil, *ot) P. a- 
det-bqqz (dm ft, dees, zhdees, 
deel # doot) S-P. *ni*set-bqqz 

(ni'sfni't, na'as, n'jis, ni'siil, ni'- 
soot) R. n'dfs-bqs (n'di^ n'dit, 
nfzh'dft, n'diil, rVdot) O. a-dos- 
bqqs (doot, dot ; zhdot, dool, doot) 
*This form means to have 
made the trip, and returned. 
Na'nfzhoozhfgoo ni'setbqqz, I 
drove to Gallup (and back). 

9» to return driving; to drive 

F. rVdees-bqs (rVdift, n'doot, nf- 
zh'doof, rVdiil, n'doot) I. na*nfs- 
bqqs (nd'nft, r\6% n'jft, na'niil, 
nd*nol) Prog, na'ees-bqs (nd*- 



13. to pork (a car). 

F. n'dees-bqs (n'dirt, n'doot, ni- 
zh'doot, n'diil, n'doot) I. r\V- 
nis-bqqs (ni'nft, nVH, nfjit 
ni'niil, ni'noot) P. ni'nil-bqqz 
ni'niinit, ni'nM', nizh'nH', ni'niil 
ni'noot) R. ni-na'ds-bqs (na'fi, 
na af, na jit, no ill, na of) O. ni - 
osbqqs (nfoor, nt'of, n'jar, ni'ool, 
n i 'oot) 

14. to arrive rolling; to roll. 
(The forms given herewith are 

intransitive, and refer to an ob- 
ject; thus they are in 3rd person) 
F. doobqs I. yibqqs Prog, yi 
bqs P. nibqqz R. nabqs O. 

bee, with it; by means of it. chi- 
di bee niit'dazh, we came by cat. 
bee chaha'ohi, umbrella. 
beegashi!, cow; cattle. 
beegsshii bitsf, beef. 
beegashii cho'ddinii, steer. 
beegsshii yddzh, calf. 
bee hadoh dah ni'diilgho'i, pa 
beehdgod, hoe. 
bee hahwiikaahi, scraper. 
bee ha'al'eefi, strainer. 
bee ha'nilchoadi, wool carders. 
bee haz'danii, law. 
beehai, Jicarilla Apache. 
bee 'qqh 'ii'nihi, wringer. 
bee *qq nditjhi, key. 
bee 'ach'iishi, saw; file; rasp. 
bee 'adeestji 1 , telescope; bino- 
cular; field glass. 
bee 'adighin, immunity. 
bee 'odiltasht, slingshot. 


bee 'ddilttahi, vaseline. 
bee 'adiH'jjh, sling. 
bee 'adizi, spindle. 
bee 'adzooi, comb (for wool). 
bee 'aghdda'a'nili, drill; bit. 
bee 'aghddadzilne'e, center 

bee 'aghd'nildehi, sieve. 
bee 'aghdnidildla'i, x-ray appa- 

bee 'ahida'diiljeehi, glue. 
bee 'a'nizhi, tweezers. 
bee 'akoli, bat; club. 
bee 'akValchihi, pencil; chalk; 
steel stamp. 

bee 'ak'inda'a'nili, camera. 
bee alchj* didloh, buckle. 
bee 'dt'e, due to it; because of it. 
dibe ydzhi t ah ndi 'ddaatts'iisi; 
t'aadoo naha+tinf yishj *ef bee 
'dt'e, the lambs are still small 
due to the fact that summer 
passed without rain, kin gone' 
deesk aaz, kg 1 adin 'ei bee a- 
t'e, the house is cold because 
there is no fire. 

bee 'art'ihi, sling (ib. bee 'at+'u'h) 

bee 'atsidi, hammer; mallet. 

bee 'atsiditsoh, sledge hammer. 

bee 'atsxis, quirt; whip. 

bee 'azk'azi, refrigerator. 

bee 'eehdniih biniighe 'dlyaaigii, 

monument; memorial. 

bee 'eehdniihii, souvenir. 

bee 'eldgoh, gun. 

bee 'eldooh bee 'andhdltahi 

trigger (of a firearm). 

bee'eldoph biko\ gunpowder. 



bee'eld9$h bikV, bullet; cart- 
ridge; ammunition. 
bee'eld99h bitsiin, stock (gun). 
bee'eld^ph bizis, holster; scab- 
bard; gun case. 
bee'eldpQh nineezigii, rifle. 
bee'eldggh ydzhi, revolver. 
bee 'ida'diiljeehi dije'igii, rub- 
ber cement; mucilage. 
bee 'ida'neergqhi, measuring 
tape; ruler; yardstick. 
bee 'idilzoofi, whistle (instr.) 
bee Tdiiljeehi, adhesive tape. 
bee *iV nd'dlzooti, tire pump. 
bee 'iikaafi, cold chisel. 
bee 'if 'ada'agizi, wrench. 
bee 'if 'ada'agizi (-sin bighdah 
de'dhigii, screwdriver. 
bee haz'q, allowable; permissi- 
ble, hooghan gone* na'at'oh 
t'aa bee haz'q, smoking is per 
missible in the hogan. sodizir 
bo hooghan gone' na'at'oh doc 
bee haz'qq da, smoking is not 
permissible in the church. 
beehdzingo, you know. (As when 
one starts a sentence). 
bee 'indiidlohi, brake. 
bee 'ddleehi, trap; bird snare. 
bee 'dtso'i, pliers; tongs. 
bee keeh nd'dt'isi, shoe horn. 
bee k'ee'dlchxQ^hi, eraser. 
bee nahalzhoohi, broom. 
bee nahatTii, transportation. 
bee ndhwiidzidi, rake. 
bee na'adlo'i, steering wheel. 
bee na'al'eefi, oar. 
bee nd'djeehi, grease gun. 
bee nd'dlkadi, thread. 


bee no'anishi, tool; apparatus. 
bee nd'nitati, spurs. 
bee nihwiildlaadi, plow. 
bee ni'dildlaadi, flashlight. 
bee nikTnilttish, batten stick. 
bee td'digeshi, sheep shears. 
bee k'ee'dld9ohi, flatiron. 
beeldlddi, blanket. 
beeldlei, blanket. 
beel, be, bjj\ beeh, bfj\ 

1 . to bathe; to swim about. 

F. ndeesh-bee+ (ndn, ndoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) I. naash-be 
(nani, naa ; nji, neii, naah P. ni- 
se-bjf (nisfni, naaz, njiz, nisii, 
nisoo) R. ni-nash-beeh (nani, 
na r najf, neii, nan) O. naoosh- 
b[[, (naoo, naoo, njoo, naoo, 

2. to start to, be going to, 
bathe or swim about. 

P. ndii-bif (ndini, ndii, nfzhdii, 
ndii, ndoo) 

3. to pick them (berries, fruit). 
F. yfcleesh-beet (yidfi, yfdoo, yi- 
zhdoo, yfdn, ytdooh) (bfdi'doo-) 
C-l. yinfsh-be (yinf, yo, jo, yfnfi, 
yfnoh) (bf'do-) P. yf-bff (y»ni, 
yiyif, jff, yii, ghoo) (bi'doo-) R. 
nemfsh-beeh (nefnf, nayo, njo, 
neinii, neinoh) (nabi'do-) O 
ghoosh-bjj' (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bf'do-) 

beesh, flint; iron; metal; knife 
(bibeezh) . 

beesh 'ddaaszddliigii, aluminum 
beesh 'adee', spoon (of metal) 
beesh *adee* ntsaaigii, table- 
spoon; large spoon. 



beesh 'ahediti, scissors; snips. 
beesh 'dtts'ozi, wire. 
beesh 'adishahi, barbed wire. 
beesh 'ast'ogii, flint arrowhead. 
beesh bee bighdda'a'nili, drill; 
steel bit (for drilling metal). 
beesh bee ha ne'e, telephone. 
beesh bee 'ak'e'elchihi, type- 

beesh bizis, knife sheath. 
beesh bii' ko'i, stove. 
beesh da'hdlzha'i, chain. 
beesh deeshzhaai, barbed wire 
beesh dit'dddigii, cast iron. 
beesh doori'izh, iron. 
beesh hataati, phonograph. 
beesh tichii'ii, copper. 
beesh tigaii, silver. 
beesh tigaii 'aniitt'ddl, silver bri- 

beesh tigaii sis, silver belt. 
beesh tigaii sis ntsaaigii, silver 
belt with large conchos. 
beesh tigaii sis ydzhi, silver belt 
with small conchos. 
beesh fitsoii, brass. 
beesh nd'dtkadi, sewing machine 
beesh nitt'izigii, steel. 
beesh sinil, Winslow, Arizona. 
beesh to bST nlinigii, water pipe. 
beesh tozhdanii, mercury. 
beeso, money; dollar. 
bees i>d hooghan, bank. 
beeso bik'e na'anishigii, wages. 
beeso bizis, purse; pocket book, 

be'ek'id, pond; small lake. 

be'ek'id baa 'ahoodzdni, Pinon, 


be'ek'id halchii\ Red Lake, Ariz. 


be'ek'id halgaii, Lake Valley, 
New Mexico. 

be'ek'id hdteeli, Mariano Lake, 
New Mexico. 

be'eldiilasinil, Albuquerque, 

New Mexico. 

be'esdzqq 'ddinii, bachelor. 
be'esdzqq naakii, bigamist (i.e. 
one with two wives). 
be'ezhoo', hairbrush; comb; hair 

biba', for him (waiting). biba' 
seda, I'm sitting waiting for him. 
bich'qqh, in his way. bich'qqh 
sez[, I'm standing in his way. 
bich'i\ toward it. dzit bich'f 'a- 
yoo 'anfzaad, it is far to the mtn. 
shicheii bich'f dela, I am taking 
it to my grandfather. 
bich'f' 'aznizini, appetizer. 
bidddh, toward him (to meet 
him). bidaah niya, I went to 
meet him. 

biddahgi, in front of it (a moving 
thing), kp* na'aibqqsii, bidaah- 
gi beegashii siz[, the cow is stan- 
ding in front of (the moving) 

biddd' ha'azt'P, Grand Canon, 

bidah, downward, bidah 'ffgo*, 
I fell down (off of something). 
bidaooltq'go, including them, 
counting them. 

bideend, for it (in exchange for), 
t'aata'i beeso bideena 'ashtaa, I 
did it for one dollar. 
bideiijigo, above it. to sighinigii 



bideiijfgo ch'infya, I passed o- 
bove the body of water. 
bighqqh, hitched, joined, to it. 
\[l tsinaabqqs bighqqh dezj, the 
horse is standing hitched in front 
of the wagon. 

bighqq'doo 'adeest'f'i, watch- 

bigha, through it. 'anitY bigha 
nfsh'na*, I crawled through the 

bighi', within it; its interior; in- 
side it. 'anftY bighi' beegashii 
naakai, the cattle are inside the 
fence. tse bighi', inside the 


bighi' 'iilnaahi, incubator. 
bihwiidoo'atigii, lesson. 
bihoo'qq'ii, knowledge. 
bfitse, before him. shinaai bi- 
'itse hooghandi nanisdza, I got 
home before my older brother. 
bnghah, beside it; proportionate 
to it. shima bnghah sez[, I am 
standing beside my mother, be- 
'ek'id biighahgi shighan, I live 
by the lake, doo bfighah da, it 
is not enough. 

beighahgoo, parallel to it; beside 

it. da'dk'eh bi'ighahgoo 'atiin, 

rhe cornfield is parallel to the 


bspghis, handsome; good looking 

(shffghis, I am — ; nffghis, you 

are — ; nihfighis, we are --- etc.). 

biih, into it. to biih yfgo\ I fell 

into the water. 

biih nagho'i, pocket knife. 


bii', in, inside it. joot tsits aa' 
bii' si'q, the ball is in the box. 
bii 'adesf-'fj', mirror. 
bii'dees'eez, stirrup. 
bii' hafts'acT, hollow (as a gourd) 
bii 1 hoodzq, hollow (as a log). 
bit 'iigisi, washtub. 
bii' ta'adigisi, wash basin. 
bii I, Pueblo squaw dress. 
biina, Ignacio, Colorado. 
biiskani, on the next day. biis- 
kani daaztsq, on the next day he 

hiizhii, western nighthawk. 
biih, deer; reindeer. 
biih bidee\ deer antlers. 
biihkq\ buck (deer). 
bijhtso 1 ii, doe, 
biih yaazh, fawn. 
biih yiljocM, bitterball. 
bill, bV, bj\ biih, bj\ to build o 
hogan (not a transitive verb). 
F. ho-deesh-biii (dill, dooi, zh- 
dool, diil, dool) (hodoo-) C-l. 
hash-bj' (hot, hot, hojit, hwiil, 
hot) (ha-) P. hosei-bi' (hosinft, 
has, hojis, hosiil, hosoot) (haz-) 
R. na-hash-bijh (hot, hat, hojit, 
hwiil, hoi) (ha-) O. hosh-bf 
(hoot, hoi, hojot, hool, hoot) (ho-) 
biif, bin, bi id, biih, bin, to fill. 

1. to get full of it. 

The postposition -ii', inside, 
precedes the verb forms. The lat- 
ter ore in 3rd person, and the 
person of the postposition is al- 
tered by changing the objective 
pronominal prefix (shii', in me; 
nil*, in you; bii', in him, etc.). 



F. hadidoobiii I. hadibin P. ha- 
deebiid S-P. hadeezbin R. haa- 
dfb[|h O. hadobin. shikee' 

tse bii* hadeebiid, my shoes got 
full of stones, to bii' hadeezbin, 
it is full of water. 

2. to fill it with it. 

f. ha-dideesh-bi[t (didn't, ididoot, 
zhdidoot, didiil, didoot) I. ha- 
dish-bin (dit, idit, zhdit, diil, dot) 
P. ha-deet-bi[d (diinit, ideer, zh- 
deet, diil, doot) R. haa-dish- 
biih (dft, idit, zhdit, diil, dot) O. 
hc-dosh-bin (doot, idot, zhdot, 
dool, doot) asaa' to yii* hat- 
deetbiid, he filled the pot with 

bjit, bjjh, bq, bjih, bqq\ to gam- 

1* to win at gambling* 

F. 'ii-deesh-biit (diit, doot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) I. oosh-b[[h fii- 
nit, oo+, ajool, 'iiniil, 'iinot) P. 
'iiset-bq ('iisimt, oos, 'ajoos, 'ii- 
siil, 'iisoot) R. na oosh-bjjh (na'- 
oot, na'oot, ni'joot, na'ool, na'- 
oot) O. oosh-bqq' Coot, oot, 
'ajoot ool, oot) 

2. to win it from him. 

F. *baa yi-deesh-bi[t (dtit, doot, 
zhdoot, diil, doot) I. baa 

(gh)oosh-biih (inft, yoot, jooi, 
ool, oot) P. boa yiset-bq (yisinit, 
yoos, joos, yisiil, yisoot) R, baa 
naoosh-biih (naoot, nayoot, ni- 
joot, naool, naoot) O. baa 
(gh)oosh-bqq' (oot, yoot, joot 
ool, oot) 


*These forms generally con- 
tract; baa plus yi- becomes beei- 
and baa plus gho- becomes 
baao-. baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

3. to lose gambling. 

A passive verb form is used, 
and it is conjugated for person 
by altering the pronominal ob- 
ject on the postposition (e.g. 
shaoozbq, I lost; naoozbq, you 
lost, etc. It is given below in the 
1st person singular.) 
F. sheeidoobiit I. shaoobiih P. 
shaoozbq R. shaanaoobiih O. 

b'jeehkat, his deafness; he is 
deaf (nijeehkat, you ore — etc.). 
bijik'ehgo, in accord with hi? 
own customs; in his own way. 
bika, for, after, him. bika 'a- 
dishni, I am calling (after) him. 
hfkanVp, on it; upon it. bikaa' 
'odcni bikaa'gi baah doo go- 
hweeh naazkq, the bread and 
coffee a~e on the table. 
blkua'odam, table. 
bskcta' cloh 'onitehi, bed. 
bikao* dsh 'cnitchi 'afts'oazngii, 
cot; narrow bed. 
bJkoa' dah 'asdahi, chair.', behind him. bikee'yi- 
shaaf, I am walking behind him. 
bikooh, arroyo; gorge. 
bik'qah, against it (motion a- 
gainst it), bichidi kin yik'qqh 
bit yflghod, he ran into (i.e. 
against) the house with his car. 
bik'e, for it (in exchange for). 



nisnishnisnee bik'e shich'i' na'- 

ilyd, i was patd for my work. 

bik'e 'ihwiidoo'dafii, tuition. 

bi'k'ee, on account of it. bik'ee 

shil hdghee', I am frightened on 

account of him. 

bik'eh, according to him; at his 

instance; by his orders. naa- 

t'danii bik'ehgo 'ata' hashne\ I 

interpret by the orders of the 


bik'eh 'adilt'ohs, gun sight. 

bik'ehgo ndhidiztdi, calendar 

bik'i, on it; upon it. \\\ bik'i 

dah nidaah, get up on the horse! 

btk'idah'asddhi, chair. 

bik'idcsh'asddhi nineezigii, sofa; 

davenport; bench. 

bik*i 'atsidi, anvil. 

bik'i 'iigisi, washboard. 

bsk'inizdidlaad, shiny; lustrous. 

h\\qq\\\ ahead of him. bilqqji* 

'oobqsgo 'atiingdo yigdat, he is 

walking down the road with a 

wagon ahead of him. 

bilo' tdd'ii, fork (three tined). 

b'lftsaano, apple. 

bilosdcna dighozhtgii, pineapple 

bildtah, its tip; its extremity; its 


bildtah da'iitsoii (ch'il bildtah 
da'iTtsoii), bloom; blossom. 
bit, sleepiness; drowsiness. bil 
nisin, I am sleepy. bi+ shi'nii+hf, 
I am very sleepy. 

bil, with him; in his company. 
feechaq'i bit na'nishkaad, I am 
out herding with my dog. 
bfl 'd'el'ini, baking powder. 


oil mda'alkadi, bias tape. 
bit ni'diiich'ah, yawn. 
bil 'dlta'go, counting him; in- 
cluding him. hastiin 'ashdla 
ba'a+chini, 'awee' 'atts'iisfgii 'at- 
do' bil 'dlta'go, the man has 
five children counting (or includ- 
ing) the little baby. 
binac, around it. shikin binaa- 
goo hozhoni, it is pretty around 
my house. 

bindd'ddaaffVozi, bikeyah, Ja- 

bmdd'ddscilts'ozi bikeyah ntsaa- 
igii, China. 

binddddcoltsozi dine'e, Japa- 
nese; Chinese. 

binaashii, opposite it, shicheii 
binaashii sedd, I am sitting op- 
posite my grandfather. 
binahji', against it. kin binahji' 
?edd, I am sitting against the 

bindkd, through it. tdzis bind- 
kd dinish'iC, I am looking 
through the glass. 
bine'di, behind it. dztf bine'di 
nahaitin, it is raining behind the 

bfnf, let him! bfni' naaghd, let 
him go! 

bini'di, let him! bfni'di 'dnei- 
dleeh, let him fix it! 
bini'ant'Qqt'soh, September. 
binVant'qqts'oz't, August. 
bini'iia'al'dashi, the thirteenth 
(lunar) month of the Navaho 
year. This month is interpolated 
in the calendar in order to catch 




up with tne time which has been 
lost. It is not a month as such, 
but merely a name for the 28 
days left over just before plant- 
ing time (ya'iishjaashchili). 12 
months ore counted in the year, 
beginning more or less with ya'- 
iishjdashchilf and ending with 
binfna'ai'aasht. The Navaho 
month contains approximately 
28 days, and runs from crescent 
moon / to crescent moon (dah yii- 
tq). The calendar does not lose 
days in the same sense as ours 
would because it is too indefinite 
in its form. Days are not taken 
into account, and the months 
correspond to occupational peri- 
ods and natural phenomena, ra- 
ther than to actual lunations. If 
such were not the case, the peri- 
od called "planting time" would 
soon fall in mid winter. Nowdays 
there is a tendency to follow the 
White calendar, using Navaho 
month names to correspond with 
the English system. 
birsiighe (or binighe), for (the 
purpose of) it. nfka 'adeesh- 
ghot biniighe niya, I came for 
the ourpose of helping you. 
bmiika, against him. bfniika 
yashti*, I'm talking against him. 
biniinaa, because of it. chahal- 
hee+go biniinaa doo hoot'fi da, 
there is no visibility because of 
the darkness. 
bis, adobe. 
bis deez'ahi, Nava, N. M. 

bis doott izh, blue clay. 

bish, beezh, beezh, bish, beezh, 

to boil. 

1. to boil (3rd person). 

F. doobish C-l. yibeezh P. shi- 
beezh R. nabish O. ghobeezh. 

2. to boil it; to cook it by boil- 
ing it. 

F. deesh-bish (dirt, yidool, jidooi, 
dill, dool) (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
beezh (nil, yi+, jit, yiil, ghoi) (bi'- 
dii-) P. shel-beezh (shmil, yish, 
jish, shiil, shoal) (bi'dish-) R. 
nash-bish (nanff, netf, hjfi, neiii, 
not) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-beezh 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghooi) 

bish, bizh, bizh, bish, bizh, to 

1. to braid it (hair, rope, etc.). 
£. deesh-bish (dff, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
bizh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
P. she-bizh (shfnf, yizh, jizh, shii, 
shoo) (bi'dish-) R. nash-bish 
(nanf. ne\, hji, neii, nah) (nabi*- 
di~) O. ghosh-bizh (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 
bisoodi, pig. 

bisoodi bits[\ pork; bacon. 
bisoodi yazhi, shoat. 
bitah, among them, naakaii bi- 
tah shighan, I live among the 

bits', between them, dzif bita'- 
qi shighan, my home is between 
the mountains. 

bitashja, its handle. 



bitis, over it. kg' bitis 'ahifthan, 
I threw it over the fire. 
bitTaah bito*, Beclabito, N. M. 
bitse, before him. shizhe'e bi- 
tse taah yiya, I got in the water 
before my father. 
bitsee' holoni, pear. 
bitsee' yee 'adithatii, crocodile; 

bitsiin, its handle. 
bitsiji', ahead of him. bitsiji' 
yinaat, walk ahead of him! shi- 
deezhi bitsiji' shi'dizhch[, I was 
born ahead of my sister. 
bits'ada'deezdiin, gleaming. 
bits'adi'niliid, bright; shiny (i.e. 
glittering with reflected light). 
bitsV, its pod. 

bits'qq', away from it. bits'qq 1 
dah diishghod, I ran away from 

bits'qqdoo, (deriving) from it; 
of it. tse bits qqdoo 'alyaa, it is 
made out of stone. 
bits'qqji', away from him. bi- 
rs'qqjf desh^i'go bfighah ch'mf- 
ya, I passed by him looking a- 
way from him. 

biyaa, under it. tsin biyaadi ho- 
ditlee', It is damp under the tree. 
biyaajigo, under it. tsin biyaa- 
jtgo seda, I am sitting under the 

biyah, under it (supporting it), 
kin tsin bfyah danifa, timbers 
support the house. 
biyooch'idi, liar. 

bizaadk'ehgo, by his orders, shi- 
zhe'e bizaadk'ehgo 'ffnfshta*, I 


study by my father's orders. 
bizdnaghah, around the corner 
from it. 
bizhee* holoni, beer. 


chaa*, beaver. 

chqq', fecal matter; excrement 

chqq' bo hooghan, toilet. 
chqq 1 bee yildehi, toilet paper. 
chqq* 'ee'ni', constipation 

(chqq' shee'nf, I am constipat- 
ed; chqq 1 nee'nf , you are — - etc.) 
chqqneithizti, tumble bug. 
chqqsht'ezhiitsoh, carrot. 
chqqt'inii, canaigre (sorrel). 
chdch'osh, syphilis. 
chahaoh, shadow; shade; ra- 
mada; brush shelter. 
chohafheet, darkness. 
chd'oi, pinon tree. 
cho, cha, cha, cha, cha, to weep. 
F* deesh-cha (dif, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) C-l. yish-cha (ni, yi, ji, 
yii, ghoh) P. yf-cha (yfnf, yf, jn, 
yii, ghoo) R. nash-cha (nani, na, 
hjf, neii, nan) O. ghosh-cha 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 
chah, cheeh (cha'), cha\ chah, 
cheeh, to hop; jump. 

1. fro start to hop along* 
F. hi-dideesh-chah (didfi, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. hi- 
dish-cheeh (di, di, zhdi, dii, doh) 
P. hi-desh-cha' (dim, deesh, zh- 
deesh, dee, disoo) R. nahi-dish- 
chah (df, di, zhdi, dii, doh) 0. 
hi-dosh-cheeh (doo, do, zhdo, 
doo, dooh) 



2. to be hopping along. 
Prog, heesh-chah (hif, hoo, hijoo, 
hii, hooh) 

3* to hop; arrive hopping. 
F. hi-deesh-chah (dii, doo, zhdoo 
dii, dooh) I. hinish-cheeh (hinf, 
hee, hijee, hinii, hinooh) P. hi- 
nish-cha' (hiini, hee, hijee, hinii, 
hinoo) R. na-hash-chah (hi, hd, 
hiji, hii, hoh) O. hosh-cheeh 
(hoo, ho, hi jo, hoo, hooh) 

4. to be hopping about. 

C-l. nahash-cha' (nahi, nana, n- 
jii, nahii, nahoh) 

5. to jump up (as in an effort 
to reach something). 

F. yddhii-deesh-chah (dii, doo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) C-l. yaa-hiish- 
chah (hii, hii, hijii, hii, hooh) P. 
yad-hiishcha* (hiini, hii, hijii, hii, 
hooh) R. ydnd-hiishchah (hii, 
hii, hijii, hii, hooh) O. ydd- 

hoosh-cheeh (hoo, hoo, hijoo, 
hoo, hooh) tsin bigaan bich'j' 
yddhiishchah, I am jumping at 
the tree limb. 

6. to become sexually excited; 
to come into heat. 

F. n-di'deesh-chah (di'dfil, di 1 - 
dooi, dizh'dool, di'diil, dPdool) 
I. rVdiish-cheeh (ri'diil, rVdiil, nf- 
zrTdiil, rVdiil, rVdoot) P. rVdish- 
cha' (ridini'nil, rVdiil, nizh'diil, 
rVdiil, rVdooi) R. nda'diish-chah 
(naa'diil, nad'diil, nddzh'diil 
naa'diil, naa'doot) O. rVdoosh- 
cheeh (rVdool, rVdool, nfzh'dool, 
h'dool, rVdoot) 


/. to be oversexed; to be sex 

C-l. na'ash-cha' (na'it, na'at, n'- 
jit, na'iil, na'of) 
chaleeko, vest. 

chat, chddd, chaad, cha\ chddd, 
to swell. 

1. to swell up. 

F. dineesh-chai (dinii, dinoo, ji- 
dfnoo, dinfi, dinooh) I. niish- 

chadd (nii, nii, jinii, nii, nooK 
P. nii-chaad (nini, nii, jinii, nii, 
nooh) R. nd-nish-cha' (nii, nii, 
zhnii, nii, nooh) O. noosh-chaad 
noo, noo,. jinoo, noo, nooh) 

2. to swell up (an area). 

F. hodmoochat I. honiichddd 
P. honiichaad R. ndhoniicha' 

0. honoochaad 

3. to be swelling up. 

Prog, noochal (a definite object) 
honoochat (an area). 

4. to become full eating (lit. 
to swell back up). 

F. hdfr.eesh- (ndinii, ndinoo, ni- 
zhdfnoo, ndfnii, ndfnooh) I. nd- 
niish-chadd (nii, nii, zhnii, nii, 
nooh) P. nd-nii-chaad (nini, nii, 
zhnii, nii, noo) R. nfnd-nish- 
cha' (nii, nii, zhnii, nii, noh) O. 
nd-noosh-chddd (noo, noo, zh- 
noo, noo, nooh) 

5. to spade; loosen it (soil). 

F. dah hodi-dfneesh-chat (dfnfft, 
dinoof, dfzhnoot, dinfi I, dinooO 

1. dah ho-dfnfish-chdad (dinfit 
dinfit, dizhnfit, dmfil, dfnoo+) P. 
dah ho-dinfft-chaad (dinfnit, di- 
nfit', dfzhnfit, dmfil, dinoot) R. 



don ndho-diniish-cha' (diniit, di- 
niit,, dizhniit, dinfil, dfnoot) O. 
dah ho-dfnoosh-chaad (dinoot 
dinoot, dfzhnoot, dinool, dinoot) 
shida'ak'ehgi teezh bee hahaal- 
kaadf bee hahodfniitchaad, I 
spaded my garden. 

chat, chaad, chaad, cha', chaad, 

probably related to chal above. 

1. to card it (wool). 

F. ha-dineesh-chal (dinfit, idi- 
noot, zhdmoot, dinfil, dinool) 
(bididi'nool-) I. ha-nish-chaad 
(nit, init, zhnii, r.iil, nol) (bidi'- 
nil-) P. ha-nifl-chaad (nfinfl, 

ir.itf, zhnift, niil, noot) (bidf- 
nooU) R. ha-nanish-cha' (no- 
rift, nefnit, nazhnit, naniil, no- 
net) (nabidi'nil-) O. ha-nosh-- 
chaad (noot, yinot, zhnot, nool, 
noot) (bidi'nol-) 

2. to cord (intr.). 

F. ha-df'neesh-chat (di'nfft, di'- 
rool. zhdi'noot, dTrifil, di'noot) 
I. ha'nish-chaad (ha'nit, ha'nit, 
hczh'nit, ha'niil, ha' not) P. ha'- 
nut-chaad (han'nit, ha'nift, ha- 
zh'nfft, ha'niil, ha'noot) R. ha- 
na'nfshcha' (nan'nil, na'nil, na- 
zh'nft, nd'niil, nd'not) O. ha'- 
nosh-chaad (nool, not, zh'not, 
nool, noot) 

chdshk'eh (pi chadaashk'eh) 
arrovo; wash. 

chashk'ehats'ozi, gully. 

chech'il, oak. 

chech'il binad', acorn. 

chech'il nitt'izi, scrub oak. 


chech/il nirfizi yilt'qq'i, Oregon 


chech'il tani, Cheechilgeetho, 

New Mexico. 

cheet, cheeh, chgq\ cheeh, cheet 

(dual stem of to run; V. ghot). 

1 . to drive it out (as o horse). 
F. ch'i-dineesh-cheet (dinift, idi- 
noot, zhdinoot, dinfil, dinoot) (bi- 
didi'nool-) I. ch'f-ninish-cheeh 
(ninit, ineet, zhneet, r.iniil, ninot) 
(bidi'neel-) P. ch'i-ninft-chqq' 
(nffnil, ininft, nizhnft, niniil, ni- 
noof) (bidi'neel-) R. ch'f-na- 
nfsh-cheeh (nanft, neinit, nazh- 
nit, naniil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) 
O. ch'i-nosh-cheet (noot, inot, 
zhnot, nool, nool) (bidi'nol-) 

2. to be driving it along. 
Prog, neesh-cheet (nfft, yinoot, 
jinoot, niil, noot) (bidi'nool-) 

3. to drive it off of oneself (as 
on attacking animal). 

F. 'ak'i-dineesh-cheet (dinifl, idf- 
nool, zhdinool, dinfil, dinoot) I. 
'ak'i-nish-cheeh (nil, inil, zhnil, 
niil, not) P. ak'i-nesh-chqq' 
(nfnfl, inool, zhnool, niil, noot) 
R. 'ak'i-nanfsh-cheeh (nanfl, ne- 
inil, nazhnfl, naniil, nanot) O. 
'ak'i-noshcheel (nool, nol, zhnol, 
nool, noot) mq'iitsoh shik'iil- 

ghod, ndi shibee'eidogh bee *a- 
k'ineshchqq', a wolf attacked me 
but I drove it off with my gun. 

4. to corner him; to stump him 
with a question. 

F. tsfstt'a-dineesh-cheet (dfnfft, 
idinoot, zhdfnoot, dinfil, dfnoot) 



(bidi'nool-) I. tsistta-nish- 

cheeh (nit, init, zhnit, niil, not) 
(bidi'nil-) P. tsistt'a-n6t-chqq' 

(nfnft, ineesh, zhneesh, nee\ f 
noot) (bidfneesh-) R. tsistt'a- 
nanish-cheeh {nontt, neinil, na- 
zhnrt, ndniil, ndnot) (nabidi'nil-) 
0. tsistt'a-nosh-cheet (noot, i- 
not, zhnat, nool, noot) (bidi'nol-) 
5. to be left out (as in the dis- 
tribution of something which be- 
comes exhausted before one can 
receive his share). 
F. shf'doo-cheef (ni'doo, bfdoo, 
ho'doo, nihTdoo, nihFdoo) I. 
she'e-cheeh (nee, bee, hoe, ni- 
he'e, nihe'e) P, shVii-chqq' (nf- 

ii, bi ii, ho ii nihi n, nihi n) R. 
shina'a-cheeh (nfnd'a- bfnd'a, 
hona'a, nihfna'a, nihma'a) O. 
shPo-cheet (nf'6, bP6, ho'6, nihi- 

o, nihi o) 
chidi, automobile. 

chidi bee dah ndiit'ahi, jack (for 
raising on automobile). 

chidi bitoo\ gasoline. 

chidi dine bee naagehi, bus. 

chidi naa'na'i, tractor. 

chidi naat'a'i, airplane. 

chiditsoh, truck. 

chih, chiih, chiT (chii 1 ), chih 

chiih, to be red. 

1. to become red (3rd person). 
F. yidoochih I. yiichifh P. yii- 
chii* P. neichih 0. ghoochffh 

2. to be red. 

N-l. tinish-chiT (tinf, li, jil, tinii, 
finoh) (halchiP, an area is red). 


binaa* tichiP, his eyes ore blood- 

3. to redden it; dye it red. 

F. yi-deesh-chih (dfit, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) (*bidi'dool-) I. 
yiish-chifh (yiit, yiyi i+ # jiit, yiil, 
ghoot) (bi'diil-) P. yiit-chiP (yi~ 
nit, yiyiii, jiit, yiil, ghoot) (bi'diil-) 
R. neish-chih {ne\\, nayiit, njiit, 
neiil, naoot) (ndbPdiil-) O. 

ghoosh-chiih (ghoot, yot, jot, 
ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
* yi- is replaced by bi-. 

4. to flash ..(with a reddish 
light/ as lightning, flashlight, 

F. dah yidoochih N. dah tichiP 
P. dah yiichii' R. dah neiichih 
0. dah ghoochfih 
chxih, chxiih, chxii', chxih 
chxiih, to become red (in a de- 
precatory sense). 

1 . to become rusty; to rust. 
F. rididmoochxih I. ndiniichxnh 
P. hdiniichxiP R. ninadinii- 
chxih O. ndinoochxnh 
chit, child (chid), chid, chi\ child 
to perform an action with the 

1 . to reach for it. 
F. *bfkd dideesh-chii (didii, d\~ 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. 
bfkd dish-chffd (df, di, zhdi, dii, 
doh) P. bika de-chid (dfni, 

deezh, zhdeezh, dee, disoo) R. 
bika ndfsh-chP (hdf, ndf, nfzhdf, 
ndii, hdoh) 0. bfka dosh-chrfd 
(doo, do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 
*bika becomes yika in 3o. 



2. to embrace him; to put the 
arms around him. 

F. *bini-deesh-chit (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. bi-nash-chid 
(nani, no, nijf, neii, ndh) P. bi- 
ni she-chid (nishini, naazh, ni- 
jfzh, nfshii, nishoo) R, bini- 

nash-chi' (nani, na, naji, neii, 
nah) 0. bi-naoosh-chid (naoo, 
naoo, nijo, naoo, naooh) 
* bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

3. to gesture; to make signs by 
motioning with the hands. 

F. ni-deesh-chit (di'ft, doot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) C-l. naash-chid 
(nanit, naal, njit, neiil, naal) P. 
nishet-chid (nishinft, naash, n- 
jish, nishiil, nishoot) R. ninash- 
chi' (ninanfl, ninat, ninajit, ni- 
ne) i!, ninat) O. naoosh-chid (na- 
661, noocA, njot, naool, naoot) 

naashchidgo bee yashti', I am 
talking by signs. 

4. to release it from the grasp; 
to let go of it. 

F. *bi-dideesh-chit (didii, ididoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (didoo-) 
I. bi-dish-chn'd (di, idi, zhdi, dii, 
doh) (di-) P. bi-dfi-chid (difnf, 
idff, zhdii, dii, dooh) (doo-) R. 
bi-ndfsh-chi T (ndi, neidi, nizhdf, 
ndii, ndoh) (hdf-) O. bi-dosh- 
chiid (doo, ido, zhdo, doo, dooh) 
*bf- becomes yi- in 3o 

5. to fall on him and catch self 
on the hands; to put one's thumb 
print on it. 


F. *bik'i-dideesh-chU (didiil, di- 
dooi, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
bik'i-diish-chii'd (diil, diil, zhdiil, 
diil, doot) P. bik'i-diish-chid (di- 
nil, diil, zhdiil, diil, doot) R. bi- 
k'i-hdiish-chf (hdiil, hdiil, nizh- 
diil, rSdiil, hdoot) O. bik'i-doosh- 
chiid (dool, dool, zhdool, dool, 

chin, grime; filth. 
chin bqqh 'ddin, clean, 
chizh, wood; firewood. 
chizhts'osi, kindling. 
chishi, Chiricahua Apache. 
chj*, to value it highly; cherish it; 
be stingy with it. 

1. an object. 

N-l. *baa nish-chi/ (ni, ni, ji, nii, 
noh) shilif baa nishch[', I am 
stingy with my horse. 

2. an area (as land). 

N-l. *baa honish-chi' (honf, ho, 
hoji, honii, honoh) 

* baa becomes yaa in 3o. 
chiif, chi, chj, child, chiil, to give 
birth; bear offspring. 

1. to give birth to it; bear it. 

F. deesh-chift (diR, yidoot, jidooi, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yish-chf 
(nit, yil, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'dil-) P. 
shet-chj (shinit, yish, jish, shiil, 
shoot) (bi'dizh-) R. nash-chiih 
(nonit, neif, hjif, neiil, nat) (na- 
bi'dil-) O. ghosh-chfit (ghoor, 
V°+, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to give birth; have a baby. 
F. a-deesh-chnt (dirt, doot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) I. 'ash-chf ('ft, 
'ol *ajit, Mil, 'ot) P. , o-sh*l-chi 




(shinil, sh, jish, shiil, shoot) R. 
naash-chfih (na'it, naat, n jit, 
na'iil, na at) 0. 'dsh-chfft Coot, 
'6t, 'ajot, 'ool, 'oot) 

3. to have a nightmare. 

F. shi-k'i'iidoolchift, P. shi-k'i- 
Milchi R- shi-k'ina iiichiih O. 
shi-kToolchi'i'f (Conjugated 

for person by altering the pro- 
noun prefix on the postposition 

4. to write (on something). 

F. ake-'deesh-chut Cdiit, 'doot, 
zh'doot, 'diil, *doot) C-l 'akV- 
esh-chi (ft, et, jit, iil, *ot) P. 
'akV-shet-chi (shmii, eesh, jish, 
shiil, shoot) R. ake-na ash- 
chifh (na'.'t, na at, rt'jtt, na'iil, 
na'ot) O. akV-osh-chfft (661, 
6t, jot, ool, oot) 

To mark, tattoo or write on it 
is rendered by changing *ak*i- to 
bik'i- (oryik'i- in 3o.). 

5. to beat around the bush. 

F. tf-dPdeesh-chiit (di'dffl, df- 
dooi, dizh'dool, di'diil, di'doot) 
C-l. t.-'dish-chi Cdfl, 'dfl, zh'dfl, 
'diil, 'dot) P. tf-'desh-chi Cdinil, 
'deesh, zh'deesh, 'diil, 'doot) R. 
ti-rVdish-chi (rVdfl, rVdil, nizh- 
'dfl, n'diil, n'dot) O. ti-'dosh- 
chut ('dool, 'dol, zh'dol, 'dool, 
*doot) beeso ta* sha'doonit ni- 
singo tfdfshchif nt'ef bit bee- 
hoozin, he found out that I was 
beating around the bush to bor- 
row money. 
chiil, chiil, chill, chiii, chlil, to 

snow (a snowstorm is thought of 
as moving). 

1. to start to snow. 

F. didoochnt I. dichiit P. deezh- 
chifl R. ndichfit O. dochitt 

2. to snow (i.e. to arrive — - of 
a snowstorm). 

F. doochnt P. hchiN (the perfec- 
tive translates the English pre- 

3. to stop snowing (i.e. to 
move out of sight — the storm). 
F. adoochfit I. 'iichiit P. 'uchiil 
R. 'anachiit O. 'oochfit 

chjjh, to know; be aware of. 

1 . to know how to do it; to be 
good at it. 

N-l. yiish-ch[ih (yini, yiyii, jii, 
yii, ghooh) 'akVelchf doo yi- 
yiichiih do, he doesn't know how 
to write. 

2. to be aware of it. 

N-l. baa 'ahdsh-chijh Cahol, *a- 
hal, 'dhoji!, 'ahwiil, 'ahot) 
chiji chjjh (chi'), chqq\ chijh, 
chP, to defecate. 

1 . to defecate. 

F. *a-deesh-chj[+ (dn, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. 'ash-chf ('i, a, 
'ajt, 'ii, 'oh) P. 'ashe-chqq' ('a- 
shinr 'azh, 'ajizh, 'ashii, 'ashoo) 
R. na*-ash-ch[jh (i, a, ajf, ii 6h) 
O. 'osh-chi' ('66, '6, 'ajo, 'oo, 

2. to masturbate oneself. 

F. ak'i-deesh-chiit (diil, idool ; 
zhdool, diil, doot) I. 'ak'eesh- 
ch[jh ( ak'inil, 'ak'iil, 'ak'ijil, \5- 
k'iil, ak'iot) C-l. , ak'i-nash- 



ch[[h (nani'l, neil, rijfl, neiil, nat) 
P. 'ak'eesh-chqq' ('ak'iinil, 'ak'i- 
yool, 'ak'ijool, 'ak'iil, ak'ioot) R. 
'ak'ini-nash-chiih (nanfl, neil, 
najil, neiil, ndt) O. 'ak'i-osh- 
chqq' (661, yol, jol, ool, oot) 

(To obtain semen samples, as 
from a ram, is rendered by use of 
bik'i- instead of 'dk'i-. Thus, 
deenasts'aa' bik'ideeshchii+ 

I'll get a semen sample from the 

3* to make hirn angry; cause 
him trouble. 

F. *ba ho-deesh-chiii (diit, doot, 
zhdoot, diil, doot) I. bahaash- 
ch[[h (hot, hat, hojit, hwiil, hot) 
P. ba hoot-chf (or chjid) (hwiinft, 
hoot, hojift, hwiil, hoot) R. na- 
hash-chjih (hot, hat, hojit, hwiil, 
hot) 0. ba hosh-chi' (hoof, hot, 
hojot, hool, hoot) ba hoofchf, 
1 made him angry, bik'iji' h66t- 
ch[' (or -ch[[d), I caused trouble 
for him. 

*ba (and bik'iji') become ya 
(vik'iji') in 3o. 

4. to become, be, angry. 

F. sha hodoochijt C-l. sha ha- 
chi; P. sha hoochJid R. sha na- 
hachjjh 0. sha hochjih (Con- 
jugated for person by altering 
(-he pronoun prefix on the post- 
position -a, for (one). 

chiif, chin, chqq\ child, chq$ f , 

to smell. 

1 . to smell; have an odor. 

F, hodoolchfft C-l halchfn 


hashchqq' R. nahalchiih 0. 

2. to be able to smell. 
C-l. ash-chin ('it, 'at, 'ajit, 'iil, 
'ot) (The 3rd person form is 
used in the sense of "to be wild/' 
as \\x da'atchinfgd', wild horses.) 
doo h6zh<p 'ashchin da, I cannot 
smell very well. 

3. to smell it. 
F. deesh-ch{[t (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
dill, doot (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
chin (nit, yii / jit, yiil, ghot) (bi*- 
dil-) P. shet-chqq (shinft, yish, 
jish, shiil, shoot) (bi'dish-j R. 
nash-chfih (nanit, neit, rijit, neiil, 
nal) (nabi'dil-) 0. ghosh-chqq 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

4. to scent along; follow his 
nose (as a dog). 
Prog. doolch{[t 

5. to scent about; to follow his 
nose about (as a dog). 
F. ndidoolchjit C-l. ndilchqq* 
P. ndeeshchqq* R. ninadilchifh 
0. ndolchqq' 
cho, frost. 

chooghini, hunchback. 
chooghin, menstrual discharge 
(choogh in nishtf, I am menstru- 

chosh, chozh, ..chozh, chosh, 
chozh, to eat or chew herbs (as 
lettuce, grass, hay, etc.). 
1 . to eat it. 

F. deesh-chosh (dnt, yidoof, ji- 
doot, diil, dooO (bidi'dool-) C-l. 
P. yish-chozh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) 



or At 

(bi'dil-) P. yit-chozh (yinit, yi- 
yi'i't, jnt, yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. 
nash-chosh (nanii, neit, njit, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh- 
chozh (ghoot, yot, jot, ghooi, 
ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to graze. 
F. 'adoo+chosh C-l. 'a+chozh 
P. 'iftchozh R. nda+chosh O 
chgph, wild rose. 

choot, ch9Qh # chq\ chqqh, 
ch99h f to spoil. 

1. to spoil, ruin, wreck, mar, 
ruffle, disfigure it. 

F. deesh-choof (dfit, yidoot, ji- 
doot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
yish-chooh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) 
(bi'dil-) P. yit-chp' (y in it, yiyff+ / 
jiit, yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. 
nash-chpph (nan ft, neit, njit, ne- 
iil, nat) (ndbi'dil-) O. ghosh- 
chpph (ghoot, yot, jot, ghooi, 
ghooi) (bi'dol-) ntsii' deesh- 
chppt, I'll muss up your hair. 

2. to spoil; to be disarranged. 
F. doochppt I. yichooh P. yi- 
chp* R. nachpph O. ghochpph 

3. to erase it; rub it out. 

F. k'ee-'deesh-chppt Cdiit, 'door, 
zh'doot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) 
I. k'ee'-esh-choph (it, at, jit, iil, 
ot) (bi'dil-) P. k'ee'-fft-chp' (ii- 
nft, lyiit, jfft, iil, oot) (bi'dool-) 
R. k'eeni-nd'ash-chggh (na'ft, 
na'at, rVjft, na'iil, na'ot) (ndbi'- 
dil-) O. k'ee-osh-chpph (oot, 
'6t, 'jot, 'ool, 'oot) (bi'dol-) 
Christ dayoodlaanii, Christians. 

€(1x99*1, to be ugly, filthy, worn. 
N-L nish-chxpp'i (ni, ni, ji, nii, 
noh) (ho-, place; area is ugly) 
ch'agii, blackbird. 
ch'ah, ch'eeh (ch'ah), ch'ee', 
ch'ah, crTeeh, to open the mouth 

1. to open one's mouth. 

F. dideesh-ch'ah (didii, didoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. diish- 
ch'eeh (dii, dii, jidii, dii, doh) P. 
dii-ch'ee' (dim, dii, jidii, dii, doo) 
R. ridiish-ch'ah (ndii, ndii, nizh- 
dii, ndii, ndoh) O. doosh-ch'eeh 
(doo, doo, jidoo, doo, dooh) 

2. to hold the mouth open. 

N. dinish-ch'ah (dini, deezh, 
jideezh, dinfi, dinoh) 

3. to yawn. 

This form is rendered by p re- 
pounding bit bik'ee (on account 
of drowsiness) to the forms of 1. 
Thus, bi+ bik'ee diich'ee', I 

ch'ah, hat; headwear. 
ch'ah bindzt'i'i, hat band. 
ch'at, crTal, ch'al, ch'a*, ch'al, to 
Jap a liquid. 

1. to lap it up. 

F. deesh-ch'at (dfit, yidoot, jidoot 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
ch'al (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'- 
dil-) P. yit-ch'al (yinit, yiyfit, jfft, 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. nash- 
ch'at (nanit, neit, njft, neiil, nat^ 
(nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-crTal (ghooi 
yot, jot, ghooi, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to jabber; chatter. 

N-l. ha'dish-ch'at (ha'dft, ha'dif, 
hazh'dit, ha'diil, ha'dot) 


CH At 

ch'at, frog. 

ch*al nineezi, large frog. 

ch'aftsoh, toad. 

crTqh, ch'qgh, ch'qq, ch'qh, 

ch'qqh, to decorate; embellish. 

1 . to decorate it. 

F. ndeesh-ch'qh (ndii, neidoo, ni- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (nibidi'doo-) 
C-l. naash-ch'qqh (nani, nei, nji, 
neii, naah) (nabi'di-) P. nishe- 
ch'qq* (nishini, neizh, njizh, ni- 
shii, nishoo) (nabi'dish-) R. ni- 
nashch'qh (nani, ne\, najf, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. naosh-ch'qqh 
(naoo, nayo, njo, naoo, naooh) 

2. to paint (a picture); (lit. to 

F. n'deesh-ch'qh (n'dff, n'doo, 
nizh'doo, n'dii, n'dooh) C-l. 

na'ash-ch'qqh (na'f, na'a, n'ji, 
na'ii, na'oh) P. ni'she-ch'qq' 
(ni'shinf, na'azh, n'jizh, ni'shii 
ni'shoo) R. ni-na'ash-ch*qh (na- 
i, na a, na ji, no h, na oh) ..O. 
na'osh-ch'qqh (na *66, na'6, n*jo, 
na'oo, na'ooh) 

chat, ch'qai, ch gal, crTql, 
ch*qq{, to hang suspended. 

1. to drip (as drops of water! 
F. nahididoolch'ql C-l. nahidil- 
ch'qqt (I. ndilch'qqt) P. nahi- 
deeshch'qql R. ninahidilch'qt 
0. nahidolch'qqf 

2. to hang suspended. 

C-l. dah naash-ch'qqf (nanil, 
naal, njil f neiil, naat) 

3. to suspend it (as by a cord). 

F. dah hi-dideesh-chV (didftf, 


diyoot, zhdiyoot, didiil, didoot) 
(bidi'dool-) I. dah hi-diish- 

ch'qqi (diif, diyiit, zhdiyiit, di- 
yiil, diyoot) (bi'diil-) P. hi-diit- 
ch'qql (dinit, diyiit, zhdiyiit, di- 
yiil, diyoot) (bi'diil-) R. nahi- 
diish-ch qt (diit, diyii+ / zhdiyiit, 
diil, doot) (nabfdiil-) 0. hi- 
doosh-ch'qqt (doot, diyoot, zhdi- 
yoat, dool, doot) (bidi yool-) 
ch'eeh, in vain; futilly. ch'eeh 
'fft'Ud, i tried in vain. 
ch'eeh dighahii, turtle. 
ch'eeh jiydan, watermelon. 
ch'id, to manage; to handle (as 
livestock, car, etc.) 

1 . to manage, handle, it. 

C-l. naash-ch'id (nani, nei, nji, 
neii, naah) chidi naa'na'ffsh 
t'aa naach'idgi nit beehozin, do 
you know how to handle a trac- 
tor? shidibe ya'at eehgo naash- 
ch'id, I manage my sheep well. 

2. to manage (intr.). 

C-l. na'ash-ch'id (na\, na'a, n- 

ji, na'ii, na'oh) 

ch'idi, buffalo robe. 

ch'ih, ch'iih, ch'ih, ch'ih, ch'Eih, 

ro blow (a breeze). 

1 . to come up (a breeze). 

F. didooch'ih I. dich'uh P. 
deezhch'ih R. ndich'ih 0. do- 

2. to be coming (a breeze or 

Prog, yich'ih. aad#f yicrTih 
there comes a breeze. 

3. to blow (arrive) (breeze). 



F. dooch'ih P. ncfVih (transla- 
tes the English present), 

4. to stop blowing (i.e. move 
on into invisibility). 
F. 'adooch'ih I. 'iich'iih P. 'ii- 
ch'ih R. 'andch'ih O. 'ooch'ifh 
ch ih, ch'iT, ch ii , ch ih, ch 'iih, 
to smart (as one's feet). 
F. yidootch'ih I. shi+ch*ii* P. 
yiikh'fr R. neitch'ih O. ghoot- 
ch'fih N. dfch'ii' (it smarts, as 

chTnifdjjdigii, survivor. 
ch'ikefh, maiden (pi chMkei). 
ch'Haghi', smokehole; chimney. 
ch'il, plant; weed. 
ch'il bee yildehi, mattock. 
ch'il bticstsii' daholonigii, cere 
als (bearded plants). 
ch 1 U daadansgii, vegetables. 
ch'il deercinii, Russian thistle. 
ch'il diilghesii, snakeweed. 
ch'il gohwehi, Navaho tea (the 
lesperma gracile). 
ch'il 'cebe'e, milkweed. 
ch'i! '<xghdni, loco weed. 
ch'i! tichxi'i, tomato; beet. 
ch'il ligaii, cabbage; cauliflow- 
er; lettuce, 
ch'H fitsooi, orange. 
ch'il Htsooi dik'ozhigii, lemon. 
ch'il na'atTo'ii, grape (vine). 
ch'il na'attViitsoh, prune. 
ch'iftaat'agii, marsh hawk. 

ch'ilzhoo', sand sage. 
ch'i*, ch'il, ch'il, ch'il, to lighten. 
F. 'adidoolch'it P. 'adeeshch'it 
R. n'diilch'il O. 'adoolch'if 
ch'il, ch'iid (ch'id), ch'id, ch'i', 


ch'iid, to scratch. 

1 . to scratch it up out (as in 
scratching or digging with the 
hands for water). 

F. ha-deesh-ch'it (dii, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. haash-ch'iid 
(hani, hai, haji, haii, haah) P. 
hdd-ch'id (hdini, hayii, hajii, ha- 
ii, haoo) R. ha-ndsh-chY (ndni, 
r\e\, hji, neii, ndh) O. ha-osh- 
ch'iid (66, yd, jo, oo, ooh) 

2. to scratch it (as an insect 

F. deesh-ch'it (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) G-l. yish-ch'id (ni, yi, 
ji, yii, ghoh) P. yi-ch'id (ymi, yi- 
yi'/ j' 1 ', y'"/ ghooh) R. ndsh-chY 
(ndni, ne\ f hji, neii, ndh) O. 
ghdsh-ch'id (ghoo ,yo, jo, ghoo, 

3. to scratch oneself. 

F. 'adi-deesh-ch'it (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. adish-ch'id 
Cadi, 'ddi, 'dzhdi, 'ddii, 'ddoh) 
P. 'ddeesh-ch'id ('adiini, 'ddoo, 
'azhdoo, *ddii, 'ddooh) R. an- 
dish-chY Cdhdf, 'dhdi, anizhdi, 
ahdii, 'driddh) O. 'dddsh-ch'id 
fddod, 'ado, 'dzhdd, 'ddoo, 'd- 

4. to scratch it (as one's hand) 
until one makes on abrasion. 

F. tsiih deesh-ch'tf (dii, yidoo, ji- 
doo, dii, dooh) L tsiih yish- 
cfViid (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) P. 
tsiih yi-ch'id (yini, yiyii, jif, yii, 
ghooh) R. tsiih ndsh-chV (nani r 
(nei, hji, neii, ndh) O. tsiih 



ghosh-ch'iid (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 

5* to find it groping for it a- 
mong things with one's hands. 

F. *bik , f-'deesh-ch , i* Cdif, 'doo, 
jidoo, dii, dooh) I. bikT-nish- 
ch'iid {ni, \, )\ t nii, noh) P. bik'i- 

ni-ch id ( nni, ni, zh ni, nil, 
'nooh) R. bik'i-na'ash-chT (na- 

i, na a, n ji, na n, na on) O, bi- 
kT-osh-ch'iid (66, 6, jo, oo, ooh) 
shich'ah yoo' 'eelts'id nt'^' 'ee* 
bitahgi bikVnfch'id, my hat was 
lost, but I found it among the 
clothes (by removing them one 
by one). (In the above verb the 
pronoun ho- can replace 'a- (re- 
presented here by O without al- 
tering the general meaning.) 
ch'il, ch'Ht, crTil, ch'it, ch'iif, to 
peel; flake off (as paint or skin). 

1 . to peel or flake off of it. 
F. bfdoolch'ii I. belch'iit P. 
heefdVil R. binalch'i* O. bool- 

ch'it, ch'iit, chiil, crTit, crTiit, to 

1. to become curly. 

F. yidoolch'ii I. yiilch'fii P. 

yiHcfViil S-P. yishch'il R. neil- 
ch'if O. ghoolch'fit 

bighaa* 'ahanigo yishclVil, its 
wool is short crimped. 

2. to curl it; make it curly. 

F. yi-deesh-ch'it (diil, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) (*bidr*dool-) I. 
yiish-ch'nt (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, 
ghoot) (bi'diil-) P. yiit-ch'iil 
(yinit, yiyiit, jii+, yiil, ghoot) (bP- 


diil-) R. neish-ch'ii (neiit, na- 
yiil, njiit, neiii, nacrf) (nabi'diil-) 
O* ghoosh-ch'nt (ghoot, yool. 
joo+, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dool-) 

*yi- is replaced by bi-. 
chit, ch'iif (chit), ch'iil, ch it, 
ch'iit, to close the eyes. 

1 * to close one's eyes. 

F. dineesh-ch'it (di'niil, dinool, ji- 
dinool, diniil, dinoot) I. niish- 
ch'ffi (niil, niil, jiniil, niil, noot) 
P. niish-ch'iil (ninil, niil, jiniil, 
niil, noot) R. na-niish-ch'it (niil, 
niil, zhniil, niil, nool) O. noosh- 
ch'iit (nool, nool, jinool, nool, 

2. to blink (a continuative for- 
med with the iterative stem). 
C-l. nish-ch'it (nil, nil, jinil, niil, 

ch'iniitna'igii, surplus. 
ch'inilf, Chinlee, Arizona. 
ch'ish, ch'iish (ch'ish), ch'iizh, 
(ch'sizh), ch'ish, ch'iish, to rou- 
ghen; be rough. 

1, to file, rasp, saw, grate, 
sandpaper, it. 

F. deesh-ch'ish (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
ch'iish (n\, yi, ji, yri, ghoh) (bi*- 
di-) P. yi-ch'iizh (yfnf, yiyif, jff, 
yii, ghoo) (bi'doo-) R. nash- 
ch'ish (nanf, nef, nji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. ghosh-ch'iish 

(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi 1 - 

2. to saw or file it in two. 

F. k'f-deesh-ch'ish (dn, idoo, zh- 
doo, dir, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. k'f- 



nish-ch'iish (nf, i, ji, nii, noh) 
(bi'dee-) P. k'i-ni-ch'iizh (ini, 
ini, ji, nit, noo) (bi'dee-) R. k'i- 
ndsh-ch'ish (nam, nef, nji,,n£ii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. k'l-osh-ch'iish 
(66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi*d6-) 

3. to become rough; to get 

F. didooch'ish I. dich'ish P. 
dfich'ish N. dich'iizh R. ndi- 
ch'ish O. doch'ish 
ch'ishiibeezhii, chickadee. 
ch'ishiishdshii, crested titmouse. 
ch'iyddn, food; groceries, 
ch'iyddn doo bidi'nidzinigii, gar- 
bage; cast off food 
ch'iyddn ^iit'ini, cook; chef. 
ch*iyq\ food (customarily for- 
ming the diet of an animal e.g.). 
ch'jfd, to make derogatory re- 
marks because of envy; to be en- 

1. to be envious; to be "sour 

N. 'oosh-ch'iid Coot, 'oot, 'ajoot, 
ool, 'oott t'66 ootch f [id, he is 
just envious! sour grapes! 

2. to be envious of it, 
N. ghoosh-ch'[[d (ghooJ, yooi, 
joo+, ghool, ghoot) shichidi 
yootch'ffd, he is envious of my 
car. chidi biniinaa shootch*[[d, 
he envies me because of my car. 
ch'iidii, ghost; devil; malevolent 
spirit of the dead. 
ch'jj[diitah, hell. 
eh'fft, ch'ifh, chr, ch'ijh, ch'ijh. 

1. to be midafternoon. 
F. hiidoofch'ijt I. hii+crTi|h P. 


hii+ch'i' R. nahiiich'uh O. hi- 
ch*6, spruce* 

ch'ohojilgheeh, jimson weed. 
ch'ooshdqqdqg', originally; for- 
merly; in the beginning. 
ch'osh, maggot; worm; bug. 
ch'osh bik9'ii, glow worm. 
ch'osh ditt'ooi, caterpillar. 
ch'osh doo yit'iinii, microbe. 
ch'osh doo yit'iinii bee naatsee- 
di # antiseptic; disinfectant. 
ch'osh doo yit'iinii bee nil'ini, 
ch'osh 'afchozhit, clothes moth. 

daa daolgheii, "whachamacall- 
it/' "thingamajig" (as when one 
cannot think of the correct word) 
daa doolghini, ib. daa daolgheii. 
daat, daah (ddh), dza, dddh, 
dddh (dza'), (iterative stem of to 
walk, go; V. gaat) 

1. to bypass it; go around it. 

This verb has distinct stems for 
singular, dual and plural num- 
ber, and thus the paradigms are 
given in three groups. 


F. bik'ee *qq 'ahee-deesh-daat 
(dir, doo, zhdoo) Prog, bik'ee 
'qq yishaa+ (yfnaat, yigaat, joo- 
qaa\) P. bik'ee f qq 'ahee-nis-dza 
(ini, na, \\) R. bik'ee 'qq 'ahe- 
nf-nash-daah (nam, na, najO O. 
bik'ee *qq 'ahe-naos-dza' (na- 
oo, nao, ejo) 




F. bik'ee 'qq 'ahee-dii-t'ash 
(dooh, doo, zhdoo) Prog, bik'ee 
'qq yiit'ash (ghoh'ash, yi'ash, 
joo'ash) P. bik'ee 'qq 'ahee-nii- 
t'dazh (nooh, na ; ji) R. bik'ee *qq 
'ahenf-neii-t'ash (nah, n6, najf) 
O. bik'ee 'qq 'ahe-naoo-t'ash 
(naooh, nao, rijo) 


The prefixes are the same as for 
the dual, but the following stems 
replace the dual stem: F. kah; 
Prog, kah; P. kai; R. kah; O. 

2. to waylay, ambush, them. 

F. *baa nihi-deesh-daat (dfi, doo, 
zhdoo) I. baa ni-hinish-ddah 
(hini, hee, hijiyee) P. baa ni-hi- 
nis-dza (hifni, hee, hijiyee) R. 
baa nina-hash-daah (hi, haa, ji- 
yee) O. baa ni-hosh-daa-f (hoo, 
ho, jiyo) 

Dual, (plural has the same pre- 
fixes, but uses the parenthetic 

F. baa nihi-dii-t'ash (-kah) (dooh 
doo, zhdoo) I. baa ni-hinii- 

t'aash (-kaah) (hinoh, hee, hiji- 
yee) P. baa ni-hinii-t'aazh (-kai) 
(hinooh, hee, hijiyee) R. baa ni- 
nahii-t'ash (-kah) (nahoh, na- 
haa. najiyee) O. baa ni-hoo- 

t'aash (-kaah) (hooh, ho, jiyo) 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

3. to be lying in wait for him 
(the stem is here the perfective 
stem of to sit). 


Singular. baa hinish-da (hint, 
hees, jiis) Dual- (plural) hi- 
nfi-ke (-tq) (hinoh, haas, hijiis) 

4. to be an ombush (3i. subj.). 
F. nthidi'yoodaat P. ni'heedza 
R. nina'heedaah O. ni'h6dzo' 
daat, daah, da (da), daah, daah, 
singular stem ot to sit. 
keet, keeh, ke (ke), keeh, keeh, 
dual stem of to sit. 
bi|t, bah, bin (tq), bjjh, bjjh, plu- 
ral stem of to sit. 

1. to sit down. 

F. dineesh-daat (dinii, dinoo, di- 
zhnoo) I. nish-daah (ni, ni, jini) 
P. ne-da (nfni, neez, jineez) R. 
na-nfsh-daah (nf, nf, zhnf) 0. 
nosh-daah (noo, no, jino) 

F. dinii-keei (dinooh, dinoo, di- 
zhnoo) I. nii-keeh (noh, ni, jini) 
P. nee-ke (sinoo, neez, jineez) 
R. na-nii-keeh (noh, nf, zhnf) O. 
noo-keeh (nooh, no, jino) 

F. dfnfi-bjji (dinooh, dfnoo, df- 
zhnoo) I. dinii-biih (dinoh, di- 
ni, dizhni) P. dinee-bin (disi- 
noo, dineez, dizhneez) R. hdi- 
nii-biih (hdinoh, hdini, nfzhdini) 
O. dinoo-biih (dinooh, dino, di- 

2. to be sitting. 

Singular. S-P. se-da (sinf, si, 
jiz) Dual sii-ke (soo, si, jis) 
Plural. nahaa- (or nahfsn-)tq 
(nahoo or nahfsoo, nahaas, njfis) 



daai, do*, do 9 , do 9 , to menstruate 
for the first time. 
F. kini-deesh-daat (dill, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) I. kini-diish-da' 
dinil, diil, zhdiil, diil, dot) P. kirv 
sfs-da* (sinil, aas, jis, si it, soot) 
O. ki-naoosh-da' (na66l, naoot, 
nijol, naool, naoot) 
daa, what? how? dad gholghe, 
what is it called? 
daabalii, shawl. 
daddilkat, door, 
daodldnigii, beverage. 
daane'e, toy; plaything. 
daats'i, possibly; maybe. doo 
nee ndihodidoonaat da daats'f 
nisin, I do not think you are go- 
ing to last much longer. 
daaz, daas, to be heavy. 

1. to be heavy (absolute). 
N. nisdaaz (ni, ni, jf, nii, noh) 

2. to be heavy (comparative). 
N. anfs-da6s ( oninfi, 'finft, '6- 
zhnil, aniil, *anot) 

ddghd, mustache (bidaghaa*). 
dagha bee yilzhehi, razor. 
dah, up (at an elevation) ni- 
ch*ah dah hidii'aah, hang your 
hat up! 

dah *azkq, mesa. 
dahadfo*, it is fluttering, shi- 
naa' dahadlo', my eye is flutter- 
ing, twitching. 

dah, deeh, dee*, dah, deeh, a va- 
riant plural stem of to go. 

1. to be done; to be carried on 
(the subject it the 3i.). 
F. baa n'dooldah C-l. baa na'- 
aldeeh P. baa na'asdee' R 


baa nina'aldah <)• baa na'6t- 
deeh 'anaa* baa na'aldeeh, 
a war is being carried on. 

2. to disperse; break up (as a 

F. tda'diyooldah I. tad'ooi- 

deeh P. taa'oosdee' R tdnina- 
'ooldah O. taa'ootdeeh 
dah, deeh, dee', dah, deeh, stem 
referring to the falling of plural 
separable objects (including an- 

1. to fall from (my) grasp (it 
is herewith given for the 1st per- 
son; the verb remains unchang- 
ed throughout the conjugation, 
person being shown by altera- 
tion of the pronoun prefix of -la- 
k*e, hand; area of the hand). 

F. shilak'e hadfnoodah I. shila- 
k'e hanideeh P. shilak'e hann- 
dee' R. shflak'e hananfdah O. 
shilak'e hanodeeh 

2. to fall downward (as seeds, 
snowf lakes, etc.) 

F. ndmoodah C-l. nanideeh P. 
nanffdee* R. ninanidah O. na- 

3. to wipe it off (adhering 

F. deesh-dah (dfft, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot (bidi'doo!-) C-l. yish- 
deeh (nil, yit, jit, yiil, gho* (bi'- 
dil-) P. yit-dee* (yinit, yiyfft, jfft, 
viil, ghoot) (bfdool-) R. nash- 
dah {nantt, nitt, njit, neiil, ndt) 
(nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-deeh 

(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 



4. to strain it; sift it. 

F. *bighd-dineesh-dah (diniil, 
idinoat, zhdinoot, diniil, dindol) 
I. bighd-nish-deeh (nit, init, zh- 
nii, niil, not) P. bigha-ninit-dee' 
(niinit # ininit, zhninft, niniil, ni- 
noot) R. bighd-ndnish-dah (nd- 
nii, neinit, ndzhni't, ndniil, nd- 
not) O. bighd-nosh-deeh (nooi, 
ino+, zhnot, nooi, noot) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

5. to foil into war (in duoplur- 
al only). 

F. anaa 1 biih dmii-dah (dinooh, 
dindo, dfzhnoo) I. 'anaa' biih 
nii-deeh (noh, ni, jini) P. 'anaa 
biih nii-dee' (nooh, nif, jinii) R. 
'anaa' biih nd-nii-dah (noh, nf, 
zhni) O. 'anaa 9 biih noo-deeh 
(nooh, no, jino) 

6. to fall under his power (as 
when a people falls under the 
power of a conqueror). 

This stem refers only to plural 
objects; for the singular see the 
stem ttish 
F. *biyaa 'admii-dah Cadfndoh, 
'adfndo, 'azhdindo) I. biyaa *a- 
nii-deeh Canoh, 'ani, 'azhni) P. 
biyaa 'anii-dee' Canoo, *anff, 'a- 
zhnfi) R. biyaa 'and-nii-dab 
(noh, nf, zhni) O. biyaa 'anoo- 
deeh fanooh, 'and, 'azhnd) 

* biyaa becomes yiyaa in 3o. 

7. to be deeply perturbed; to 
become melancholy; to fall into 
worry (with reference to plural 
persons; see also ttish). 

This meaning is rendered by 


prepounding yinf biih, into the 
mind, to the following forms 
(biih becoming yiih in 3o.). 
F. dinfi-dah (dinooh, dmdo, jidi- 
ndo) I. nii-deeh (noh, ni, jini) 
P, nii-dee 1 (noo, nii, jinii) R. 
nd-nii-dah (noh, ni, zhni) O. 
noo-deeh (nooh, no, jino) 
dah, dad*, daa\ dah, dddh, to 
take place (squaw dance). 
F. jidinoodah C-l. nddd' P. ji- 
noodaa' R. ndzhnidah O. jind- 

dah diniilghaazh, fried bread. 
dah 'adiidloh, pound (weight). 
dah 'alzhin, dot; speck. 
dah 'ats'os, conical. 
dah 'iistt'9, loom. 
dah 'iistt 4 Q bd 'ii'dhi, upright 
pole (of the loom). 
dah na'aghizii, leather pouch 
(worn suspended over one shoul- 

dahsdm, porcupine. 
dahtoo', dew; dewdrop. 
dahts'oc', mistletoe. 
dah yiitq, crescent moon. 
dah yiitjhi, humming bird, 
dah yiitjhidqQ', Indian paint- 

dd'dghdlii, rattle pod. 
dd'dka*, playing cards. 
dd'dkaz, corn stalk. 
dd'dkaz bitoo', syrup. 

dd'dkaz bitoo 1 tizhinigif, molas- 
ses; sorghum. 

dd'dkaz tikani, sugar cane, 
dd'dk'eh, cornfield; garden (pi 



dd'dk'ehaldni, Many Farms, A- 

dd'dt'qa/, comhusk; cigaret pa- 
per; corn leaves. 

da Vit'e (with the future), might. 
sildago deeshda+go da 'dt'e, I 
might have to go to the army. 
nich*i 'akVdeeshchfiigo da *a 
te, I might write to you. 
daatsaah, sickness; illness. 
dd'dtsiin, corncob 
dd'deestrin, dam; reservoir, 
da'iigis bd hooghan, laundry. 
da'nifts'qq'goo, in several direc- 
tions, da'nftts'qq'goo 'aheezh- 
jee*, they ran off in several di- 

damgigo; daamiigo, Sundo/. 
dami[go biiskdni, Monday. 
ddhditjhi, gate. 
danirinigii, exhibition. 
das, das, dddz, das, daas, stem 
referring to the falling of a mass 
of many plural objects, as dirt 
from a roof, sand, etc.). 

1. to fall from (my) grasp; to 
fall out of (my) hand. 

Conjugated by altering the pro- 
noun prefix on -Idk'e, hand. 
F. shfldk'e hadoo+das I. shildk'e 
haaldaas P. shildk'e hdd+dddz 
R. shfldk'e hand+das O* shfldk'e 

2. to fall downward (a heavy 
mass of rocks, logs, dirt, water, 
etc. — not a solid object). 

F. ndootdas I. naaldaas P. nddt- 
dddz R. nindfdas O. naoteaas 

3. to fall in; cave In (as a roof) 


F. 'ahiih ridootdas I. 'ahiih ndt- 
daas P. 'ahiih nddtdddz R. 'a- 
hiih nind'tdas O. 'ahiih ndafdaas 
das, weight, (bidas) 
dqq\ food. 

-dqq\ ago; time past. 'ashdla' 
nddhaiidqq', five years ago. 
dqqt, dqqh, daan, dqqh, dqqh, to 
become springtime. 

1. to start to become spring 
back again. 

F. ch'eedoodqqf I. crTinddqqh 
P. clVeenidaan R, ch'eninddqqh 
O. ch'endoodqqh 
daan, springtime (it is spring). 
dd'dchaan, smut (on corn). 
deeh, tea. 
deeni, sharp. 
deeh bee yibezhi, teapot. 
deendsts'aa', ram; buck. 
deeshgizh, gapped (as anything 
cut forked). 

deeshzha, pronged; forked. 
deesk'id, hill. 
deeteel, moose. 

deez'd, an elongated bluff that 
ends abruptly. 

dei, up; upward. del 'dshtaa, I 
raised \t up. 

deigo, upward. deigo hadii- 
t'ash, let's go up! 
deijPee\ shirt. 
detf, sandhill crane. 

denihootso, Denehotso, Arizona. 
-dee', from. olta'd^' nam's- 

dzd, I returned from school, 
dibdd\ thirst. dibdd' nlsMf, I 
am thirsty, dibdd' sht'niilhf, I 
am dying of thirst. 




-di, times, naakidi, two times. 
dibe, sheep. 

dibe bighan, sheep corral. 
dibe biya', sheep tick. 
dibe biya* doofrt'izhi, sheep lice. 
dibe cho'adinii, wether. 
dibe nii'i, say Phoebe. 
dibe tsa'ii, ewe. 
dibe ydzhi, lamb. 
dichin, hunger. dichin nisht[, 
I am hungry, dichin shf niilhi, I 
am starving. 

dich'ii, hot; (as pepper); bitter. 
dich'iizh, coarse; rough; asper- 

dichxosh, stubby. 
didze, berry; wild plum. 
didze dik^zhii, chokecherry. 
didze dit'odii, service berry. 
didzersoh, peach. 
didzetsoh dik'gzhigii, plum. 
didzersoh ydzhi, apricot. 
dighaz, taste buds; the fleshy 
protrusions on the inside of a 
sheep's cheek; squeaky (as in 
describing the sound produced 
by chewing a rubber band). 
dighozh, thorny. 
dighozhiifbdi, chamizo. 
dii, this; these. dfishq* dikwii 
bqqh 'ill, how much does this 
cost? dii naaltsoos adaatts'iisi- 
igff nddjih, take these small 
books home with you! 
diichifi, abalone shell. 
diidi, this one. dfidi ni dooleef, 
this one will be yours. 

diigi 'dr'eego, in this way; like 

this; in this fashion. 

dii ji, today (future portion) dii 
j[ 'ayoo niyol, today it is very 

diik'osh, spoiled; rotten. 
diil, to be large (man, animal, 
mountain, etc.) 

N. 'dnfsh-diil ('dninil, 'anil, 'd- 
zhni'l, 'dnfil, f dnot) 
diilid, burnt. 
diitdzid, rotten; spoiled. 
dim, to shine (in sense of produ- 
cing light) 

N. 'adinitdiin johonaa'di 'adi- 
ni+diin, the sun is shining. 
diin, to be unable to stand him 
(because of some undesirable 

N. doo *bi+ nfnit-diin da (ni'fi- 
nfl, ni'nit, nizlVnit, ni'niil, ni*- 

*bi+ becomes yit in 3o. 
diish jijdoo, from today (on). 
diish j|; diish jfjgoo, nowdays. 
di]*, di[h, djjd (din), djid, dfih, 
dfih, to dwindle, dissipate, dissa- 
ppear, become extinct. 

1. fro dissopeor; be absent (in 
the neuter form). 

F. ^-deesh-diit (dif, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. ash-diih ('dm, 'd, 

ajf, f fi, 'ah) P. ase-dud Cdsini, 
'as, 'djis, 'dsii, asoo) N. 'dnfsh- 
din Cdni, 'a, aji, 'dnii, # dnoh) R. 
anash-duh Cdndni, ana, anjf, 
aneii, andh) O. oosh-diih ('66, 
oo, a jo, oo, ooh) 

The ordinary 3rd person forms 
are commonly used in the sense 



of to dwindle, be none, etc. Thus 
shibeeso 'ddin, I have no money. 

2. to be progressively dwindl- 
ing; becoming less. 

Prog, aash-dii* Cad, ad, 'djoo, 
*fi, 'ddh). shindd* T ddd[iJ, my 
eyes are gradually becoming 


3. to get rid of it; make it dis- 

F. Qdeesh-du* ( adfit, 'fidoor, a- 
zhdoot, 'ddiil, 'ddoot) (abidi 1 - 
dool-) I. 'dsh-diih ( anit, 'fit, 'd- 
jft, 'HI, at) Cdbfdil-) F. f ds&- 
diid ( asinit, us, ajis, asiil, a- 
soot) (abi'dis-) R. anash-dijh 
ananit, aneit, anjit, anenl, a- 
ndt) Canabi'dil-) O. oosh-djjh 
('66t, 'dyot, 'ajot, 'ool, 'oot) ('a- 

4. to cause it to progressively 
dwindle away. 

Prog, 'aash-ditf Cddt, 'dyoot, 'a- 
joot, 'iil, adt) ( abi'dool-) 

5. to get one's fill of it; to en- 
joy it; to get enough of it. 

F. *bee ndeesh-dijt (rVdffl, n*- 
dool, nizh'dool, h'diil, n'doot) 
C-l. bee nd'ash-diih (nd'il, nd al, 
ri'jfl, ni'iil, na'ot) P. bee ni'sis- 
dijd (ni'sfnil, nd'ds, h'jis, ni'siil, 
ni'soot) R. bee ni-nd'dsh-dijh 
(na'fl, nd'dl, nd'jil, na'iil, na'ot) 
O. bee nd'osh-djjh (nd ool, nd'61, 
n'jol, nd'ool, na'ot) tteedqq' 
na'nfzhoozhi bee ni'sfsdjid, I got 
my fill of Gallup last night; I had 
a good time in Gallup last night. 


ch'iyadn yd'at'eehii bee ni'sis- 
dild, I had my fill of really good 

6. to survive; to keep fighting 
for survival. 

F. chVdeesh-dii+ (ch'i'diit, chT- 
doot, ch'fzh'doot, ch'i'diil, chT- 
doot) I. chT-nfsh-diih (nit, it, 
jft, niil, not) P. ch'i'nifdiid (ch'i- 
'iinit, ch'i'nit, ch'izhnit, ch'i'niil 
ch'i'noot) R. ch'i-na'ash-diih 
(nd'it, na'dt, n'jit, na'iil, na'ot) 
0. ch'i'-osh-dUh (66t, of, jot, ool, 
oot) bik'ei 'attso daneezndago 
t'dd bi t'eiyd chTnttdUd, his rel- 
atives all died, but he survived, 
tonteel 'atnii'gi tsinaa'eet nihit 
ndhideelts'idgo t'ad sdhi chV- 
nftdjid, the ship capsized with us 
in mid ocean and I alone surviv- 

7. to be continuously making 
an effort to survive. 
Prog, 'eesh-djit Hit, oot, ajoot, 
'iil, 'oot) shicheii t'ah ndi 'oot- 
djjt, my grandfather is still liv- 
ing (still fighting for life). 

8. to become excited (conju- 
gated for person by altering the 
pronoun prefix on the postposit- 
ion -if). 

F. t'66 shit 'dhodoodiit I. too 
shit 'ahddjih P. t'66 shit 'ahds- 
dijd R. t'66 shit 'andhadjih O. 
t'66 shit '6h6diih 
dirt, &q, dqq\ djjh 4qq', the stem 
of to eat with d-classifier. 

1 . to overeat. 
F. ade'a-deesh-diit (dfi, doo, zh- 



doo, dii, dooh) C-l. 'ade- ash-dq 
{'i, 'a, 'aji, 'ii, 'oh) P. 'ade-'eesh- 
dqq ( nni, oo, ajoo, n, ooh) 
R. 'ade-na'ash-dfih (na'f, na'a, 
rVji, na'ii, na oh) 0. ade- osh- 
dqq' ('66, *6, *ajo, T oo, 'ooh) 
dfg yddl, half dollar; four bits. 
dPil, hairy. 
di'ili, hairy. 
di'idi, brittle; fragile. 
dijool, spherical; ball like. 
dikos, cough. 
dikos 'azee', cough syrup. 
dikostsoh 'ana'iishitigii, whoop- 
ing cough. 

dik'g^zh, sour; alkaline. 
dikwii, how much? how many? 
dikwiishq', how much? — many? 
dikwiishff, several. ♦[[' dikwfi 
shf{ naakai, there are several 

dilch'it, crackling; popping. 
dilchxosh, effervescent (as pop). 
dild?', tinkling (as the sound of 
a thin sheet of tin). 
dilghehi, Pleiades; Seven Sisters. 
dilghjhi, lead. 
difkpph, smooth. 
dilt'oshii, gray titmouse. 
dilzhi'i, Yavapai. 
dii dee*, deel, dil, dee*. 

1. to chew or eat plural separ- 
able objects, as berries, eggs 
sheep, snow, etc.), 
F. deesh-dit (dfil, yidool, jidool, 
dill. doaO (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
deet (nil, yil, jil, yiil, ghot) (bP- 
dil-) P. yish-deel (yfnfl, yool, 
jool, yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. 


nash-dit (nanil, neil, hjil, neiil, 
ndt) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-deet 
(ghool, yol, jol, ghool, ghoot) 
(bi'dol-) haidqq' dibe t'66 'a- 
hayoi yiildeel, last winter we ate 
many sheep, yas yishdeel, I ate 

2. to fall downward (a slender 
flexible object as a rope). 

F. ndoodit I naadeet P. naadeel 
R. ninadit O. naoodeet 

3. to toss it away; lose it (slen- 
der flexible object as a rope). 

F. yoo' 'adeesh-dit Cadi ft, 'iidoot, 
azhdoot, 'adiil, *adoot) ('abidi*- 

dool-) I. yoo* 'iish-deet (anil, 

'iit, 'ajit, 'ot) (abfdil-) P. yoo 1 

'ift-deel ('ifnft, 'ayfft, 'ajift, 'HI, 
oot) Cabi'dool-) R. yoo' anash- 

dit ('ananft, 'aneit, 'anjit, 'aneiil, 
anal) fanabi'dil-) O. yoo' oosh- 

deet Coot, 'ayot, ajot, 'ool, oot) 


4. to drop it (a slender flexible 
object, as a rope). 

F. ndeesh-dit (ndift, neidoot, 
nizhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi 1 
dool-) I. naasti-deet (nanit, neit, 
njit, neiil, naat) (nabi'dil-) P. 
naat-deel (nefnft, nayut, njut, ne- 
iil, naool) (nabi'dool-) R. ni- 
nash-dit (nanrt, neit, rijft, neiil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. na-osh-deet 
(oot, yot, jot, ool, ool) (bi'dol-) 

5. to rape her (catch her). 

F. *bit ndeesh-dit (ndff, ndoo, 
nizhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (ndoo-) I. 
bit ninish-deet (ninf, nii, njf, ni- 
nii, ninoh) (nii-) P. bit nini-deel 



(niini, ninf, nizhni, ninii, ninoo) 
(nii-) R. bit ni-nash-dit (nanf, 
na, najf, neii, nah) (na-) O. bil 
noosh-deel (noo, noo, njo, noo, 
nooh) (noo-) 
*bit becomes yii in 3o. 

6. to catch It (boll, animal). 
F. *b» dideesh-dit (didfi, didoo, 
jididoo, didii, didooh) (didoo-) I. 
bil dish-deet (di, di, jidi, dii, doh) 
(di-) P. bitde-deel (dfni, deez, 
jideez, dee, disoo) (dees-) R. bil 
ridfsh-dit (ndi, ndi, nizhdi, ndii / 
ndoh) (ndi-) O. bit dosh-deet 
(doo, do, jido, doo, dooh) (do-) 

*bit becomes yii in 3o., and al- 
teration of the postpositional 
pronoun prefix alters the object 
of the verb. 

7. to play the stick dice game. 
N. 'adish-dit ("odft, 'adit, 'azhdit 
'adiil, *adar) 
dil, blood. 

di* bighi' naa'eeti, corpuscle, 
ditch'!!, dense (as hair, wool). 
dil dighilii, blood clot. 
diihit, dark black. 
dil 'iih nadziih, blood transfu- 

din, to be universally hated (as 
o wicked person, for example). 
N. *doo yish-din da (nil, yil, jil, 
yiil, ghoi) *Used only in the 


dine, person; man; Navaho. 
dine biya\ human louse. 
dine da'iigisi, laundry man. 
dine daninehigii hasht'edeile'6, 
dine dighinii, the holy people. 


undertaker; mortician. 
dineeh, young man; youth. 
dine'e, tribe; nation. 
diniih, pain; ache. 
dinilba, light gray. 
dinilchii', pink. 
dinilgai, cream colored. 
dinooltf'izh, greenish. 
dis, diz, diz, dis, diz, to twist. 

1. to twist it; to spin it (yarn). 
F. dees-dis (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yis-diz 
("'/ YK J', y ji / ghoh) (bi'di-) P. 
se-diz (sini, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) (bi'~ 
dis-) R. nas-dis (nani, nef, nji, 
neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. ghos-diz 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'~ 

2. to spin (intr.). 

F. 'a-dees-dis (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. 'as-diz ('i, 'a, a- 
ji, 'ii, oh) P. ase-diz Casini, 
az, 'ajiz, 'asii, 'asoo) R. no- 
as-dis {r\o i, na a, n ji, na n, na- 
•6h) O. os-diz ('66, 6, 'ajo, 'oo, 

3. to wrap it up with it. 

F. *bit dees-dis (dff, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (adoo-) I. bit yiis-dis 
(yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) ('"-) P. 
bit se-dis (sfni, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) 
Cas-) R. neis-dis (neii, nayii, 
hjii, neii, naooh) (na'ii-) O, 
ghos-dis (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) Coo-), dff naaltsoos shi- 
ch'ah bit deesdis, I will wrap my 
hat with this paper. 
*bit becomes yit in 3o. 

4. to wrap it up. 



F. *bit 'a-dees-dis (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (doo-) I. bit 'iis- 
dis Cii, % ajii, 'ii, 'ooh) Cii-) P. 
bit 'ase-dis fasini, *az, 'ajiz, 'a- 
sii, 'asoo) Cas-) R, bit na'ti-s-dis 
(na'ii, na'ii, rVjii, na'ii, na'ooh) 
(na'ii-) O. bit 'oos-dis Coo, *oo, 
ajoo, *oo, 'ooh) (*6-). shich'ah 
bit 'asedis, I wrapped up my hat. 

*bit becomes yit in 3o. 
disho, hairy (as one's arm). 
ditq, deep; thick. 
dit'in, dense; close together (as 
leaves on a tree). 
dit'odi, soft; tender; fragile; pli- 

dittee*, wet; damp. 
diHid, tremulous (as jello); sha- 
ky (as a palsied limb). 
diff'o, hairy (as a dog, sheep). 
dits'id, tough; sinewy. 
dits'oz, hairy (as a Rambouillet). 
ditsxiz, jerky; shaky. 
divogi, rug. 
diyoosh, bullsnake. 
diz, a pile of trash or driftwood 
caught in a stream by the whirl- 
ing waters. 
dizei, crumbly. 
di'iji nda'anish, Thursday. 
61666, mold; lichen. 
dfdat, dla, dlda', dlaah, dla'. 
1. to loiter; tarry on the way. 

F. *na'aho-diyeesh~dlaat (diyff, 
diyoo, zhdiyoo, diyii, diyooh) C- 
I. na'aho-diish-dla (diyi, dli, zh- 
dii, diyii, diyoh) P. na'aho-di- 
yesh-dlaa* (diyfrrf, diyees, zhdi- 
yees, diyee, diyoo) R. nina'aho- 


diish-dlaah (diyi, dii, zhdii, diyii, 
diyoh) O. na aho-diyosh-dla* 
(diyoo, diyo, zhdiyo, diyoo, di- 
yooh) t'aadoo na'dhodiyidlahf, 
don't loiter about! 

*This verb has two forms in the 
dual and plural. The form given 
above is used when the attention 
is focused on each individual, 
but if two or more ore thought 
of as loitering together, the dual 
and plural stems of to go are 
used, with addition of the I-clas- 
sif ier. These stem forms are giv- 
en herewith, the dual first, follo- 
ed by the plural. 

F. -rash; -Ikah. C-l. -I'aash; 
-Ikai. P. -I aazh; -Ikai. R. -Cash; 
-Ikah. O. -rash; -Ikah. 

2. to go loitering along. 
Prog. * aho-diyeesh-dlaai (diyii, 
diyoo, zhdiyoo, diyii, diyooh) 

*-I'ash -Ikah. 
'ahodiyiidlaat, we (each of us) 
are loitering along. 'ahodiyiil- 
'ash, we two are loitering along 
together, 'ahodiyiilkah, we plu- 
ral ore loitering along together, 
'atiingoo t'aadoo *ahodiyifdlatf, 
don't go loitering along the way. 
dlaqt, dlq, dlacd, dlaqh, dlda\ 
to believe. 

1 . to believe him, it. 

F. yideesh-dlqql (yidfi, yidoo, ji- 
doo, dii f dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. 
qhoosh-dlq (yfni, yoo, joo, yii, 
ahooh) (bi'doo-) P. yisis-dlqqd 
(visinf, yoos, joos, yisii, yisooh) 
(bi'doos-) R. naoosh-dlaah 


(n£fni, n6yoo, njoo, n6oo, naooh) 
(nabi'doo-) O. ghoosh-dlq^' 
(ghoo, yoo, joo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to believe; be a believer. 
F. 'ii-deesh-dlqqt (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. 'finish- (or 
'oosh-) dlq Oinf, 'oo, 'ajoo, Uinii, 
'iinoh) P. 'iisis-dlqqd ('iisinf, 
'oos, 'ajoos, 'iisii, 'iisooh) O. 
'oosh-dlqq' Coo, 'oo, 'ajoo, 'oo, 

dial, ~, dlad, dla\ dlad, to 

1. fro crock (leaving a large, 
visible crack, as in a timber). 
F. doodla-r Prog, yidlal P. yiz- 
dlad R. neidla' O. ghodlad 
dial, dlaad, dlaad, dla', dlaad, to 
rip; tear. 

1. to pull it in two (as rope). 

F. k'i-deesh-dlat (dfii, idoot, zh- 
doot, dill, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. k'i- 
nish-dlaad (nil, mil, jR, niil, not) 
(bi'deel-) P. k'f-nf+-dlaad (fn», 
inft, zhnft, niil, noot) (bi'deel-) 
R. k'f-nash-dla' (nanft, neft, njil, 
neiil, nal) (nabi'dil-) O. k'f-osh- 
dlaad (66t, yot, jot, ool, oot) (bP- 

2. to break in two (as rope). 

F. k'fdoodlal I. k^dlaod P. k*i- 
nfdfaad R. k'madla' O. k'foo- 


3. to rip it roughly apart. 

F. aha-deesh-dlal (dfit, idoot, 
zhdoot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
'ahash-dlaad Cahanit, *ahaf+, 'a- 
hajft, 'ahaniil, 'ahanot) Cah6bi'- 


dil-) P. 'aha-nit-dlaad (fnit, yi- 
nit, zhnit, niil, noot) (bi'deel-) 
R. 'aha-nash-dla' (nanit, n&H, n- 
jit, neiil, not) (nabi'dil-) O. 
'aha-osh-dlaad (66t, y6t, j6t, ool, 
oot) (bi'dol-) 

4. to tear; rip. 

F. 'adoodlat I. 'iidlaad P. 'if- 
dlaad R. 'anodic' O. 'oodlaod 

5. to become cracked (lips). 

F. ndoodlat I. nadlaad P. naz- 
dlaad R. ninadla* O. naodlaad 

6. to plow (niho- about on an 

F. niho-diyeesh-dlat (diyiit, di- 
yoot, zhdiyoot, diyiil, diyoot) C- 
I. ni-hwiish-dlaad (hwiytt, hwiit, 
hojiif, hwiil, hoof) P. ni-hwiy£t- 
dlaad (hwiyfnft, hwiis, hojiis, 
hwiyeel, hwiyoot) R. nina-hwiish- 
dla' (hwiyrt, hwiit, hojiit, hwiil, 
hoi) O. ni-hwiyosh-dlaad (hwi- 
yoot, hwiyot, hojiydt, hwiyool, 

7. to come out; break through 
the clouds (the sun). 

F. ch'idi'dootdlat I. chTdeet- 
dlaad P. ch'idi'ni+dlaad R. 
ch'm'dttdla' O. chVdotdlaad 

8. to come back out; break 
back out through the clouds. 

F. ch'eedi'dootdlat I. ch'ee'- 
deetdlaad P. crTSedf'niidlaad 
R. ch'infna'dftdla' O. ch'6^ 

9. to shine upon it (sun). 

F. bik'idi'doodlat I. bikTdii- 
dlaad (N. bikTdiidffn) P. bi- 




kVdiidlaad R. 
O. bikVdoodlaad 
dleet, dleeh f dlii', dleeh, die', 

stem of to become plus d-classi- 
fier. (V. leet also). 

1 . fro revert fro o peaceful state. 

F. k enahodoodleet I. k'enaha- 
dleeh P. k'enahasdlu R. k e- 
ninahadleeh O. k'enahodle* 
k'enahasdlu*, peace returned. 

2. fro regain consciousness. 
(Lit. one's mind returns; conju- 
gated for person by altering the 
pronoun prefix on the noun -ni\) 
F. shini 1 nahodoodleet I. shinf 
nahadleeh P. shini' nahasdlu' 
R. shini* ninahadleeh O. shini' 

3. fro overcome, defeat 1 , him. 

F. bik'eh-dideesh-dleet (didff, di- 
doo, jididoo, didii, didooh) I. 
bik'eh-dish-dleeh (di, di, jidi, dii, 
doh) P. bikeh-desh-dlu (dini, 
dees, jidees, dee, disoo) R. bi- 
k eh-ridish-dleeh (ndi, ridi, nizh- 
df, ndii, ndoh) O. bik'eh-dosh- 
dle' (doo, do, jido, doo, dooh) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
4* fro be overcome, defeated 
(given in Isfr person; other per- 
sons are obtained by altering the 
pronoun prefix). 

F. shik'ehodidoodleef I. shik'e- 
hodidleeh P. shik'ehodeesdlif 
R. shik'ehnahodidleeh O. shi- 
k'ehod6dle f 

5. fro be overcome wifrh joy; 
fro cry or talk incoherently be- 


one is so overcome wifrh 


F. 'atididi-neesh-dleet (nil, noo, 
zhnoo, nii, nooh) I. *atidi-nish- 
dleeh (ni, ni, zhni, nii, noh) P. 
'atidi-nesh-dlu' (nini, nees, zh- 
nees, nee, nooh) R. 'atinidi 
nish-dleeh (ni, ni, zhni, nii, noh) 
0. 'atidi-nosh-dle' (noo, no, zh- 
no, noo, nooh) 

dleesh, white clay (bidleesh). 
dlish, dleesh, dleezh, dlish, 
dleesh, to put white clay on (it). 

1 . fro paint ifr. 
F. deesh-dlish (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-L yish- 
dleesh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi*- 
di-) P. she-dleezh (shinf, yizh, 
jizh, shii, shoo) (bi'dish-) R. 
nash-dlish (nani, nef, nji, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. ghosh-dleesh 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bV- 

2. fro paint (infrr.). 
F. 'a-deesh-dlish (dfi, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. ash-dleesh 
'i, 'a, 'aji, 'ii, oh) P. ashe- 
dleezh Cashini, *azh, 'ajizh 
'ashii, ashoo) R. na-'ash-dlish 
H, 'a, 'ji, 'ii, '6h) O. *6sh-dleesh 

oo, o, ajo, oo, ooh) 
dliit, dleeh, dlaa, *||h, die', itera- 
tive stem form of to make — 
with d-classifier. V. lift. 
dlfff, dl$, dl$q\ dlj'jh, dl4$*, to 
drink; eat liquids. 

1. to drink it. 

F. deesh-dlfit (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yish- 



dlq (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
P. yish-dlqq' (yini, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghooh) (bi'doo-) R. ndsh-dl[[h 
(ndni, nei, riji, neii, ndh) (ndbi'- 
di-) O. ghdsh-dlqq' (ghdd, yd, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'dd-) 

2. to drink; to be a drinker. 
F. 'a-deesh-dl[[+ (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. 'ash-diq ('f, 'a, 

aji, 'ii, oh) P. eesh-dlqq' ("iini, 
'oo, 'ajoo, 'ii, 'ooh) R. nd'dsh- 
dli[h (na i, na a, n ji, na ii, na - 
6h) O. osh-dlqq 1 ('66, o, ajd, 
'oo, 'ooh) 

3. to overdrink. 

F. ddea-deesh-dl[[+ (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. ade-ash-dlq 
('f, 'a, 'ji, 'ii, *oh) P. ade- eesh- 
dlqq' ('iinf, oo, 'ajoo, 'ii, *ooh) R. 
'dde-nd'dsh-dl^h (nd'i, nd'd, n'jf 
nd'ii, nd oh) O. 'ade- osh-dlqq 1 

oo, o, jo, oo, ooh) 
dljj*, dlj, dljjd, dljih, dl|ih. 

1. to be interested in it. 

F. *bi-dmeesh-dl[[t (dinfi, dindo, 
zhdindo, dinfi, dindoh) N. bf- 
neesh-dl[ (nini, nee, zhnee, nii, 
nooh) P. bi-neesh-dlijd (mini' 
nee, zhnee, nfi, ndoh) R. bind- 
neesh-dljih (nee, nee, zhnee 
nee, nooh) O. bi-ndsh-dliir 
(ndd, no, zhnd, noo, nooh) 
dloh, dleeh, dlo\ dloh, dleeh, to 
do (something) with a cord. This 
is the stem loh, with d-classifier. 

1. to be hanged (a criminal). 
F. dah shi-di'doodloh (ni, bi, ho, 
nihi, nihi) I. dah shi-*diidleeh 
(ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi) P. dah shi- 


diidlo* (ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi) Ri. 
dah nd-shi-'diidloh (ni, bi, ho, 
nihi, nihi) O. dah shi-'doodleeh 
(ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi) 
dloh, dlooh, dlo', dloh, dlooh, to 
laugh; smile. 

1. to smile. 

F. ch'i-dideesh-dloh (didiil, di- 
dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
ch'i-dinish-dlddh (dinil, deel, zh- 
deei, diniil, dinoi) P. ch'i-dinish- 
dlo* (dffnfl, deel, zhdeel, diniil, 
dinoo+) R. ch'ee-dish-dloh (dii, 
dii, zhdil, diii, dot) O. ch'i-ddsh- 
dlddh (dddl, ddl, zhddl, dool, 
doo*) shidVf ch'ideeldlo', he 
smiled at me. 

2. to laugh. 

F. 'a-deesh-dloh (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. 'iish-diddh (ani, 
'ii, 'aji, 'ii, ooh) Prog, yish-dloh 
(yi, yi, joo, yii, ghoh) P. 'eesh- 
dlo* ffini, 'ee, 'ajoo, 'ii, 'ooh) R. 
'a-ndsh-dloh (ndni, nd, nji, neii, 
ndh) O. oosh-dlddh Cod, oo, 
*ajd, 'oo, 'ooh) 

dloh, laughter, dloh nisin, I feel 
like laughing, baa dloh hasin, 
it is funny. 

dlohahinil'iih, chuckle 

F. shi-df'ndodlddl (ni, bi, ho, nihi 
nihi) C-l. yish-dlddh (ni, yi, ji, 
yii, ghoh) P. shi-'niidlf (ni, bi, 
ho, nihi, nihi) R. shee-'niidlddh 
(nee, bee, hwee, nihee, nihee) 
dlosh, dloosh (dloosh), dloozh, 
dlosh, dloosh, to trot. 
1 . to start to trot along. 



F. didooldlosh I. dildloosh P. 

deeshdloozh R, ndildlosh 0. 


dloot, dlooh, dli, dlooh — , to be 

2. to be trotting along. 
Prog, yildlosh 

3. to be trotting about. 
C-l. naaldloosh 

4. to arrive trotting. 

F. dooldlosh I. yfldloosh P. yfl- 
dloozh R. no Idlosh O. ghol- 

5. to go on horseback. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding \\\ shit to any of 
the above verb forms. It is con- 
jugated by altering the person of 
the postposition -it, with. 
dlozitgaii, pine squirrel. 
dlozishzhiin, black pine squirrel. 
dlg'dtah ne'eshjaa', burrowing 

dl^'ayazhi, Thoreau, N. M. 

dl^'ii, weasel. 

d'??'/ prairie dog. 

dighozhii biP to, Greasewood, 


doh, dooh, doii (doi), doh, dooh, 

stem having to do with heat. start to warm up (wea- 
ther) . 

F. ch'ihodmoodoh I. ch'fhoni- 
dooh P. ch'ihoninfdoii R. ch'i- 
nahonidoh O. ch'ihonodooh 

2. to become warm (weather). 
F. hodfnoodoh I. honiid66h P. 
honiidoii N. deesdoi R. n6ho- 
niidoh O. honood66h 


3 to be hot (weather) 
N. deesdoi shit deesdoi, I am 
hot (altered for person by chan- 
ging the prefixed pronoun on the 
postposition -it). 

4. to be overcome by heat. 

F. shit ndootdoh I. shit niitdooh 
P. shit ninitdoii R. shit ninatdoh 
O. shit nootdooh (conjugated 
by altering the prefixed pronoun 
on the postposition -it.) 

5. to waft upward (as a cloud 
ballon, feather, etc.). 

F. dah didooldoh I. dah diildooh 
P. dah diildoh R. dah ndiiidoh 

0. dah dooldooh 

6. to sail along (a cloud) 
Prog, yildoh (moving either hor- 
izontally or vertically.) 

7. to heat it; make it hot. 

F. dfneesh-doh (dfnnt, yidinoot 
jidfnoot, diniil, dfnoat) (bididf- 
nool-) I. niish-dooh (niit, yiniit, 
jiniit, mil, noot) (bidi'niil-) P. 
niit-doii (ninit, yinit, jinit, niil, 
noot) (bidiViiil-) R. naniish-doh 
(naniit neinit, nazhnit, naniil, 
nanoot) (nabidi'niil-) O. noosfv 
dooh (noot, yinoot, jinoot, nool, 
noot) (nibidi'nool-) 

8. tfc heat a space or area. 

F. ho-ctfneesh-doh (dfnii't, dfnoot, 
zhdfnoor, dinfil, dmoot) (dinoo!-) 

1. ho-nifeh-dooh (niit, niit, zhniit, 
niij, noot) (niil-) P. ho-niit-doii 
(ninit, rtiit, zhniit, niil, noot) 
(niil-) R. n6ho-niish-doh (niit, 
niit, zhniit, niil, noot) (niil-) O. 
ho-noosh-d66h (noot, noot, zh- 



noot, nool, noot) (nool-) beesh 
biF kQ'i bee shighan gone* ho- 
niiidoii, I heated my home with 
a stove. 

9. to help one. 

N. bee shich'[' nahaldoh (con- 
jugated by altering the pronoun 
prefix of -ch'i') 'ffnishta'go 
bee shich'[' nahaldoh, my edu- 
cation helps me. 

10 to pull (my)self together; 
to collect (my)self. 

Conjugated for person by alter- 
ing the pronoun prefixed to the 
postposition -ii', inside of (one). 
F. shii' hddhodiyooldoh I. shii* 
hddhwiildooh P. shii* hadhwiis- 
doh R. shii' handhwiildoh 0, 
shii* hddhwiyoldooh. shfni' nd- 
hdsdl[['d66 bik'ijf shii' hdd- 
hwiisdoh, when I came to I pull- 
ed myself togethe r 

doh, doh, doh, doh, doh, to get 

stiff muscles (from exertion). 
F. rida-deesh-doh (diil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doof) P. nda-sis-doh 
(sfnfl, as, jis, s i 1 1 x soot) R. nfnd- 
daash-doh (danil, daal, dajil, de- 
iil, daat) O, nda-oosh-doh (661 
ool, jol, ool, oor) 
do', too; also. shfdo', I also. 
ddlii, mountain bluebird. 
ddliitchii', chestnut breasted 

-doo, from (a definite point), 
na'nizhoozhidoo tsehootsooiji* 
ni'zaad, it is far from Gallup to 
Fort Defiance. 


doo, (ib -doo), and. byh doo 
shash naaldlooshii gholghe, deer 
and bear are called quadrupeds. 
doo — ndi, not even. doo ta'i 
ndi naash'da da, I haven't even 

doo bik'iji', after. ii'yqq' doo 

bik'ijT 'ii+haazh, after I ate I 
went to sleep. 

doo bit ntsihdkeesigi 'dhoodzaa, 
dooda, no; not. 

doodaii*, or; or else; otherwise, 
shfkd 'ananflgho' doodaii* t'da- 
doo shaa ndniYini, help me or 
else don't bother me! 
doo deighdnigoo, far off. doo 
deighdnigoo 'ahiiihan, I threw it 
far away. 

doo ditqq da, shallow; thin 
doo hddji da, nowhere. doo 
hddji da deyda da, I'm going no- 

doo 'ak'ehorif da, disobedience. 
4oo 'ii 'eehozin da, unconscious- 

doone'e, clan. (bidine'e) 
dootf'izhii, turquoise. 
doo ya'dsh^o da, bad; no good. 
doo yd 'dt'eeh da, no good; evil. 
doozhgohii, unbroken horse. 
dool, dgoh (don) dooh, dooh, 
dooh, to explode. 

1 . to explode; blow up. 
F. didooldggt I. diildpph P. 
deesdgph R. ridiildoph O. dool- 



2. to shoot it (with o gun; lit. 
to co use something to explode 

with it). 

F. bit 'a-dideesh~doot (didiit, di- 
doot, zhdidoot, didiii, didoot) (di- 
dool-) I. bit 'a-diish-dogh (diit, 
diit, zhdiit, diil, doot) diil-) P. 
bit *a-det-dooh (dinft, dees, zh- 
dees, deel, disoot) (dees-) R. bii 
rVdiish-dooh (rVdiit, rVdiit, nizh- 
'diit, rVdiil, n'doot) (rVdiil-) O. 
bit 'a-doosh-dooh (doot, doot, zh- 
doot, dool, doot) (dool-) 
*bit becomes yi+ in 3o. 

3. to shoot (one shot after on- 
other); to be o shooter. 

N. 'adish-don (adit, adit, 'azh- 
dit, 'adiil, adot) 'adishdon 

beehasin, I know how to shoot. 

4. to shoot at it; fire on it. 

F. yfdineesh-dgot (yfdiniit, yiidf- 
noot, yizhdinoot, yidinfil, yidf- 
noot) (bidinool-) C-l. ymfsh-don 
(vinit, yot, jot, yiniil, yinot) (bf- 
dol-) P. yiniit-don (yimiit, yff- 
nfft, jiinut, yfnfil, yinoot) (ymiil-) 
R. nef-niish-dooh (niit, nift, zh- 
nift, nfil, noot) (niil-) O. yi- 
noosh-don (yfnoot, yimdot, jff- 
noot, ymool, yfnoot) (yfnool-) 
dzqadi, over here. dzqqdi se- 
rin, I'm sitting over here. 
dzaaneez, mule. 
dzaaneez yazhi, young mule. 
dzas, dzaas, dzaaz, dzas, dzaas, 
to snow (this stem refers to the 
snow itself, in contradistinction 
to chift, which refers to the snow 


F. doodzas I. yidzaas P. yi- 
dzoaz R. nadzos O. ghodzaas 
dzeeh, elk. 
dzeet, dzeeh, dxq, dzeeh, dzeeh, 

to dehair. remove the hoi r from it 
(hide) in tanning. 

F. dees-dzeet (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-L yis- 
dzeeh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'- 
dil-) P. yit-dzQ (yinit, yiyiMt, jift, 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dis-) R. nas- 
dzeeh (nanit, neit, njit, neiil, not) 
(nabi'dil-) O. ghos-dzeeh (ghoot, 
yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to dehair (intr.). 
F. a-dees-dzeet (diit, doot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) C-l. 'as-dzeeh 
('ft, at, a jit, Mil, ot) P. aset- 
dzq ('asinft, 'as, 'ajis, 'asiil, 'a- 
soot) R. na'asdzeeh (naMt, no'- 
at, n]i\, naMil, na'ot) O. os- 
dzeeh ( oot, T 6t, ajot, *ool, 'oot) 
dzidzi', in the fire. 
dzigai, plain; flat. 
dzih, dziih, dzii\ dzih, dziih, to 

1. to inhale; draw in once. 

F. 'a-dees-dzih (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. Mis-dziih Cani, Mi, 
aji, Mi, *ooh) P. ees-dzff (Mmi, 
ee, 'ajoo, Mi, 'oo) R. *a-nas-dzih 
(nanf, na, riji, neii, nah) O. oos- 
dziih Coo, 'oo, 'ajo, oo, *ooh) 
'anidziih, inhale! tid bit 'anas- 
dzih, I repeatedly inhale smoke. 

2. to exhale; breathe back out 
F. ha-ndees-dzih (ndff, ndoo, nf- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) I, ha-nas- 



dziih (nanf, nd, nen, nah) P. 
hanaas-dzn" (haneini, hanaa, 
haajoo, haneii, hanaoo) R. ha- 
nf-nds-dzih (nani, na, naji, neii, 
nah) O. hanaos-dziih (hanaoo, 
hanaoo, hdajo, hanaoo, hana- 

3. to breathe; respire. 
F di-dees-dzih (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) L dis-dziih (di, di, ji- 
di, dii, doh) P. des-dziT (dini, 
dees, jidees, dee, disoo) R. ndis- 
dzih (ndi, ndi, nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) 
O. dos-dziih (doo, do, jido, doo, 
dooh) ridisdzih, I'm breathing. 

4. to choke on it; to breathe it 
into the windpipe. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bit (yit in 3o.) to the 
forms given in 3. Thus, to yi+ 
deesdzii", he choked on the wat- 
er (lit. breathed in with it). 

5. to exclaim; to speak out; to 
exhale (once). 

F. ha-dees-dzih (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. haasdziih (hani, 
haa, haji, haii, haah) P. haas- 
dzi'H (haini, haa, hajoo, haii, ha-- 
ooh) R. ha-nas-dzih (nani, na, 
rijf, neii, nah) O. ha-os-dziih 
(66, 6, jo, oo, ooh) 

6. to stutter; to stammer. 

N. 'att'a-nis-dzih (nf, ni, zhni, 
nii, noh) 

7. to make a slip in speech; to 
say something one should not; to 
speak out of turn; talk too long. 

F. hadi-dfnees-dzih (dinii, dinoo, 
zhdinoo, dinii, dinooh) I. ha-df- 


nis-dziih (dini, dini, zhdini, dinii 
dinoh) P. ha-dinees-dziT (dim- 
nf, dfnees, zhdinees, dinii, di- 
n6oh) R, ha-ridinis-dzih (hdini, 
ndini, nizhdini, ndinii, ndinoh) 

0. ha-dinos-dziih (dinoo, dino, 
zhdino, dinoo, dinooh). 'ahit 
hwiilne' nt'^e* 'asdzani ta* bi- 
naai hadineesdzii', I talked out 
of turn before a lady when we 
were conversing. 

8. to remain; be left; survive 
to have left. 

F. dees-dzih (dii, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. yis-dziih (ni, yi, ji, yii, 
ghoh) P. yis-dzii' (yini, yi, joo, 
yii, ghooh) R. nas-dzih (nani, 
na, nji, neii, nah) O. ghos-dziih 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

shik'ei t*aa 'attso daneezna; shi 
t'eiya yisdziih, all my relatives 
are dead; I alone remain, bee*- 
eldpph bikV hastqqh yisdziih, I 
have six cartridges left, dikwii- 
shq' nidziih, how many do you 
have left? 
dzi'izi, bicycle. 
dzi'izi bijaad ta'igii, tricycle. 
dzi'izitsoh, motorcycle. 
dziil, strength; to be strong, bi- 
dziiL his strength; he is strong. 

dziil, dzid, dziid, dziih, dziih, to 


1 . to be afraid of it; to come to 
fear it. 

F. beedees-dzfit {beediil, yeedool 
beezhdool, beediil, beedoot) C- 

1. binas-dzid (binanfl, yinal, bee- 
jfl, bineiil, binat) P. beesis-dzfid 



(beesinil, yinds, bin j is, be6siil, 
beesoot) R. bininds-dziih (bini- 
nanfl, yinindl, binindjil, binmeiii 
bininat) O. binaoos-dziih (bind- 
661, yindool, beejol, bindool, bi- 

2. to be timid; to be wild, un- 
tamed (on animal). 
C-l. nds-dzid (ndnfl, ndl, njil, ne- 
iit, ndt) 

dztfs, dz||s, dzjjz, dzfis, dzjjs, to 
pull, drag. 

1. to start to pull or drag it a- 

F. didees-dzi[s (didif, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dis-dz{[s 
(di, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) P. de- 
dzfiz (dim, yideez, jideez, dee, 
disoo) R. ridis-dz[[s (ndf, neidi, 
nfzhdi, ridii, riddh) O. dds-dz[[s 
(doo, yido, jido / doo, dooh) 

2. to be pulling or dragging it 

Prog. yis-dzjis (yi, yoo, joo, yii, 

3. to arrive pulling or drag- 
ging it; to bring it. 

F. dees-dzfjs (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. nis- 
dzi[s (ni, yf, jf, nii, noh) (bi'dee-) 
P. m-dz[[z (yini, yini, jinf, nii, 
noo) (bi'dee-) R. nds-dzfjs (na- 
ni, nei, rtjf, neii, ndh) (nabi'di-) 
O. ghos-dz&s (ghoo, yd, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi'do-) 

dzif, dzid, dzid, dzP, dzid, to 

swallow; pour (V. zit) 
1. to gargle it. 

F. *-daghi' ndinees-dzit (ndfnnt, 

neidindot, nizhdindol, ndmfil, n- 
dfndot) C-l. -ddghi* nanis-dzid 
(nanit, neinit, nazhnit, naniil, 
nanoot) P. -ddghi' nanet-dzid 
(nan i nit, neinees, nazhnees, na- 
neel, nanoot) R. -ddghi' ni-nd- 
nis-dzi' (ndnfl, neinit, ndzhnit, 
naniil, ndndt) O. -daghi* nands- 
dzid (nanoot, neindt, nazhnot, 
nanool, nanoot) 

*A possessive pronoun, corres- 
ponding to the subject of the 
verb must be prefixed to -ddghi', 
interior of the throat. Thus, shi- 
ddghi* nanisdzid, I am gargling 
it; niddghi' nanitdzid, you are 
gargling it, etc. 

2. to gargle (-daghi* is pre- 
pounded as in 1 above). 

F. ndi'nees-dzit (ndf'niit, ndf- 
ndot, nizhdi'nooi, ndPniil, ndT- 
noot) C-L na'nis-dzid (na'nit, 
na'nit, nazh'nit, na'niil, na'noot) 
P. na'nef-dzid (na'ninii, na'nees, 
nazh'nees, na'neel, na'noot) R. 
ni-nd'nis-dzi' (na'nit, nd'nit, na- 
zh'nit, nd'niil, nd'ndt) 0. na'nos- 
dzid (na'ndot, na'not, nazh'ndt, 
nanool, na 'noot) 

3. to take a swallow of it. 

F. 'ddddidees-dzil Cddddidii, a- 
deididoo, 'dddzhdidoo, 'adddidii 
'ddddidooh) I. adddiis-dzid fd- 
dddii, 'ddeidii, 'dddzhdii, *ddd- 
dii, 'ddddooh) P. 'ddddiis-dziid 
fddddini, adeidii, 'dddzhdii, 'd- 
dddii, 'ddddoo) R. 'dddndiis-dzi' 
Cdddridii, 'dddneidii, 'dddmzh 
dii, 'dddndii, 'dddndooh) 0, *d- 



dadoos-dziid ('adadoo, adeidoo, 
'adazhdoo, 'ddddoo, 'adddooh) 

4. to wake (back) up; reawa- 
ken (intr.). 

F. ch'ee-dees-dzi* (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. ch'ee-nis-dzfid 
(nf, na, jf, nii, noh) P. ch'ee-nis- 
dzid (nf, na, ji, nii, nooh) R. 
ch'eni-nas-dzi* (nanf, na, ndjf, 
neii, nah) O. ch'e-naoos-dznd 
(naoo, naoo, ejo, naoo, naooh) 

5. to rot; to decay. 

F. didootdzit I. *ditdzffd P. dfit- 
dzid R. ndi+dzi* O. dotdzid 

*Usually inchoative bidi'mit- 
dzid, it has started to rot, would 
be used instead of ditdznd. 
dzif, dziit, dziil, dzit, dziit, stem 
having to do with strength. 

1. to make an effort; to strain 
(as in pulling), 

F. didees-dzit (didifl, didool, jidi- 
dool, didiil, didoot) I. dis-dzitt 
(dii, dil, jidil, diil, dot) Prog, yis- 
dzit (yil, yil, jool, yiil, ghot) P. 
des-dzil (dfnil, dees, jidees, deel, 
disoot) R. hdfs-dzil (ridil, hdfl, 
nfzhdfl, ndiil, hdot) O. dos-dznt 
dool, dol, jidol, dool, door) 

2* to have resistance against 
it (disease, cold weather, etc.). 
N. bmfs-dzil (bfnmil, yfnil, bizh- 
nft, binfil, bfnot) 

3. to be able to provide for (a 

There ore two forms, one appa- 
rently a progressive, and the o- 
ther a neuter im perfective. The 
meGning of the former is to go 


along providing for him; and in 
the latter, to be able to provide. 
Prog, bik'iis-dzit (bik'iyil, yik'iil, 
bik'ijool, bik'iii, bik'iot) N. 
bik'i-nas-dzil (nanil, naal, nijil, 
neii I, naat) sha'dJchmi bik'iis- 
dzit, I provide for my family; 
sha'atchfnf bik'inasdzil, I car 
provide for my family. 

4. to be self-sufficient; able to 
provide for oneself. 

Prog. *t aa shi ak'iis-dzit ( ak'i- 
yil, ak nl, ak ijool, ak lynl, a- 
k'ioJ') N. t'aa shf 'ak'inas- 
dzil ('ak'inanil, 'dk'inaal, 'ak'i- 
njil, 'dk'ineiil, 'ak'inaa-r) 

*t'da and the appropriate sub- 
jective pronoun are repeated in 
each person. 

5. to get warm (to worm one- 
self back up). 

F. na'ii-dees-dzil (dn, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. nd'iis-dzfM 
(na'ii, na'ii, n'jii, na'ii, na'ooh) 
P. na'iis-dziil (nd'iini, na'ii, rVjii, 
na'ii, na'ooh) R. nf-na'iis-dzif 
(na'ii, na'ii, na'jii, na'ii, na'ooh) 
O. na'oos-dziit (na'oo, na'oo, rV- 
joo, nd'oo, na'ooh) 

6. to be slowly pushed back; 
to be forced back. 

F. t'qq' nabfdi'doodzit Prog 
t'qq' nabi'doodzit P. t qq' na- 
bf'deedzil R. t qq' ninabi'didztf 
0. t'qq' nabi'dodzfft. binad'd- 
daa+ts'ozf t'qq' nabf'doodzit, the 
Japanese are being pushed back, 
naabeeho bikeyah bikad'doo ha- 
shf'doodzil, I was pushed (fore 



ed) off of the Navaho Reservat- 

dxili, hawk (Cooper's). 
dzif, mountain. 
dzitghq'i, western Apache. 
dzin, stem of to want (V. zi[\) 
with d-classifier. 

1 . fro gossip; exaggerate. 
N. aseezih nisdzin (ni, ni, jini, 
nii, noh) 
dzot, dzoot, dzol, dzot, dzoot. 

1. to sigh. 
F. 'adit ha-dees-dzot (dii, doo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) I. 'adit haas- 
dzoot (hani, haa, haji, haii, 
haah) P. 'adit hanaas-dzol (ha- 
nefnf, hanaa, haajoo, haneii, ha- 
naooh) R. 'adit hanf-nas-dzol 
(nanf, na f najf, neii, nah) O. 
'adit ha-oos-dzoot (66, oo, jo, oo, 


eeneez, topcoat; overcoat. 
eersoh, coat. 

eetsoh 'dtts'iisiigii, jacket. 
eVaah, west. 

Ve'aah biyaajigo, in the far 


eVaahji, on the west side. 
eVaahjigo, westward. 

'eeheestt'inigii, parts. 

'ee\ clothing; garment; shirt. 


ee' naats'oodii, sweater. 

'ei, that (remote or invisible), 'ei 

biniinaa doo nfyaa da, because 

of that I didn't come. 

'ei bqqh, for that reason. 'ef 

*eigi 'dt'eego, in that way; like 

that; in that fashion. 

bqqh shibeeso 'adm, for that 

reason I have no money. 

'eii, that one; that (close at 

hand), 'eii hastiin bqqh dahaz- 

*q, that man is sick. 

'eik'ehgo, in that manner. 

gdagii, crow. 

gddt (goaf), ghddh (ghd), yd, 
dddh, gha f (gad*) singular stem 
of to walk, go. 

'ash, 'aash Cash), 'ddzh 'ash, 
aash, dual stem of to walk, go. 
kah, kddh (kai), kai, kah, kddh, 
plural stem of to walk, go. 

The concepts of go, come, walk 
return, etc. are expressed by the 
above stems, or by that stem in 
conjunction with the d-classifi- 
er, in which case the singular 
stem form is: daat, daah, dza, 
daah, dza'; and the dual: t'ash, 
t'aash, t adzh, t'ash, t'aash. 

A separate stem is used for the 
singular, dual and plural num- 
bers, and a number of irregular- 
ities will be noted in the singular 

The forms are given for each 
tense and mode in three separ- 
ate paradigms numbered 1., 2., 
3., and designating singular, 
dunl and plural respectively. 

1. to begin (3s. ho- is the sub- 



F, hahodoogddi I.' hahaghddh 
P. hahooyd R. handhddddh 0. 
hahoya*. nahasdzddn bikdd' 
hahooyd, things began on earth. 
2. to go out (horizontally, as 
through a door). 

F. 1. ch't-deeshddl (diinddt, doo- 
gdd+, zhdoogddi) 2. ch'i-dii- 
r'ash (dooh'asn, doo'ash, zhdoo* 
'ash) 3. ch'f-dii-kah (dooh, doo 
zhdoo) I. 1. ch'inishddh (ch'i- 
ninddh, ch'eghddh, ch'ijighddh) 
2. ch't-niit'aash (noh'aash, aash 
ji'aash) 3* ch'inii-kddh (ch'f- 
noh, ch'e, chTji) P. 1. ch'i-ni-yd 
(fnf, nf, zhni) 2, ch'f-niit'ddzh 
[noo'ddzh, nf'ddzh, zhnf'ddzh) 
3 ch'inii-kai (ch'inooh, ch'e, ch'i- 
jf) U. 1. ch'eshddh (crTinfnddh, 
ch'eghddh, ch'ijighddh) 2. ch'ii- 
t'ash (ch'oh'ash, chTash, ch'fji- 
'ash) 3, ch'ii-kah (ch'oh, ch'e, 
ch'ijf) R. ch'i-ndsh-dddh (ndni, 
nd, ndjf) 2. ch'i-neii-t'ash (ndh, 
nd, ndji) 3. ch'i-neii-kah (ndh, 
nd, ndjf) O. ch'oosha' (ch'ooya 1 , 
ch'ooya', ch'ijooya') or ch'do- 
shddh (ch'oonddt, ch'oogadt 
ch'ijogaat) 2. ch'oofaash 

(ch ooh'ash, ch oo aash, ch'fjo- 
*aash) 3. ch'oo-kddh (ch'ooh, 
ch'oo, ch'ijo) 

3. to go out again horizontally 

F. 1. ctVi'ndd-deesh-dddl (dif, 
doo, zhdoo) 2. ch'indd-dii-t'ash 
(dooh, doo, zhdoo) 3. ch'fndd- 
dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) I. 1, 
ch'indd-nish-dddh (nf, nd, jf) 2. 
ch'fnaa-nii-taash (noh, nd, jf) 


3. ch'indd-nii-kddh (ndh,. nd, ji) 
P. 1. ch'indd-nis-dzd (mi, nd, ji) 

2. ch'indd-nii-t'ddzh (noon, nd, 
ji) 3. ch'fndd-nii-kai (nooh, nd, 
ji) O. 1. ch'indd-ndos-dza* (nd- 
66, ndd, jo) 2. ch'indd-ndoo- 
r'aash (ndooh, ndoo, jd) 3. ch*i- 
ndd-ndoo-kddh (ndooh, ndo, jd) 

4. to go up out; to climb up (as 
a hill; to ascend it (with pre- 
pounded bgqh, alongside it). 
F. 1, ha-deeshdd+ (diindd-f, doo- 
gddt, zhdoogddi) 2. ha-diit'ash 
dooh'ash, doo'ash, zhdoo'ash) 

3. ha~dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 
I. 1. haashddh (haninddh, haa- 
ghddh, hajighddh) 2. haiit'aash 
(haah'aash, haa'aash, haji'aash) 
3. .haii-kddh (haah, haa, haji) 
P. 1. hdd-yd (hdini, haa, haji) 2. 
haiit'ddzh (haoo'ddzh, hdd'ddzh 
haazh'ddzh) 3. haii-kai (haooh 
haa, hajis) S-P. 1. hase-yd (ha- 
sfnf, haa, haji) 2. hashiit'ddzh 
(hashoo'ddzh, haazh'ddzh, ha- 
jizh'ddzh 3. hasii-kai (hasooh, 
haas, hajis) R. 1. ha-ndsh-dddh 
(ndni, nd, ndji) 2. ha-neiit'ash 
(ndh ash, nd, ndji) 3* ha-neii- 
kah (ndh, nd, ndjf) O. ha-oosha' 
(66ya\ ooya 1 joya*) 2. ha-oo- 
kddh (ooh, oo, jo) 

5. to ascend a hill or mountain 
(the forms of no. 4 preceded by 
hok'aq, hill, or mountain top). • 

6. to start going along. 

F. 1. dideeshdaf (didffnddt, di- 
doogddt, jididoogddf) I. 1. di- 
shddh (dfnddh, dighddh, jidi- 



ghddh) 3. dii-kddh (doh, di, jidi) 
S-P. 1. de-yd (dini, dee, jidee) 2. 
deet'ddzh (dishoo'ddzh, deezh- 
*ddzh, jideezh'ddzh) 3. dee-kai 
(disooh, dees, jidees) U. 1. di- 
shddh (dinddh, dighddh, jidi- 
ghaah) 2. diit'ash (doh'aash, 
di,ash, jidi'ash) 3. dii-kah (doh, 
di, jidi) R. 1. hdfsh-dddh (ndi, 
ndi, nizhdi) 2. ndiit ash (ndoh- 
'ash, ridTash, nfzhdf'ash) 3. ri- 
dii-kah (ndoh, ndf, nfzhdf) O. 

1. dosha* (dooya 1 , doya' jidoya') 

2. doot'aash (dooh'aash, do'aash 
jido'aash) 3- doo-kddh (dooh 
do, jido) 

7. to start going along again. 

F. 1. nda-dideesh-daa+ (didfi, di- 
doo, zhdidoo) 2. ndd-didii-t'ash 
(didooh, didoo, zhdidoo) 3. ndd- 
didii-kah (didooh, didoo, zhdi- 
doo) I. 1. ndd-dish-dddh (di, di, 
zhdf) 2. ndd-dii-t'ash (doh, di, 
zhdf) 3. ndd-dii-kddh (doh, di, 
zhdi) P. 1. ndd-des-dzd (dini, 
dees, zhdees) 2. ndd-dee-t'ddzh 
(dishoo, deesh, zhdeesh) 2. ndd- 
dee-kai (disoo, dees, zhdees) 
O. 1. ndd-dos-dza' (doo, do, zh- 
do) 2. ndd-doo-t'aash (dooh, do 
zhdo) 3. ndd-doo-kddh (dooh, 
do, zhdd) 

8. to become tired. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ch'eeh, in vain, to 
the forms in no. 6. 

9. to quit it; give it up; discon- 
tinue it. 


This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing the postposition bik'i-, 
upon it, to the verb forms of no. 
6. Thus, 'andho'niiftiihgo binii- 
naa ndhdshgod£§ bik'indish- 
dddh, I stop hoeing again and 
again because it keeps starting 
to rain. 

10. to start to walk (as a ba- 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing niki- to the forms in 
given in no. 6, with exception of 
the perfective, which is formed 
by prefixing niki- to the perfect- 
ive given in no. 14. Thus, niki- 
diiyd, I started to walk. 

11. to arise; get up. 

F. 1. ridideesh-dddt (hdidfi, ndi- 
doo, nizhdidoo) 2. rididii-t'ash 
(ndidooh, ndidoo, nizhdidoo) 3. 
ndidii-jah (ndidooh, ndidoo, ni- 
zhdidoo) I. 1. ndiish-dddh (hdii, 
ndii, nizhdii) 2. ndii-t'aash (n- 
dooh, ndii, nizhdii) 3. ndii-jeeh 
(ndooh, ndii, nizhdii) P. 1. ri- 
diis-dzd (ridini, ndii, nizhdii) 2. 
ndii-t'adzh (ndooh, ndii, nizhdii) 
3. ridii-jee' (ndooh, hdii, nizhdii) 
R. 1, nmd-diish-dddh (dii, dii, 
zhdii) 2. nfna-dii-t'ash (dooh, 
dii, zhdii) 3. nrnd-dii-jah (dooh, 
dii, zhdii) O. 1. ndoosh-dddh 
(ndoo, ndoo, nizhdoo) 2. ndoo- 
t'aash (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 

12. to meet him* 
With the dual stem and the 

prefixes of the singular two peo- 



pie are involved, while with the 
plural stem more than two are 

F. bit 'ahi-dideesh-'ash {didii, di- 
doo, zhdidoo) I. bit 'ahi-diish- 
aash (dii, dii, zhdii) P. bit *ahi- 
dii-'ddzh (dini, dii, zhdii) R. bit 
'ahi-ridiish-t'ash (ndii, ndii r ni- 
zhdii) O. bit 'ahi-doosh-'aash 
(doo, doo, zhdoo) 
*bit becomes yit in 3o. 

13. to meet them (two or more 
subjects or objects, or one sub- 
ject meeting two objects). 

F. bit 'ahi-dideesh-kah (didii, di- 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. 
bit *ahi-dii-kai (dini, dii, zhdii, 
dii, dooh) R. bit 'ahi-hdiish-kah 
(ndii, hdii, nizhdii, ndii, ndooh) 

0. 1. bit 'ahi-doosh-kddh (doo, 
doo, zhdoo, doo, dooh) 

*bit becomes yit in 3o. 

14. to start off. 
F. 1. dah dideeshddt (didimddt, 
didoogddt, shdidoogddt) 2. dah 
didiifash (didooh'ash, didoo'ash 
shdidoo'ash) 3. didii-kah (di- 
dooh, didoo, shdidoo) L 1. dah 
diishddh (diinddh, diighddh, sh- 
diighddh) 2. dah diit'aash 
(dooh'aash, dii'aash, shdii'aash) 
3. dah dii-kddh (dooh, dooh, dii, 
shdii) P. 1. dah dii-yd (dini, dii, 
shdii) 2. dah diit adzh (doo- 
*ddzh, dii adzh, shdii'ddzh) 3. 
dah dii-kai (dooh, dii, shdii) R. 

1. dah ndiish-daah (ndii, ndii, 
nfzhdii) 2. dah ndiit'ash, (n- 
dooh/ash ndii'ash, nfzhdii'ash) 


3, dah hdii-kah (hdooh, hdii, ni- 
zhdii) O. 1. dah dosha' (dooya* 
ddya', shdoya') 2. dah doo- 
t'aash (dooh'aash, do'aash, sh- 
do'aash) 3. dah doo-kaah (dooh, 
do, shdo) 

15. to go wandering about. 

F. 1. td-dideeshddt (didiinddt, di- 
doogddt, zhdidoogddt) 2. td-di- 
dii-t'ash (didooh'ash, didoo'ash, 
zhdidoo'ash) 3. td-didii-kah 
didooh, didoo, zhdidoo) I. 1. td- 
dfshddh (dfnddh, dighddh, zhdi- 
ghddh) 2. td-diit'aash ( doh- 
'aash, df'aash, zhdi'aash) 3. 
td-dii-kddh (ddh, di, zhdi) P. 1. 
td-dfi-yd (dim, dii, zhdii) 2. td- 
diit'ddzh (dooh'ddzh, diiadzh, 
zhdiTddzh) 3. td-dii-kai (dooh, 
doo, zhdoo) R. 1. td-hdfsh-dddh 
(ndf, hdi, nizhdi) 2. td-hdiit'ash 
(hdoh'ash, hdi'ash, nfzhdi'ash) 
3. td-ndii-kah (hdoh, hdi, nizh- 
di) O. 1. td-dosha' (dooya', do- 
ya\ zhdoya') 2. td-doo-t'aash 
(dooh'aash, doaash, zhdd'aash) 

16. to be walking along. 
Prog. 1. yishddt (yinddt, yigddt, 
joogddt) 2. yiit'ash (ghoh'ash 
yi ash, joo'ash) 3. yii-kah 
(ghoh, yi, joo) or *de(nii-kddh 

*yiikah, we are walking along 
(as a group); deiniikddh, we are 
walking along (in which the at- 
tention is focused on us as indi- 

17. to be walking along again. 
Prog. 1. ndd-ndsh-dddt (naa, 
ndd, joo) 2. ndd-neii-t'ash (ndh f 



ndd, joo) 3. naa-nei i-kah (ndh, 
ndd, joo) 

18a. to go; to come; to arrive; 
to meet him or head him off 
(with propounded biddah). 
F. 1, deeshddt (diinaai, doogddt, 
jidoogddi) 2. diit'ash (dooh'ash, 
doo'ash, jidoo'ash) 3. dii-kah 
{dooh, doo, jidoo) I. 1. nishddh 
(nfnddh, yfghddh, jfghddh) 2. 
niit'aash (noh'aash, yi'aash, ji- 
"aash) 3. nii-kddh (noh, yf, jf) 
P. 1. nf-yd (yfnf, ni, jinf) 2. nii- 
t'ddzh (noo'ddzh, nTddzh, jinf 
*ddzh) 3. nii-kai (nooh, yi, jf) U. 
1. yishddh (ninddh, yighddh, ji- 
ghddh) 2. yiit'ash (ghoh'ash 
yi'ash, ji'ash) 3. yii-kah (ghoh 
yi, ji) R. 1, ndsh-dddh (ndnf, nd, 
rijf) 2. neiit'ash (ndh'ash, nd'ash, 
rijTash) 3. neii-kah (ndh, nd, rijf) 

0. 1. ghdshcT (ghddya*, ghdya', 
jdya') 2. ghoot'aash (ghooh- 
*aash, ghd'aash, jd'aash) 3. 
ghoo-kddh( ghooh, ghd, jo) 

18b. to come upon it; to find 
it; to discover it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing bik'f-, upon it, to the 
forms given under 18a. The fut- 
ure, usitative and iterative (R.) 
are not altered by prefixation of 
bik'f-, but certain changes occur 
in the imperfective, perfective 
and optative. These latter are 
herewith given: 

1. 1= bik'infshddh (bik'fnfnddh 
yik'eghddh, biVfjfghddh) 2 
bik'fniit'aash (bik'fndh'aash, yi 


k'e'aash, bik'fjf'aash) 3, bik'f- 
nii-kddh (bik'indh, yik'e, bik'iji) 
P. 1. bik'fnf-yd (bik'ffni, yik'inf, 
bik'izhni) 2. bik'fniit'ddzh (bi- 
k'fnoo'ddzh, yik'fnf'ddzh, bik'f 
zhni'ddzh) 3, bik'inii-kai (bik*f- 
nooh, yik'e, bik'ijf) O. 1. bik'f- 
oosha' (bik'fddya 1 , yik'iooya*, bi- 
k'fjdya') 2. bik'foot'aash (bik'f- 
ooh'aash, yik'ioo'aash, bik'fjd- 
*aash) 3. bik'ioo-kddh (bik'fooh 
yik'foo, bik'fjd) 

19. to go, come, arrive again. 
F. 1. ndd-deesh-dddt (dff, doo, 
zhdoo) 2. ndd-dii-t'ash (dooh, 
doo, zhdoo) 3. ndd-dii-koh 
(dooh, doo, zhdoo) I. 1. ndd- 
ndsh-dddh (nf, nd, jf) 2. ndd- 
nii-t*aash (noh, nd, jf) 3. ndd- 
nii-kddh (noh, nd, jf) P. 1. ndd- 
nfs-dzd (yfnf, nd, jf) 2. ndd-nii- 
t'ddzh (nooh, nd, jf) 3, ndd-nii- 
kai (nooh, nd, jf) O. 1. ndd-nd- 
osdza* (ndddya*, nddya', jdya') 
2. ndd-oo-t'aash (ooh, d, jd) 3. 
ndd-oo-kddh (ooh, d, jd) 

20. to start back home. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing niki to the forms of no. 
18. Thus, nikinfyd, I started 
back home. 

21. to go ashore; go away 
from the water. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing dzftts'd- to the forms 
under no. 18. Thus, dzRts'dnf- 
yd, I went ashore. 

22. to separate from him. 
This meaning is rendered by 



prefixing bits'd- (yits'd- in 3o.) 
to the forms of no. 1 8. Thus, bi- 
ts'dniyd, I separated from him. 

23. to separate from each oth- 
er; from one another* 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing alts'd- to the dual or 
plural forms under no. 18. Thus, 
'a+ts'dniit'ddzh, we two separat- 
ed from each other; 'atts'dnii- 
kai, we (plural) separated from 
one another. 

24. to go as far as a point (and 
stop); to go up to (a place, e.g.). 
F, 1. ndeeshddi (ndiinddt, ndoo- 
gddt, nizhdoogddt) 2. ndiit'ash 
(ndooh'ash, ndoo'ash, nizhdoo- 
ash) 3. ndii-kah (ndooh, ndoo, 
nizhdoo) I. 1. ninishaah (nim- 
nddh, niighddh, njfghddh) 2. 
niniit'aash (ninoh'aash, nifaash 
njTaash) 3. ninii-kddh (ninoh, 
nii, njf) P. 1. ninf-yd (nffni, ni- 
nf, nizhnf) 2. niniit'ddzh (ni- 
noo'ddzh, ninTddzh, nizhni- 
*ddzh) 3. ninii-kai (ninooh, nii, 
njf) R. 1. ni-ndsh-dddh (ndnf, 
nd, najf) 2. ni-neiit'ash (ndh- 
'ash, nd*ash, ndjf'ash) 3. ni- 
neii-kah (ndh, nd, najf) O. 1. 
noosha' (nooya*, nooya', njdya*) 
2. noot'aash (nooh'aash, noo- 
*aash, njo'aash) 3. noo-kddh 
(nooh, noo, njo) 

25. to become (physically) tir- 
ed of it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bqqh, beside it, to 


the forms under no. 24. Thus, 
bqqh niniyd, I became tired of it. 

26, to advance; progress. 

F. 1. ndds dideeshddt (didnnddi, 
didoogddt, jididoogdd+J 2. ndds 
didiit'ash (didooh'ash, didoo'ash 
jididoo'ash) 3. ndds didii-kah 
(didooh, didoo, jididoo) Prog. 
1. ndds yishddt (yfnddt, yigddt, 
\oog66t) 2. ndds yiit'ash (ghoh- 
ash, yi'ash, joo'ash) 3. ndds 
yii-kah (ghoh, yi, joo) P. 1. 
ndds nf-yd (ymf, ni, jinf) 2, ndds 
niit'ddzh (noo'ddzh, nf'ddzh, ji- 
ni'ddzh) 3. ndds nii-kai (nooh, 
yi, jf) R. ndds ndish-dddh (ndi, 
ndf, nfzhdi) 2. ndds ndiit'ash 
(ndoh'ash, ndPash, nizhdfash) 
3. ndds ndii-kah (ndoh, ridf, nf- 
zhdf) O. 1. ndds dosha* (dooya', 
doya*, jidoya') 2. ndds doo- 
t-'aash (dooh'aash, do'aash, jido- 
'aash) 3. ndds doo-kddh (dooh, 
do, jido) 

27. to go (yi-form, used only 
in conjunction with prepounded 
particles and postpositions). 

1 . With prepounded kijh, into 
town, the meaning is, to go into 
town; to enter town. 

2. With prepounded taah, into 
water, the meaning is to enter 
the water; get in the water. 

3. With prepounded biih, into 
it, the meaning is to enter some- 
thing as a boat, pipe, or any- 
thing not an enclosure (in the 
sense of a house, hole, etc.). 



4. With baa tiih prepounded 
the meaning is to tackle it (as a 
task, enemy, etc.); to go after it. 
This is illustrated by the follow- 
ing sentences: shighan t'ah doc 
ashleeh da; yiskqqgo baa tiih 
deeshaat, I haven't built my 
home yet; tomorrow I'll tackle it. 
shash dibe la' sits'qq' neistseed; 
'ei biniinaa yiskqqgo baa tiih 
deeshaat, a bear killed some of 
my sheep; therefore I'll go out 
after him tomorrow. 
F. 1. deeshaat (diinaat, doogaat, 
jidoogad-r) 2. diit'ash (dooh'ash 
doo'ash, jidoo'ash) 3. dii-kah 
(dooh, doo, jidoo) I. 1. yishadh 
(ninddh, yighddh, jighddh) 2. 
yiit'aash (ghoh'aash, yPaash, ji- 
'aash) 3. yii-kddh (ghoh, yi, ji) 
P. 1. yi-yd (yfnf, yi, ji) 2. yii- 
r'ddzh (ghoo'ddzh, yi'ddzh, ji- 
'ddzh) 3. yii-kai (ghooh, yf, ji) 
R 1. ndsh-dddh (ndni, nd, nji) 
2 ^eiit'ash (ndh'ash, nd'ash, n- 
jf ash) 3. neii-kah (ndh, nd„ njf) 

0. 1. ghosha* (ghooya 1 ghoya', 
jova') 2. ghoot'aash (ghooh- 
'oash, gho'aash, jo'aash) 3. 
a^oo-kddh (ghooh, gho, jo) 

28. to join it; to add oneself to 
if- las a party, club, etc). 
F. 1. bti-deeshddt (difnddt, doo- 
gddt, zhdoogddt) 2. bfi-diit'ash 
'dooh'ash, doo'ash, zhdoo'ash) 
3. b.ii-dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 

1. T, hiishddh (bfinddh, yfighddh 
bfjiighddh) 2. biit'aash (bfoh- 
'aash, yiPaash, bfjiPaash) 3 


bii-kddh (bioh, yii, bijii) P. 1. 
bii-yd (biini, yii, bijii) 2* bii- 
r'ddzh (bioo'ddzh, yii'adzh, bi- 
jii'ddzh) 3. bii-kai (bioo, yii, bi- 
jii) R. 1. bineish-dddh (bineii, 
yineii, biniji) 2. bineiit'ash (bf- 
ndoh'ash, yineiPash) 3. bineii- 
kah (bindoh, yineii, biniji) O. 1. 
bfoshddh (bioonddh, yioghddh, 
bfjooghddh) 2. bioot'aash (bi- 
ooh'aash, yio'aash, bfjoo'aash) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. (This 
is actually a paradigm formed 
by conjunction of the verb forms 
given under no. 27 with bi-, a- 
gainst it; in addition to it.) 

29. to go downward; to des- 
cend; to dismount (from a vehi- 
cle, horse, etc.). 

This verb is composed of the 
forms given under no. 27, plus 
prefixed hada- downward. 
F. 1. hada-deeshddi (diinddt, 
doogddt, zhdoogddt) 2. hada- 
diit'ash (dooh'ash, doo'ash, zh- 
doo'ash) 3. hada-dii-kah (dooh, 
doo, zhdoo) I. 1. hadaashddh 
(hadaninaah, hadaaghddh, ha- 
dajighddh) 2. hadeiit'aash 

(hadaah'aash, hadaa'aash 

hadajPaash) 3. hade:i-kddh 
(hadaah, hadaa, hadaji) P. 
1. haddd-yd (hadefnf, haddd, 
hadajf) 2. hadeiit'ddzh (hada- 
oo'ddzh, haddd'ddzh, hadajn- 
*ddzh) 3. hadeii-kai (hadaooh, 
hadaa, hadajoo) R. 1. hada- 
ndsh-dddh (nam, nd, ndjf) 2. 
hoda-neiit'ash( ndh'ash, nd'ash 



naji'ash) 3. hada-neii-kah (nah, 
no, najO O. 1. hada-oosha' (66- 
ya' ooya\ joya') 2. hada-oo- 
t'aash (ooh'aash, oo'aash, jo- 
'aash) 3. hada-oo-kaah (ooh, 

00. jo) 

30. to go out of sight; to go in 
(to go in, or enter an enclosure, 
as a house, hole, etc., is render- 
ed by propounding yah, into (an 
enclosure) to the following verb 
forms); to go away or get lost (is 
rendered by prepounding yoo' 
away, to the following verbs). 

F. 1. 'a-deeshaa+ (diinaaJ, doo, 
goat, zhdoogaai) 2. 'a-diit'ash 
'dooh'ash, doo'ash, zhdoo'ash) 
3. 'a-dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 

1. 1. Mishaah ('aninaah, 'iighaah 
'ajighaah) 2. 'iit'aash Cooh- 
'aash, 'ii'aash, 'aji'aash) 3. 'ii- 
kaah fooh, 'ii, 'aji) P. 1. 'ii-ya 

nni, n, ajii) 2. ntaazh ( oo- 

aazh, ii aazh, ajii aazh) 3. ii- 

kai Cooh, 'ii, 'ajii) U. 1. 'iishaah 

Caninaah, 'iighaah, 'ajighdah) 

2. Wash (ooh ash, *ii ash, 'aji- 
'ash) 3* 'ii-kah Cooh, 'ii, 'aji) 
R. 1. 'a-ndsh-dddh (nam, na, njO 
2. 'a-neiit'ash (nah'ash, nd'ash, 
njf'ash) 3. 'a-neii-kah (nah, na, 
hjf) O. 1. 'oosha* ('o6ya\ 'ooya\ 
'ajoya') 2. 'oot'aash (ooh'aash, 
'oo'aash, 'ajd'aash) 3. 'oo-kddh 
('ooh, *oo, *ajo) 

31. to replace him; to take his 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bikek'ehji*, (into) 


his footprints, to the verb forms 
given under no. 30. Thus, bike- 
k'ehji' 'adeeshddt, I'll replace 
him; take his place. 

32. to go around; to make a 
round trip; to go and return. 

F. 1. *ndeeshaat (ndiinaa+, n- 
doogaat, nizhdoogaaJ) 2. ndii- 
r'ash (ndooh'ash, ndoo'ash, ni- 
zhdoo'ash) 3. ndii-kah (ndooh, 
ndoo, ni zhdoo) C-l. 1. naashd 
(nanina, naaghd, njighd) 2. ne- 
iit'aash (naah'aash, naa'aash, 
nji'aash) 3. neii-kai (naah, naa, 
nji) or neiil-deeh (naak, naal, n- 
jil) P. 1. nise-yd (nisini, nao t n- 
ji) 2. nishiit'ddzh (nishoo'ddzh, 
naazh'aazh, njizh'ddzh) 3. ni- 
sii-kai (nisooh, naas, njis) R. 1. 
*ni-ndsh-daah (nam, na, nji) 2. 
ni-neiit'ash (nah'ash, nd'ash, n- 
jTash) 3. ni-neii-kah (nah, na, 
njf) O. 1. na-oosha* (66ya*, oo- 
ya', joya 1 ) 2. naoo-t'aash (na- 
Doh'aash, naoo'aash, njo'aash} 
3. naoo-kddh (naooh, naoo, njo) 
*Note the low tone of the stem. 

33. to do it; busy oneself with 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding baa, about it, to 
the verb forms given under no. 
32. Thus, ha'at'ffsh baa nanina, 
what are you doing? A passive, 
to be done, is also possible (using 
a 3L, or indefinite, subject), 
and meaning it will be done, is 
being done, etc. It is given as 
follows: F. baa n'doodaa-r; C- 



1. baa na'addh; P. baa na'as- 
dzd; R. baa nind'ddddh; O. 
baa na*6dza\ 

34. to be sad, blue or worried. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yfnfit, the mind, to 
the continuative imperfective 
form given under no. 32. Thus, 
yinfft naasha, I am blue, worried 
or sad. 

35. to be sickly; to be invalid. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding kd, chronically ill, 
to the continuative imperfective 
forms given under no. 32. Thus, 
kd naasha, I am sickly. 

36. to protect him. 

The following verb forms are 
used, with prepounded bich'qqh, 
in front of him, in his way. 
F, 1. ndeeshaat (ndnnaat, ndoo- 
gaal, nizhdoogaal) 2. ndiit'ash 
(ndooh'ash, ndoo'ash, nizhdoo- 

ash) 3. ndii-kah (ndooh, ndoo, 
nizhdoo) C-l. 1. naasha (nanina 
naaghd, njighd) 2. neiitaash 
(naah'aash, naa'aash, nji'aash) 
P. 1. nini-yd (nffnf, nini, nizhnf) 

2. niniit'ddzh (ninoo'ddzh, ni- 
ni'ddzh, nizhnfddzh) 3. ninii- 
kai (ninooh, nii, njf) R. 1. ni- 
ndsh-dddh (ndnf, nd, ndjf) 2. ni- 
neiifash (ndh ash, nd'ash, ndjf- 
*ash) 3. ni-neii-kah (ndh, nd, 
na|f) O. 1. naoosha* (naddya' 
naooya' njoya 1 ) 2. naoot'aash 
(naooh*aash, naoo'aash, njd- 
'aash) 3. naoo-kddh (naooh 
naoo, njo) 


The sense of to be protected is 
rendered by the 3i. forms of the 
verb. These are: F. n'doodaai 
C-l. na'addh; P. na'asdzd; R. 
nind'ddddh; O. na'odza'. Thus, 
bich'qqh naasha, I am protect- 
ing him; shich qqh na'addh, I 
am being protected. 

37. to walk or go among them. 
F. 1. bitaa-deeshaat (diinaat, 
doogaat, zhdoogaaf) 2. bitaa- 
diit'ash (doolVash, doo'ash, zh- 
doo ash) 3. bitaa-dii-kah (dooh, 
doo, zhdoo) C-l. 1. bitaashd 
bitaanind, yitaaghd, bitaaji- 
ghd) 2, bitaaiit'aash (bitaaoh- 
'aash, yitaa'ash, bitaaji'aash) 
3. bitaaii-kai (bitaaoh, yitaa, bi- 
taaji) P. 1. bitaase-yd (bitaasf- 
ni, yitaa, bitaaji) 2. bitaashii- 
t'ddzh (bitaashoo adzh, yitaazh- 
adzh, bitaajizh'ddzh) 3. bi- 
tGasii-kai (bitaasoo, yitaas, bi- 
taajis) R. 1. bitaa-ndsh-dddh 
(ndnf, nd, njf) 2. bitaa-neiit'ash 
(ndh'ash, nd'ash, rijfash) 3. bi- 
taa-neii-kah (ndh, nd, njf) O. 1. 
bitaa-oosha' (66ya\ ooya', jdya') 

2. bitaa-oot'aash (ooh'aash, oo- 
'aash, jo'aash) 3. bitaa-oo-kddh 
(ooh, oo, jo) 

bitaa- becomes yitaa in 3o. 

38. to go after it; go for it. 

F. 1. hd-deeshddt (dffnddf, doo- 
gddt, zhdoogddf) 2. hd-diit'ash 
(dooh'ash, doo'ash, zhdooash) 

3. hd-dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 
I. 1. hd-dfshddh (dmddh, df- 
ghddh, zhdighddh) 2. hd-dii- 



taosh (doh'aash, di'aash, zhdi- 
*aash) 3. hd-dii-kddh (don, d\, 
zhdi) S-P. 1. hd-de-yd (dfni, dee, 
zhdee) 2. hd-dee-t'ddzh (di- 
shoo, deezh, zhdeezh) 3. hd- 
dee-kai (disoo, dees, zhdees) 
*S-P. 1. hase-yd (hasmi, haa, 
haji) 2. hashiit'ddzh (hashoo- 
'ddzh, haazh'ddzh, hajizh'ddzh) 
3. hasii-kai (hasooh, haas, ha- 
jis) R. 1. ha-ndsh-daah (nanf, 
no, naji) 2. ha-neiit*ash (ndh- 
'ash, nd'ash, ndji'ash) 3. ha- 
neii-koh (ndh, no, ndjt) O. 1. 
hd-dosha' (dooya' doya* zhdoya*) 
2. hd-doot'aash (dooh'aash, do- 
*aash, zhdo'aash) 3. hd-doo- 
kddh (dooh, do, zhdo) 

*Of the two si-perfectives giv- 
en above, hddeyd means to be in 
a state of having started after it, 
(i.e. I am on my way going after 
it; or I am going to go after it), 
while haseyd, I am in a state of 
having completed the act of go- 
ing after it (i.e. I have gone after 

39. to be going along after it 
(to get it). 

Prog. 1. hddshddi (hddnddt, hdd- 
gadl, hdjoogddi) 2. ha i it ash 
hdh'ash, hdd'ash, hdjoo'ash) 3. 
hdii-kah (hah, haa, hdjoo) 

40. to hare gone away after it 
(and still be gone). 

Pm I * iff r /iff f yrf i */*\ #fe 

. 1. ha- n-ya ( uni, n, aju) 2. 

hd-'iifddzh ('oo'ddzh, 'frdazh, 

'ajff'dazh) 3. hd*ii-kai Cooh, 'ee 



41. to come after it; come for 

F. 1. hd-deeshddt (diinddt, doo- 
gddi, zhdoogddf) 2. hd-diit'ash 
doolVash, doo'ash, zhdoo'ash) 3. 
hd-dii-kah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 
P. 1. hd-nf-yd (mi, ni, zhni) 2. 
hd-niit'ddzh (noo'ddzh, ni'ddzh, 
zhni'ddzh) 3. hdnii-kai (hdnooh 
hd, hdji) R. 1. hd-ndsh-dddh 
(ndnf nd, nfjf) 2. hd-neii-t'ash 
(ndh'ash, nd'ash, ndji'ash) 3. 
hd-neii-kah (ndh, nd, ndjf) O. 1. 
hd-oosha' (66ya*, ooya', joya') 2. 
hd-oot'aash (ooh'aash, oo'aash 

42. to tour; to travel; to go to 
5-he country. 

F. 1, ch'aa deeshddt (difnddi, 
doogddl, jidoogdd+) 2. ch'aa 
diit'ash (dooh'ash, doo'ash, ji- 
doo'ash) 3. ch'aa dii-kah (dooh, 
doo, jidoo) *S-P. 1. ch'aa de-yd 
(dfni, dee, jidee) 2. ch'aa dee- 
t'ddzh (dishoo adzh deezh'ddzh, 
jideezh'ddzh) 3. ch'aa dee-kai 
(disoo, dees, jidees) C-l. 1. 
ch'aa naashd (nanina, naaghd, 
njighd) 2. ch'aa neiit'aash 

(naah'aash, naa'aash, nji'aash) 
3. ch'aa neii-kai (naah, naa, nji) 
P. 1. *ch'aa nise-yd (nisfnf, naa, 
njii) 2. ch'aa nishiit'ddzh (ni- 
shoo'adzh, naazh'adzh, njizh- 
adzh) 3. nisii-kai (nisooh, 

naas, njis) O. 1. ch'aa dosha* 
(dooya', doya' jidoya') 2. ch'aa 
doot'gash (dooh'aash, do'aash, 
jido'aash) 3. ch'aa doo-kddh 



(dooh, do, jido) 

* The si-perfective ch aa deyd 
means I am going to the country, 
I am going to go on a trip; while 
the si-perfective ch'aa niseyd 
means I have been to the coun- 
try, I have made a trip (and now 
am back from whence I started). 

43. to return; to come bock; to 
go back. 

F. 1. rideesh-ddd+ (ndii, hdoo, ni- 
zhdoo) 2. hdii-t'ash (ridooh, h- 
doo, nizhdoo) 3. ndii-kah (ri- 
dooh, hdoo, nizhdoo) I. 1. nd- 
nish-dddh (ndnf, nd, nijf) 2. nd- 
nii-t'aash (ndnoh, nd, nji) 3. 
ndnii-kddh (ndnoh, nd, ndji) 
Prog. 1. nddsh-dddi (ndd, ndd, 
njoo) 2. neii-t'ash (ndh, ndd, n- 
joo) 3. neii-kah (ndh, ndd, njoo) 
*S-P. 1. hdes-dzd (hdfni, ndees, 
nizhdees) 2. hdee-t'ddzh (hdi- 
shoo, ndeesh, nfzhdeesh) 3. n- 
dee-kai (hdisoo, ndees, nizhdees) 
P. 1. ndnfs-dzd (neinf, nd, rijQ 2, 
ndnii-t'ddzh (ndnoo, nd, rijf) 3. 
nanii-kai (ndnooh, nd, njf) R. 1. 
ndsh-dddh (ndnf, nd, njf) 2. ne- 
ii-t'ash (ndh, nd, nji) 3. neii-kah 
(ndh, nd, njf) O. 1. ndoos-dza' 
(ndoo, ndoo, ndzd) 2. ndoo- 
t'aash (ndooh, ndoo, njd) 3. nd- 
oo-kddh (ndooh, ndoo, njd) 

*The si-perfective ndesdzd 
means I am going to go back, I 
am on my way back. 

44. to dress; to get bock into 
ones garments. 


This meaning is rendered by 
propounding -'ee* biih, into — 
clothing ( — stands for the pro- 
per possessive pronoun prefix) to 
the verb forms that follow. Thus 
she'ee' biih nddsdzd, I dressed; I 
got back into my clothing. 
F. 1. ndeesh-dddt (ndii, ndoo, ni- 
zhdoo) 2. ndii-t'ash (ndooh, h- 
doo, nizhdoo) 3. ndii-kah (h- 
dooh, hdoo, nizhdoo) I. 1. ndsh- 
dddh (ndni, nd, nji) 2. neii- 
t'aash (ndh, nd, nji) 3. neii-kddh 
(ndh, nd, njf) P. 1. ndds-dzd (nei- 
nf, nd, ndji) 2. n6ii-t'ddzh (nd- 
oo, nd, ndji) 3. neii-kai (ndooh, 
nd, njf) R. 1. nf-ndsh-dddh (nd- 
nf, nd, ndjf) 2. ni-neii-t'ash (ndh 
nd, ndji) 3. neii-kah (ndh, nd, 
ndji) O. 1. ndoos-dza* (ndoo, 
ndoo, ndzd) 2. ndoo-t'aash (nd- 
ooh, ndoo, njd) 3. ndoo-kddh 
(ndooh, ndoo, njd) 

45. to divorce her; to separate 
back from her. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing bits'd- away from her, 
to the forms of no. 43 (except in 
the imperfective where the form 
is bits'dnindshdddh, and is con- 
jugated like the iterative (i.e. 
the R. form of no. 44). Thus, bi- 
ts'dndnfsdzd, I divorced her. 

46. to get divorced from each 
other, ('atts'a*, away from each 

F. 'atts'd-ndii-t'ash (ndooh, n- 
doo, nizhdoo) I. 'atts a-nanii- 
t'aash (ndnoh, nd, ndji) P. 'q*. 



rs'd-ndnii-t'ddzh (ndnooh, na, 
nji) R. 'atts'dni-neii-t'ash (ndh, 
nd, ndji) O. 'atts'd-ndoo-t'aash 
(ndooh, ndoo, ndjo) 

47. to take turns; to alternate. 
This verb is given in the pro- 
gressive mode only, and is alter- 
ed for tense by use of dooleet for 
future, and nt'ee* for past. 
Prog. 2. 'atndd-hii-t'ash (hooh, 
hoo, hijiyoo) 3. 'atnad-hii-kah 
(hooh, hoo, hijiyoo) 

48. to become dizzy. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition -it, 
with the proper pronoun prefix, 
to the verb forms that follow. 
Thus, shit nahodeeya, I'm dizzy, 
nit nahodeeya, you're dizzy, etc. 
F. ndhodidoogddt I. ndhodi- 
ghaah S-P. nahodeeya R. nf- 
ndhodighddh O. nahodoya* 

49. to turn up, warp (as wet 
shoes when dried); to shrink up 
(as burning flesh). 

F. 1. deindoogddt 2. deindoo- 
'ash 3. dein(da)dookah I. 1 
deiniighddh 2. deinii'aash 3. 
deindaakddh P. deininiyd 2. 
deininf'ddzh 3. deindaayd oi 
deindaaskai R. 1. deininadaah 
2. deininat ash 3. deininadaa- 
kah 0. 1. deinooya* 2. deinoo- 
'aash 3. deindaookddh 

50. to go on horseback (at a 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t[f -it (with the pro- 
per pronoun prefix), with horse, 


to the verb forms that follow. For 
example \\\ shit naaghd, I am 
going about (riding) horseback; 
tfi' nit naaghd, you are going a- 
bout (riding) horseback, etc. 
F. doogddt I. dighddh C-l. 
naaghd Prog, yigadt P. nfya 
R. nddddh O. doya* 

51. to accompany; go with. 

When the subject of the verb 
accompanies someone, this is 
expressed by the prepounded 
postposition -it, with, (with the 
pronoun prefix corresponding tc 
the one accompanying) plus the 
proper form of the verb to go, 
which uses the singular paradi- 
gmatic prefixes with the dual 
stem if the total number of sub- 
ject and companion does not ex- 
ceed 2, or the singular or duo- 
plural paradigmatic prefixes 
plus the plural stem if the sub- 
ject with companions total more 
than 2. Thus, nit deesh'ash (in- 
stead of deeshddt), I will go with 
you; nit diikah (instead of dii- 
t'ash), we (two or more) will go 
with you; nihit deeshkah (in- 
stead of deeshadt), I will go with 
you (two or more). 

52. to be homeless. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t'dd bita'fgi, just 
between them (at), to the forms 
given under no. 32. Thus, t'da 
bita'fgi naasha, I am homeless. 
gaamalii, Mormon. 



9«i 99/ 9*4' (99>< 9« h * 9*$', 

to kill plural objects (V. ghqqt) 

1. to commit suicide (plural 

F. 'adidii-gqqt ('adidooh, adi- 
doo, 'adizhdoo) I. 'adii-gq ('6- 
doh, adi, 'azhdf) *P. adi'nii- 
gq ('ddi'nooh, 'adi'nii, *adizh J - 
nii) P. 'adii-gqq* Cadooh, 'adoo, 
'azhdoo) R. 'andii-gqqh ('an- 
doh, 'aridi, 'anizhdi) O. 'adoo- 
gqq* Cadooh, 'ado, 'azhdo) 

*This is the inchoative perfec- 
tive, translated as a present in 
English. Thus, 'adi'niigq, we are 
killing ourselves (i.e. have start- 
ed to kill ourselves). 

2. to fight with eoch other; to 
kill each other. 

F, *bit 'ahi-deesh-gqqt (dii, doo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) C-l. 'ahish- 
gqh ('ahf, 1 ahi, 'ahiji, *ahii, 'a- 
hoh) P. aheesh-gqq Cahnni, 
'ahoo, ahijoo, *ahii, 'ahooh) R. 
na-'ahish-gqqh ('ahi, 'ahi, *ahi ji, 
ahii, 'ahoh) O. 'ahosh-gqq' fa- 
hoo, 'aho, 'ahijo, 'ahoo, 'ahooh) 
* bit, with him, becomes yit in 
3o. The pronoun object of the 
verb is represented by the pro- 
noun prefixed as object of the 
postposition -it, with. 

$qq\, gen, gan, goqh, gan, to dry 

up; mummify. 

1. to dry up; to mummify. 

F. deesh-gqqt (dn, doo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. yish-gan (ni, yi, 
ji, yii, ghoh) P. se-gan {sini, si, 
jis, sii, soo) R. nash-gqqh (nani, 


r\6 f riji, neii, nah) O. ghosh-gan 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to dry it; to dessicate it. 
F. deesh-gqqt (dfft, yidoot, jidoot, 
dii I, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
gan (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'- 
dii-) P. set-gan (sinit, yis, jis, 
siil, soaf) (bi'dis-) R. nash-gqqh 
(nam't, neit, njit, neii I, not) {no- 
bi'dil-) O. ghosh-gan (ghoot, 
yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
gad, juniper. 
god ni'eeti, red juniper. 
gah, rabbit. 

gatbahi, cottontail rabbit. 
gohtsoh, jackrabbit. 
gah, gaah, goii (gai), goh, gdah, 
to be white; hot. 

1. to become white. 

F. yi-deesh-gah (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. yiish-gaah (yii, yii, 
jii, yii, ghooh) P. yii-gaii (yini, 
Y''/ j'i, y''/ ghooh) R. neish-gah 
neii, neii, rijii, neii, naoh) O. 
ghoosh-gaah (ghoo, ghoo, joo, 
ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to be white. 

N. tinish-gai (tini, ti, jil, tinii, ti- 

3. to frost. 

F sho yidoogah I. sho yiigaah 
P. sho yiigaii R. sho neiigah O. 
sho ghoogaah 

4. to whiten it; make it white. 

F. yi-deesh-gah (diit, idoaf, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) (*bidi , dool-) I. 
yiish-gaah (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, 
ghoot) (bi'diil-) P. yiit-gaii (yi- 



nil, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) (bi*- 
diil-) R. neish-gah (neit, nayiit, 
rijiit, neiil, naoot) (nabi'diil-) 
O. ghoosh-gaah (ghoot, yoot, 
joot, ghooi, ghoot) (bfdool-) 

5. to warm up; to become hot 
(weather, or an area, room, etc*). 
F. hodfnoogah I. honiigaah P. 
honiigaii *S-P. honeezgai R. 
nahoniigah 0. honoogaah 

* honeezgai, it is hot. 

6. to suffer pain; be in pain. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding the postposition -it, 
with, to the forms of no. 5. Thus, 
shit honeezgai, I am in pain; nit 
honeezgai, you — , etc. 

7. to cause one to be in pain 
(a definite object as a tooth). 

F. shit hodfnoofgah P. shit ho- 
nii+gaii S-P. shit honeesgai R. 
shit nahoniitgoh O. shit honoot- 

8. to be heated, hot (as iron). 

F. dinoogah I. niigaah P. nii- 
gaii *S-P. neezgai R. nanii- 
gah O. noogaah 

*The S-P. is a neuter form, sig- 
nifying "it is hot." 

9. to heat it (an object as a 
piece of iron)* 

F. dineesh-gah (diniit, yidfnoot, 
jidinoot, dfniil, dfnoot) (bididf- 
nool-) I. niish-gaah (niit, yiniit, 
jiniit, niil, noot) (bidi'niil-) P 
niit-gaii (ninit, yiniit, jiniit, niil, 
noot) (bidPniil-) R. naniish-gah 
(naniit, neinrit, nazhniit, nanii 


nanoot) (nabidi'niil-) <)• noosh* 
gaah (noot / yinoot, jinoot, nool, 
noot) (bidi'nool-) 
gqsh, gqsh, gqsh, gqsh, gqsh, to 

bewitch; shoot with magic. 

1. to bewitch him. 

F. deesh-gqsh (dift, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
gqsh (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) P. shet-gqsh (shfnit, 
yish, jish, shiil, shoof) (bi'dish-) 
R. neish-gqsh (neit, nayiit, njiit, 
neiil, naoot) (nabi'diil-) O. 

ghoosh-gqsh (ghoot, yot, jot, 
ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to be a witch or wizard. 

N. 'adish-gqsh Cadit, 'adit, 'azh- 

dit, 'adiil, 'adot) 

geeso, cheese. 

B e\ hark! listen! ge', 'iisinft 

ts qq\ hark! listen! 

g§sh, gffsh (g§§zh), ge?zh g§sh, 

geesh, to stare. 

1. to stare at it. 

F. didineesh-g^sh (didinfil, yidi- 
dfnool, jididinool, didfniil, didf- 
noot) 1. diniish-g£§sh (din ill, yi- 
diniil, jidiniil, diniil, dinoot) P. 
diniish-ge^zh (dininil, yidiniil, 
jidiniil, diniil, dinoot) C-L yf- 
n(sh-g§§zh (yinil, yol, jol, yiniil, 
yino-P) R. ndiniish-g^sh (ndiniil 
neidiniil, nizhdiniil, ndiniil, ridi- 
noot O. dinoosh-g^esh (dinool 
yidinool, jidinool, dinool, dinoot) 

2. to stare off into space. 

This has the same form as no.l 
except that there is no yi- (3o.) 



in the 3rd person. Thus diniil- 
g£§zh, he stared into space; but 
yidiniilgeezh, he stared at it. 

In the following paradigms it 
must be kept in mind that gh be- 
comes h after sh, h, and i, and 
that the stem exchanges initial 
gh for g in the 1 st person duo- 
plural, and in the passive. 
ghadsh, ghadsh, ghddzh, 
ghadsh, ghaash, to nibble. 

1. to start nibbling it. 

F. dideesh-hddsh (didfi, yididoo, 
jididoo, didii, didooh) (bidfdoo- 
gddsh) I. dish-hddsh (di, yidi, 
jidi, dii, doh) (bi'digddsh) P. 
de-ghddzh (dinf, yideezh, ji- 
deezh, dee, dishoo) (bi'deesh- 
gddzh) R. ndfsh-hddsh (ndi, 
neidi, nizhdf, hdii, ridoh) (ndbP- 
digddsh) O. dosh-hddsh (doo 
yido, jido, doo, dooh) (bfdo- 

2. to be nibbling it along. 
Prog, yish-hddsh (yi, yoo, joo, 
yii, ghoh) (bi'doogddsh) 
ghqq'ask'idii, camel. 

ghqqjT, October. 

ghgqt, ghqh, ghqq\ gdqh, ghqq 1 

to kill them (plural objects). 

1. to kill them. 
F. deesh-hqqt (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doogqqt) I. yish- 
hqh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di- 
gqh) P. yi-ghqq' (yfnf, yiyii, jif, 
yii, ghoo) (bi'doogqq') R. ndsh- 
gqqh (ndni, nei, nji, neii, ndh) 
(ndbi'digqqh) O. ghdsh-hqq' 
(ghoo, yd, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi*- 



2. to die of melancholy; pine 
away (plural persons). 

This meaning is rendered by 
use of the noun ch'iinati, melan- 
choly, as the subject of the verb. 
Thus it is inflected for person by 
altering the prefixed pronoun 
object. It is herewith given for 
the ordinary 3rd person, 
F. crVifnaii bidooghqqt *P. ch'ii- 
ndi'f bfniighqq' P. ch'ffndn bff- 
ghqq' R. ch'iindii ndbfgqqh O. 
ch'ifnaif boghqd' 

*This is the inchoative perfec- 
tive, which is translated as a pre- 
sent in English. Thus, ch'nndn 
brniighqq', they are pining a- 
way (i.e. melancholy has started 
to kill them). 

3. to drown (plural). 

Water is used as the subject of 
the verb, and the verb forms of 
no. 2 are used. Thus, to biighqq', 
they drowned; to nihi'niighqq" 
we ore drowning (i.e. water hos 
started to kill us). 

4. to starve to death; to be 
very hungry. 

dichin, hunger, is used as the 
subject of the verb. Thus, di- 
chin nihi'niighqq', we are starv- 
ing to death; we are very hun- 
gry (i.e. hunger is killing us). 
ghat, ghaaf, ghol, ghat, ghaat, 
stem apparently referring to a 
twisting motion. 

1. to throw oneself down on 
the ground. 



F. dineesh-ghat (diniil, dinool, ji- 
dmool, diniil, dinoot) I. nish- 
ghaat (nil, nil, jinil, niil, not) P. 
nesh-ghal (ninil, nees, jinees, 
neel, noot) R. nd-nish-ghat (ni\, 
nil, zhnil, niil, not) O. nosh- 
ghaai (nool, nol, jinol, nool, noot) 

2. to wriggle along on one's 

F. hi-deesh-ghat (did, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) Prog, heesh- 
ghat (hnl, hool, hijool, hiil, hoot) 
P. hinish-ghal (hifnif, heel, hiji- 
yeel, hiniil, hinoot) R, nahi- 
dish-ghat (dil, dil, zhdil, diil, dot) 
O. hi-dosh-ghaat (dool, dol, zh- 
dol, dool, doot) biih t'aa *aha- 
nfd££* bich'i' nihinishghal doo 
sefh[, I wriggled up near the deer 
and killed it, 

3. to commence to turn or roll 
the eyes (in order to look). 

F. ha-deesh-hat (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I* haash-haat (hani, 
haa, haji, haii, haah) P. haa- 
ghal (hafnf, haa, hajii, haii, ha- 
oo) R. ho-nash-hat (nanf, na, n- 
\\ t neii, nah) O* ha-oosh-haat 
(66, oo, jc, oo, ooh) 

4. to open the eyes. 

F. dideesh-hat (didif, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) P. de-ghal 
(dim, deez, jideez, dee, doo) U. 
dish-hat (df, di, jidi, dii, doh) R 
ndish-hat (ndi, ndi, nizhdf, ndii, 
ndoh) O. dosh-haat (d66, jido, 
doo, dooh) 

5. to look about; to roll the 
eyes about (looking). 


F. ndeesh-hat (ndii, ndoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) C-l. naash- 
haat (noni, naa, nji, neii, naah) 
P. nise-ghal (nisini, naaz, njiz, 
nisii, ftisoo) R. ni-nash-gat (no- 
ni, na, ndji, n6ii, n6h) O. na- 
oosh-haat (naoo, naoo, nj6, no- 
oo, naooh) 

1. to turn over. 

ghal, ghat, ghat, ghat, ghat (prcH 
bably related to the preceding 

F. nahi-dideesh-ghat (didiil, di- 
dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
nahi-deesh-ghat (deel, deel, zfv 
deel, deel, doot) P. nahi-desh- 
ghat (dinil, dees, zhdees, deel, 
disoot) R. ninahi-deesh-ghat 

(deel, deel, zhdeel, deel, doot) 
O. nahi-dosh-ghat (dool, dol, zh- 
dol, dool, doot) 

2. to writhe (a snake) 
Prog, nahoolghat 

ghat, ghat, ghal, ghat, ghat, to 
chew, eat (meat); probably rela- 
ted to the preceding stems. 
F. deesh-ghal (diil, yidool, jidool, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
ghat (nil, yil, jil, yiil, ghot) (bf~ 
dil-) P. yish-ghal (yinil, yool, 
jool, yiil, ghoot) (bi*dool-) R. 
nash-ghat (nanfl, nefl, rijil, neii!, 
r\a\) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-ghat 
(ghool, yol, jol, ghool, ghoot) 

Stem initial gh remains gh even 
after sh and t in this verb. 
ghat, ghaod, ghaad, gha\ ghddd 
to shake. 



gh becomes h after sh and h, 
and becomes g in 1st person dpi 
and passive. 

1 . to shake it. 
F. deesh-hat (dii, yidoo, jidoo, dii 
dooh) (bidfdooga*) C-L yish- 
hddd (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di- 
gddd) P. yi-ghaad (yfni, yiyii, 
jii, yii, ghoo) (bi'doogadd) R. 
nash-ha' (ndni, nef, riji, neii, 
ndh) (nabi'diga) O. ghosh- 
hadd (ghoo yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

ghas, ghas, ghas, gas, ghas, to 

scratch, claw. 

1 . to scratch or claw it (once). 

F. dees-xas (dii, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doogas) I. yiis-xas 
yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bi'dii- 
gas) P. se-ghas (sinf, yiz, jiz, sii, 
soo) (bi'disgas) R. neis-gas (ne- 
ii, nayii, rijii, neii, naooh) (ndbi*- 
diigas) O. ghoos-xas (ghoo, yo. 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bfdogas) 

2. to rip it (with a blow of the 

F. tsiih dees-xas (dii, yidoo, ji- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. tsiih yis-xaas 
(ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) P. tsiih yi- 
ghaz (yinf, yiyii, jif, yii, ghoo) R. 
tsiih nas-gas (nani, nei, njf, neii 
nah) O. tsiih ghos-xaas (ghoo 
y6f J6/ ghoo, ghooh). ndshdoi- 
tsoh tsiih shffghaz, the mountain 
lion ripped me (with a blow of 
his claws). 

3. to scratch or claw it (repea- 
tedly; one scratch after another) 

F. ndinees-xas (rSdfnif, neidmoo, 


nizhdinoo, ndinii, ridinooh) (nd- 
bidinoogas) C-l. ndnis-xas (na- 
ni, neini, ndzhni, ndnii, ndndh) 
(ndbidi'nigas) P. ndne-ghaz 

ndnini, neineez, ndzhneez, nd* 
nee, nanoo) (ndbidi'neesgaz) R. 
nindnis-xas (nindni, nineini, ni- 
ndzhni, ninanii, nindnoh) (nind- 
bidi'nigas) O. nanos-xas (na- 
noo, neino, ndzhno, nanoo, nd- 
nooh) (ndbidi'nogas) 
ghfsh, to think that one saw it. 
P. *bi-dinesh-ghesh (dfnfl, di- 
neesh, zhdineesh, bidineel, di- 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
gheet, gheeh (ghe), ghj, geeh 
gheet, to handle a pack, burden 
or load; anything bundled or 
loaded together and transported 
or hauled whether by hand or by 
vehicle (as a load of sheep, etc.). 
V. *dal for the derivational pre- 

Stem initial gh becomes h after 
sh or h and becomes g in the 1 st 
person dpi, and in the passive. 

1. to bring, take, get or pull it 
down (as from o shelf, limb, etc). 
F. ndi'deesh-hee+ (ndi'du, na'ii- 

didoo, ndizh'doo, ndi'dii, ndi'- 
dooh) (nibidi'doogeet) I. n'- 
diish-heeh (n'dii, naMidii, nizh'- 
dii, n'dii, n'dooh) (nibfdigeeh) 
P. n'diigh[ (ndfni, na'iidii, nizh- 
'dii, n'dii, n'doo) (nabfdoogp R 
nina'diish-geeh (nina'dii, nina' 
iidii, ninazh'dii, nina'dii, nina* 
dooh) (ninabi'digeeh) O. n* 



doosh-heet (n'doo, na'iidoo, n> 
zh'doo, n'doo, n'dooh) (nibi'do- 

2. to knock it over (a load). 

F. naa-'adeesh-heei (adii, 'iidoo, 
'azhdoo, *adii / adooh) I. naa- 
'iish-heeh Cani, *ii, 'aji, *ii, *ooh) 
P. naa-'fi-ghi (tint, 'ayii, 'ajii, *ii, 
'ooh) R. naa-'anash-geeh ('a- 
ndni, 'anef, 'ahjf, 'aneii, 'anah) 
O. naa-'oosh-heeh (06, 'ayo, *a- 
jo, 'oo, 'ooh) 

3* to blow the nose (lit. to haul 
out the mucus). 

-ne'eshtii, nasal mucus, is pre- 
pounded (with a possessive pro- 
noun prefix corresponding to the 
subject of the verb) to \he follow- 
ing verb forms. Thus, shine'esh- 
tit hdagh[, I blew rny nose 
F, ha-deesh-heet (dii, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. haash-heeh 
(Hani, hai, haji, haii, haah) P. 
had-gh[ (hafni, hayfi, haji'i, haii, 
haoo) R. ha-nash-geeh (nanf, 
nei, rijf, neii, nah) O. haosh- 
heet (haoo, hayo, hajo, haoo, 

ghee*, ghe, ghj, gheeh, gheet, to 

kill oneself; commit suicide (V. 
heef, to kill one object). 
F. 'adiyeesh-gheet fadiynl, 'adi- 
yool, azhdiyool) I. adiish- 
qhe ('adiyfl, \5diil, azhdiil) *P. 
'adfniish-ghf CadirTnil, 'adi' 
niil, adizh'niil) P. \5diyesh-ghf 
Cadiyinil, *adiis, 'azhdiis) R 
andiish-gheeh Caridiil, 'andiil 


'anizhdiil) O. 'ddiyosh-ghee* 
fadiyool, 'ddiyol, 'ddizhyol) 

*This is the inchoative perfec- 
tive, translated as a present in 
English. Thus, 'adi'niishghi, I 
am killing myself (i.e. I have 
started to kill myself). 
gheet, ghe, ghe*, to be called or 
named (these stems correspond 
to the future, neuter, and per- 

I.tobe called; to be named; 
to have the name of. 

The parenthetic forms refer to 
place or area. 

F. yideesh-gheet (yidfil, yidool, 
jiidool, yidiil, yidool) (hwiidool-) 
N. yinish-ghe (yinil, ghol, jool, 
yiniil, yinot) (hool-) P. yisis- 
ghe' (yisfnfl, ghoos, joos, yisiil, 
yisoot) (hoos-) 

2. to mean; to signify. 

N. 'oolghe. "stone" "tse" ool- 
ghe, "stone" means "tse." 
ghee 1 , to be awful. 

1 , to be terrified. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t'66 -it (with the 
proper pronoun prefix on the 
postposition -i+, with) to the verb 
form hooghee*. Thus t'66 bit 
hooghee', they became terrified. 

2. to be lazy. 

This meaning is rendered as in 
no. 1 -, except that t'66 -it is pre- 
pounded to the verb hoghee*. 
Thus, btt hoghee', he or they is 
(are) lazy. 



3. to be scarce. 

N. bidin hoghee' (it is scarce) P. 
bfdin hooghee' (it became — ) 
gheh, gheh, gheh, geh, gheh, to 


1 * to get married. 

F. 'a-deesh-heh (dn, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I* 'iish-heh ( P ii, 'ii, *a- 
jii, *ii, *ooh) P. 'ase-gheh Casinf, 
'az, 'ajiz, 'asii, 'asoo) R. na-iish- 
geh (*ii, 'ii, 'jii, 'ii, *ooh) O. oosh- 
heh ('oo, 'oo, ajoo, 'oo *ooh 

2. to take place (a wedding). 
This meaning is rendered by 

use of the 3i. subject. 

F. 'adoogeh I. Migeh P. *asgeh 

R. na* iigeh O. 'oogeh 

3. to marry her* 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ba- (ya- in 3o.) to 
the forms in no. 1 . Thus ba'se- 
gheh I married her; bcTdeesh- 
heh, I'll marry her. 
ghih, to puff, pant (from being 
out of breath. 

N. dish-hih (di, di, jidi, dii, doh) 
ghit, gheet, gheel, ghit, gheet, to 

F. nei-deesh-hit (dfi, doo zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-L neish-heet (nei, 
nei, njii, neii, naoh) P. naise- 
gheel (naisinf, naiz, njiiz, naisii, 
naisoo) R. ni-nash-hif (nam, 
net, najfi, neii, nah) O. naoosh- 
heet (naoo, naoo, njo, naoo, na- 
ooh). naa nai$6gheel, I dream- 
ed about you. 

ghif, ghiit (ghil), ghil, git, ghil, to 



1 • to push it about. 

F. na-bideesh-hil (bidii, yiidoo, 
bizhdoo, bidii, bfdooh) (bidi- 
doogit) C-l. na-besh-hil (bi-ni, 
yif, bijif, bii, boh) (bfdigil) P. 
na-bfseghil (bisini, yfiz, bijiiz, 
bisii, bisoo) (bi'disgil) R. ni-bi- 
nash-git (bfnani, yinei, bihjii, bf- 
neii, bfnah) (bindbfdigit) O. 
na-boosh-hil (boo, yfyo, bijo, boo 
booh) (bidogil) 

2. to push it as far as a point 
(and stop). 

F. ni-bfdeesh-hi+ (bfdfi, yfidoo, 
bfzhdoo, bidii, bfdooh) (bidi'doo- 
gtf) I. ni-bmfsh-hift (bmi, yfi, 
biji, binii, binoh) (bi'deegi'H) P. 
ni-bini-ghil (biini, yfini, bizhni, 
binii, binooh) (bf'deegil) R. ni- 
bfnash-git (bfnam, yinei, bihjii, 
bineii, binah) (binabi'digit) O. 
ni-boosh-hii't (boo, yfyo, bijo, 
boo, booh) (bi'dogfil) koji* ni- 
bfnfghfit, push it over here! shi- 
ch'j' nibfnighffl, push it to me! 

The ni- prefix can also be omit- 
ted on no. 2, with the resultant 
meaning of "to arrive pushing 
it." Thus, shaa binfghffi, push it 
to me! 

3. to be pushing it along. 
Prog, beesh-htf (bit, yfyoo, bijoo, 
bii, booh) (brdoogit) 

4. to doze; to nearly sleep. 

F. *a-dfneesh-ghit (dinfil, dfnool, 
zhdfnool, dfnfil, dfnoo*) I. f a- 

nish-ghifl (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, 
not) P. a-neesh-ghil (nfiml 
nool, zhnool, niil, noot) R. 'a- 




ndnish-ghi* (ndnil, ndnil, nazh* 

nil, ndniil, nanot) O. a-nosh- 

ghitt (nool, nol, zhnol, nool, 


ghis, ghees, ghiz, ghis, ghis, to 


1 . to turn around. 

F. ridees-xis (ndfi, ndoo, nfzhdoo, 
ndii, ridooh) C-l. nds-xees (na- 
ni, nd, rijf, neii, ndh) P. ns6- 
ghiz (nsfnf, ndz, rijfz, nsii, hsoo) 
R, ni-nds-xrs (ndni, nd, ndji, neii, 
nah) O. ndoos-xis (ndoo, ndoo, 
njo, ndoo, ndooh) 

2. to be turning around. 
Prog, ndds-xis (ndd, ndd, rijoo, 
neii, ndh) 

3. to dodge (a missile, blow). 
F. didees-ghis (didiil, didool, ji- 
didool, didiil, didoot) I. dis- 
ghees (dfl, dil, jidil, diil, dot) P. 
des-ghiz (dfnfl, dees, jidees, deel, 
disoof) R. ridis-ghis (ndM, ridfl, 
nfzhdil, ndiil, hdot) O. dos- 
ghees (dool, dol, jidol, dool, doof) 

tse yee shffnitfne'go desghiz, 
*dko sisiih, I dodged when he 
threw the, stone at me, so he mis- 
sed me. 

4. to be startled; astonished. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition bi- 
k*ee, on account of it, to the 
forms in no. 3. Thus, bik'ee des- 
ghiz, I was startled by it; na'nf- 
zhoozh'idi nanindago niilts<3q "- 
t'ee', t'66 nik'ee desghiz, I saw 
you in town, and ! was astonish- 
ed (by you). 

ghjh, ghjih, gh|i\ ghih, ghjjh, to 


1. to melt (an object, as a 
piece of ice). 

F. doogh[h I. yigh(jh P. ynghti' 
R. ndgh[h O. ghogh{[h 

2. to thaw (as ice or snow on 
an area). 

F. ndhodoolgh] C-L ndhdlghfth 

P. ndhoolghff R. nindhdlgh[ 

0. ndholghi[h 

ghjjh, ghjih, ghjj', ghjh, ghjjh, to 


3. to rest. 

F, hdd-deesh-ghjh (dul, dool, 
zhdool, diil, doot) C-l. handsh- 
gh[jh (hadnil, handJ, haajfl 
haneiil, hand+) P. handdsh-ghif 
(hdfnfl, handdl, hddjool, haneiil, 
handoot) R. hanf-ndsh-ghjh 

(ndnil, ndl, ndjfl, neiil, ndt) O. 
ha-ndoosh-gh[[h (ndool, ndool, 
ndjol, ndool, ndoot) 
ghjj*, ghjjh (ghin), ghjjd, ghjjh, 
ghjjh, to be holy; supernatural. 

1. to become holy; to be sanct- 

F. dideesh-hjjt (didn, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) I. dinish- 
hijh (dinf, dii, jidii, dii, doh) P. 
dn-ghiid (dffnf, dii, jidii, dii, doo) 
R. ndfsh-hiih (ndi, ndf, nfzhdi, 
rtdii, ndoh) O. dosh-hijh (doo, 
do, jido, doo, dooh). bee di- 
deeshhjjt, I'll be sanctified by it. 

2. to be holy; to be supernat- 

N. dinish-ghin (dinf, di, jidi, dii, 



ghiH (diit), yq {d®, yqq' 

ghjjl, yq, yqq', d|ih, yqq\ to eat. 

This verb is irregular and the 
full stem is therefore given in 
the paradigms. 


F. 'a-deeshu+ (diighijt, dooghi[i, 
zhdooghftt, diidut, doohsijt) C- 
I. 'ashq Oyq, 'ayq, 'ajiyq, 'iidq, 

t i ^ \ at » / 1 r t I " I* ft t +** I » ft 

ohsq) P. n-yqq ( nni, n, ajn, 
'iidqq, *ooyqq') R. naash-d((h 

na i, na a, n ji, na 11, na oh) O. 

oshqq ( ooyqq , oyqq , ajoyqq 
'oodqq*, 'oohsqq') 

too* bit 'iiyqq', I had fish to eat 
(also ambiguously, I ate with a 

2. to eat it, 

F f deeshu* (dngh[[t, yidooghu*, 
jidoogh[[t (diidjit, doohsut) (bi- 
di*doodi[+) C-L yishq (niyq, yi- 
YQ, JiyQ, yiidq, ghohsq) (bi'didq) 
P. yi-yqq' (yfni, yiyfi, jii, yiidqq*, 
ghooyqq') (bi'doodqq*) R. nash- 
dfihfnani, nef, njf, neii, nah) (na- 
brdidifh) O. ghosh^q* (ghoo- 
yqq\ yoyqq', joyqq , ghoodqq\ 
ghoohsqq') (br'dodqq') 
ghodah, up above. nVee* gho- 
dahdi dah si+tsooz, your shirt is 
up above. 

ghodahgo, up (high), k'os gho- 
dahgo deflzhood, clouds ore sail- 
ing along up (in the sky). 

ghrf, gheed (gho*), ghod, gho' 
gheed, singular stem of to run. 
cheef, cheeh, chgq\ cheeh, cheet 

dual stem of to run. 


jah, jeeh, jee\ job* jeeh, plural, 
stem of to run. 

This verb is highly irregular, 
not only because three distinct 
stems are used, corresponding to 
singular, dual and plural num- 
ber, but also because in the dual 
a distinct set of prefixes is used. 

The singular is indicated by the 
numeral I, the dual by 2, and 
the plural by 3. 

1 . to run up out; to stort to run 
(as in o roce). 

F. 1. ha-deesh-ghot (diN, dooi, 
zhdool) 2. hahi-dT'nfil-cheet 
(df'n&rf, df'nool, zhdinool) 3. 
ha-dii-jah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 
I. 1, haash-gheed (hanil, haal, 
hajil) 2. hahi-'niilcheSh {'not, 
nil, zh'nil) 3, haii-jeeh (haoh, 
haa, haji) P. 1. haash-ghod 
(hai'nfl, haal, hajool) 2. hahi- 
'niil-chqq' ('noot, 'neel, zh'neel) 
3. haii-jee* (haoo, had, hojit) U. 

1. haash-gho' (hanil, haal, hajil) 

2. hahi-'niil-che^h ('not, 'nil, zh- 
'nil) 3. haii-jah (haah, haa, ha- 
ji) R. 1. ha-nash-gho' (nanil, 
nal, njil) 2. hanahi-'niil-cheeh 
('not, 'nil, zh'nil) 3, haneii-jah 
(hanah, nana, hanjf) O. 1. ha- 
oosh-gheed (661, ool, jol) 2. ha- 
hl-'nool-cheeh Cnoof, *nol, zh- 
'nol) 3. ha-oo-jeeh (ooh, oo, jo) 

2. to run out (horizontally, os 
from a house). 

F. 1. ch'i-deesh-ghot (dffl, dooi, 
zhdool) 2. ch'fhi-drnfil-chee* 
(dfnoot, dPnool, zhdPnool) 3. 



xh'i-dii-jah (dooh, doo, zhdoo) 
I. 1. ch'fnish-gheed (cHTinil, 
ch'el, ch'ijil) 2. erTihi-'niil- 
cheeh (not, nil, zh nil) 3. ch'i- 
nii-jeeh (ch'ioh, ch'e, ch'fjO P. 
1. ch'imsh-ghod (ch'iinil, ch'el, 
ch'fjil) 2. dVihi-'niil-chq^' fnoot 
'neel, zh'neel) 3, ch'f-nii-jee* 
(noo, ni, zhnf) U. 1. ch'eesh- 
gho' (ch'infl, ch'el, ch'ijil) 2. 
ch'ihi-'niil-cheeh ('not, 'nil, zh- 
'nil) 3. ch'fi-jah (ch'ioh, ch'e, 
ch'ijf) R. 1. ch'i-nash-gho* (na- 
nil, nal, njil) 2. ch'fnahi-'niil- 
cheeh ('not, 'nil, zh'nil) 3. ch'i- 
neii-jah (nah, na, njf) O. 1. 
ch'oosh-gheed (ch'661, ch'ool. 
ch'ijol) 2. ch'ihi-'nool-cheeJ 
fnoot, 'nol, zh'nol) 3. ch'oo- 
jeeh (ch'ooh, choo, ch'ijo) 

3. to pass him or it (running). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding the postposition 
biighah for a moving object, or 
biighahgoo for a stationary ob- 
ject. Thus, biighah ch'fnishghod, 
I passed him (he also is running); 
biighahgoo ch'fnfshghod, I pas- 
sed it (a stationary object). 

4. to start running along. 

F, 1. dideesh-ghat (didiil, didool, 
jididool) 2. 'ahi-df'niil-cheet 
(di'noot, dPnool, zhdPnool) 3. 
didii-jah (didooh, didoo, jididoo) 
L 1. dish-gheed (dfl, dil, jidil) 2. 
'ahi-dfnfil-cheeh (df'not, df'nfl. 
zhdPnfl) 3. dii-jeeh (doh, dii, ji- 
dii) S-P. 1. desh-ghod (dinfl, 
dees, jidees) 2- 'ahidf-'neel- 


chqq f noot, 'neel, zh'neel) 3. 
dee-jee* (dishoo, deezh, jideezh) 
P* 1. diish-ghod (dinil, diil, jidiil) 
2. ahi-drniil-chqq' (di'noot, di'- 
niil, zhdrmil) 3. dii-jee* (doo, 
dii, jidii) 

U.* (dfl, dil, jidil) 2. 
'ahi-df'nfil-cheeh (dfnot, di'nil, 
zhdi'niil) 3. dii-jah (dooh, dii, ji- 
dii) R. 1. ndish-gho' (ndfl, ndil, 
nizhdil) 2, nahi-df'ni'il-cheeh 
(di'noof, di'niit, zhdi'niil) 3. ndii- 
jah (ndooh, ndii, nizhdii) O. 

1. dosh-gheed (dool, dol, jidol) 

2. 'ahi-df'nool-cheet (df'noor, di- 
*nool, zhdPnool) 3. doo-jeeh 
(dooh, do, jido) 

5. to beat him (in a race). 
This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding baa (yaa in 3o.) to 
the forms in no. 4, using the per- 
fective P., not the S-P. 

6* to start off running. 

F. 1. dah dideesh-ghot (didiil, di- 
dool, shdidool) 2. dah 'ahi-dP- 
niil-cheel (dPnoof, dPnool, zhdP- 
nool) 3. dah didii-jah (didooh, 
didoo, jididoo) I. 1. dah diish- 
gheed (diil, diil, shdiil) 2. dah 
'ahidi-'niil,-cheeh ('noot, 'mil, 
zh'nfil) 3. dah dii-jeeh (dooh, 
dii, shdii) P. 1. dah diish-ghod 
(dinil, diil, shdiil) 2- dah *ahi- 
dfnfil-chqq' (dPnoot, dPnfil, zh- 
dPnfil) 3. dii-jee' (doo, dii, sh- 
dii) R. 1. dah ndiish-gho* (ndii!, 
ndiil, nizhdiil) 2. dah nahi-dP- 
nfil-cheeh (dPnoor, dPnfil, zhdP- 
nfil) 3. dah dii-jah (dooh, dii, sh- 



• - - - ■ - i 

dii) O. 1* dah doosh-gheed 
(dool; dool, shdool) 2. dah 'ahi 
di'nool-cheei (dTnoot, di'nool, 
zhdPnool) 3. dah doo-jeeh 

(dooh, doo, shdo) 

7. to jump on it; to attack it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bik'iji', upon ft, to 
the forms in no. 6. Thus, bik'ijf 
dah dideeshghot, I'll attack him. 
gah baa ninishna* doo bik'iji' 
dah diishghod, I sneaked up on 
the rabbit and jumped on him. 

8. to be running along. 

Prog. 1. yish-ghof (yil, yil, jool) 
2. 'ahi-niil-cheef (noot, nool, zh- 
nool) 3. yii-jah (ghoh, yi, joo) 

9. to arrive running; to run to 
(a place). 

F. 1. deesh-ghot (diil, dool, ji- 
dool) 2. 'ahi-diniil-cheel (di- 
nooi, dinool, zhdfnool) 3. dii- 
jah (dooh, doo, jidoo) I. 1. nish- 
gheed (nil, yil, jfl) 2. 'ahi-niil- 
cheeh (not, neel, zhneel) 3. nii- 
jeeh (noh, yi, ji) P. 1. nish-ghod 
(yfnil, yil, jfl) 2. 'ahi-niil-chqq' 
(nool, neel, zhneel) 3. nii-jee' 
(noo, nf, jinf) R. 1. nash-gho* 
(nanfl, nal, njil) 2. na*ahi-niil- 
cheeh (not, nil, zhnil) 3. neii- 
jah (nah, na, nji) O. 1. ghoosh- 
gheed (ghool, ghol, jol) 2, 'ahi- 
nool-cheeh (noot, nol, zhnol) 3. 
ghoo-jeeh (ghooh, gho, jo) 

10. to run out of sight; to run 
into an enclosure (wifh propoun- 
ded yah, into an enclosure); to 


run away ,run and get lost (with 
pre pounded yob 1 , away). 

F. 1. 'a-deesh-ghof (diil, dool, zh- 
dool) 2. 'ahi-dfniil-cheet (dF- 
nool, dfnool, zhdi'nool) 3. dii- 
jah (dooh, doo, jidoo) I. 1. 'iish- 
gheed ('anil, 'Ml, 'ajil) 2. ahi- 
'niil-cheeh fnol, 'nil, zh'nil) 3. 
'ii-jeeh Cooh, Mi, *aji) P. 1. 

eesh-ghod fiiml, 'eel, ajool) 2. 
'ahi-'niil-chqq' fnool, nool, zh- 

nooi) 3. ii-jee ( oo, n, ajn) 
U. 1. 'iish-gho' ('anil, 'Ml, 'ajil) 
2. 'ahi-'niil-cheeh ('not, 'nil, zh- 
'nil) 3. 'ii-jah Coon, Mi, 'aji) R. 

1. 'a-nash-gho' (nantl, nal, njil) 

2. 'anahi-'niil-cheeh ('not, 'nil, 
zh'nil) 3. 'a-neii-jah (nah, na, 
njf) O. 1. 'oosh-gheed Cool, 'ool, 
'ajol) 2. 'ahi-'nool-cheet ('nod, 
'nool, zh'nool) 3. 'oo-jeeh Cooh, 
'oo, 'ajo) 

11. to help him. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition 
-ka, for, after (with pronoun pre- 
fix corresponding to the pronoun 
object of the verb) to the forms 
of no. 10. The iterative forms (i. 
e. those given under R.) are used 
for a continuative imperfective 
or present tense meaning. Thus 
bika 'adeeshghot, I'll help him 
(lit. I'll run after him); bika 'a- 
nashgho\ I'm helping him. bika 
becomes yika in 3o. 

To be helped, or to have help, is 
rendered by use of the 3». per- 
son. Thus, F. bika Tdoolghot C- 



I. bika 'and'algho' P. bikd *o- 
'oolghod O. bikd 'o'dlgheed. 

12. to get stuck in the mud (a 
car, wagon, etc.). 

nahodits'g', a soggy area, is 
prepounded to the verb forms 
that follow. Thus, chidi nahodi- 
ts'g' 'adidinoolghot, the car will 
get stuck in the mud. 
F. 'adidi'noolghat I. 'adinilgheed 
P. 'adinoolghod R. 'aridinilgho* 

0. 'adindlgheed 

13. to get stuck in sand or in 
snow (a car or wagon). 

sei, sand, or yas, snow are pre- 
pounded to the following verbs. 
Thus, chidi sef yiih dinoolghod, 
the car got stuck in the sand. 
F. yiih didinoolghot I. yiih dinil- 
gheed P. yiih dinoolghod R. yiih 
ndinilgho' O. yiih dinolgheed 

14. to be a fast runner, 

N* dinish-gho' (dinil, dil, jidil, 
diniil, dinot) 

15. to run back; return (run- 

F, 1, rideesh-ghot (ndiil, Moo\, 
nizhdoo!) 2. ndM-di'mil-chee* 
(df'noot, df'nool, zhdf'nool) 3 
ndii-jah (ndooh, ndoo, nizhdoo) 

1. 1. ndsh-gheed (ndnfl, ndl, njil) 
2 ndhi-'niil-cheeh ('not, 'nil, zh- 
*nil) 3. neii-jeeh (ndh, nd, rijf) 
P. 1. nanish-ghod (nefnfl, ndl, n- 
jil) 2. ndhi-ni'niil-chqq' (ni'- 
noot f ni'neel, nizh'neel) or (nd'a- 
hi-niilchQq 1 (nd'ahinoot, nd'ahi- 
neel, na'ahizh'neel) 3. ndnii- 
)66 9 (ndnoo, nani, ndzlv 


ni) R. 1. ni-nash-gho* (ndnil, 
ndl, ndjil) 2. nindhi-'niil-ch^h 
not, 'nil, zh'nil) 3. nf-neii-jah 
(ndh, nd, naji) O. 1. nd-oosh- 
gheed (661, ool, jol) 2. nahi- 
'nool, 'noot, zh'nool) 3. nd-oo- 
jeeh (ooh, oo, jo) 

16. to be running along back. 
Prog. 1. nddsh-ghot (nddl, nddl, 
njool) 2. ndhi-'niil-cheet ('noot, 
'nool, zh'nool) 3. neii-jah (ndh, 
ndd, njoo) 

17. to turn around running; to 
run to a place and turn around 
(and run back). 

F, 1, naani-deesh-ghot (dill, dool 
zhdool) 2. naandhi-drniil- 

cheet (df'noot, df'nool, zhdi'nool) 
3. naanf-dii-jah (dooh, doo, zh- 
doo) I. 1. naa-ndsh-gheed (ndnfl, 
ndl, rijN) 2. naandhi-'niil-cheeh 
'not, 'nil, zh'nil) 3. naa-neii- 
jeeh (ndh, nd, ndjf) P. 1. naa- 
nfsis-ghod (nfsfnil, nds, nijis) 2. 
naandhi-'niil-chqq' ('noot, 'nee- 
sh, zh'neesh) 3. naa-nfshii-jee' 
(nishoo, ndazh, ndjfzh) R. 1. 
naanf-ndsh-gho' (ndnfl, ndl, nd- 
jfl) 2. naanindhi-'niil-cheeh 
('not, 'nil, zh'nil) 3. naanf-neii- 
jah (ndh, nd, ndjf) O. 1. naand- 
oosh-gheed (661, ool, jol) 2. naa- 
ndhi-'nool-cheet ('noot, 'nool, 
zh'nool) 3. naand-oo-jeeh (ooh, 
oo, j6) na'nfzhoozhfdi naarV 
deeshghot, I'll run in to Gallup 
and turn around (and run back). 

1 8. to attack him. 
F. 1. *bik'H-deesh-ghot (dffl, 



dool, zhdool) 2. bik'ihi-drniil- 
cheet (di'noot, di'nool, zhdinool) 
3* bik'ii-dii-jah (dooh, doo / zh- 
doo) I. 1. bi-k'iish-gheed (k'iil, 
k'iil, k'ijiil) 2. bik'ihi-'niil-cheeh 
Cnot, 'niil, zh'niil) 3. bi-k'ii-jeeh 
(k'ioh, k'ii, k'ijii) P. 1. bi-k'iish- 
ghod (k'iinil, k'iil, k'ijiil) 2. bi- 
k*ihi-'nii!-chqq ('noot, f niil, zh- 
'niil) 3. bi-k'ii-jee' (k'ioo, k'ii, 
k'ijii) 3. bik'i-neish-gho* (neiil, 
neiil, njiil) 2. bik'inahi-'niil- 
cheeh ('noot, 'niil, zh'niil) 3. bi- 
k'i-neii-jah (naooh, neii, njii) O. 
1. bikM-oosh-gheed (661, ool, 
jool) 2. bik'ihi-'nool-cheet 
('noot, 'nool, zh'nool) 3, bik'i- 
oo-jeeh (ooh, oo, jo) 

To be attacked is rendered by 
use of the 3i. forms. Thus, F. bi- 
kViidoolghot I. bikTiilgheed 
P. bikTiilghod R. bik'ina'iilgho* 
O. bik'i'oolgheed 

19. to fight with him, them. 

This meaning is rendered by 
substitution of bit 'atk'i-, instead 
of bik'i-, in the forms of number 
18. Thus, bit 'atk'iideeshghot, I 
will fight with him; bit 'atk'i idii- 
jah, we (pi) will fight with him; 
bit 'atk'i ideeshjah, I will fight 
with them (pi). The dual forms 
are not used in this instance. 

20. to attack each other; to 
fight with each other. 

F. 2. 'atk'ii-diil-ghot (doot, dool, 
zhdool) 3. 'atk'H-dii-jah (dooh, 
doo, zhdoo) I. 2. f af-k"iil-gheed 
(k'iot k'iil, k'ijiil) 3. Vrf-k'ii- 


jeeh (k'ioh, k'ii, k'ijii) P. 2. 'at- 
k'iil-ghod (k'ioot, k'iil, k'ijiil) 3. 
'at-k'it-jee' (k'ioo, k'ii, k'ijii) R. 
2/ atk'i-neiil-gho' (naoot, naal. 
njiil) 3. *atk*i-neii-jah (naooh, 
naa, njii) O. 2, 'atk'i-ool-gheed 
(oot, ool, jool) 3. *atk*i-oo-jeeh 
(ooh, oo, joo) 

21. to move against it; to at- 
tack it; to tackle it (as an army 
moving against the enemy, a 
group of men tackling a task). 

F. yaa tiih doojah I. yaa tiih yi- 
jeeh P. yaa tiih yijee* R. yaa 
tiih najah O. yaa tiih ghojeeh 

22. to ride (on a horse or in a 
car); to go by horse or car. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t([' -it, horse with 
(one); chidf -\\ f car with (one) to 
an appropriate 3rd person verb 
form, the meaning being literal- 
ly that the horse or car runs with 
one. Thus, chidi shit yflghod, I 
went by car; \\V shityilghot, I'm 
riding along on horseback (at a 

ghonaani-, the other side. (Usu- 
ally with one of the postposition- 
al enclitics suffixed.) ghonaanf- 
jf 'atiin, there is a road on the 
other side. 

ghonaasdoo, finally, after that. 
ghonaasd66 \q 'asta' he finally 

ghone'i, gh6ne*, inside (on en- 
closure), shimd ghone'4 sid6, my 
mother is sitting inside. 



ghoniid, the area between the 
fire and the back wall of the ho- 
gan; rear part of a room. 
ghoshch'ishidi, farther this way; 
closer, ghoshch'ishfdi nininddh, 
come closer; come farther this 

ghoshde§', here; this way, gho- 
shd^' shaa nTaah, here, give it 
to me. ghoshd^'go dfnddh 
come this way (direction)! 
ghosh, ghdash (ghosh), ghaazh, 
ghosh, ghdash, to boil; bubble. 

1. to boil or bubble up. 

F. hadinoolghosh L hanilghddsh 
P. hanoolghaazh R. hddnfl- 
ghosh O. hanolghddsh 

2. to shout or yell out. 

F. ha-dideesh-ghosh (didifl, di- 
dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
ha-dish-ghddsh (di\, dil, zhdil, 
diil, dot) P. ha-deesh-ghaazh 
(dffnil, dool, zhdool, diil, doot) R. 
ha-ndish-ghosh (hdil, ndil, nfzh- 
dil, ndiil, ndot) 0. ha-dosh- 
ghddsh (dool, dol, zhdol, dool, 

3. to shout or yell* 

F. dideesh-ghosh (didnl, didool, 

jididool, didiil, didoot) C-l. dish- 

ghosh (dil, dil # jidil, diil, dot) P. 

diish-ghaazh (dinil, diil, jidiil, 

diil, dool) R. ndiish-ghosh (ndiil, 

ndiil, mzhdiil, ndiil, ridoot) 0. 

doosh-ghddsh (dool, dool, jidool, 

dool, dool) 

ghozh, to be ticklish. 

N. yish-hozh (nf, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) 

ghdyah, low. chidf naat'a'f gho- 


yahgo naat'a', the airplane is 

flying low, 

-gi 'dt'eego, like, bimd 'dt'ehi- 

gi 'dt'eego dilgho', he is a fast 

runner like his mother. 

giiimsi, fifteen cents (Sp. quince, 


ginifbdhi, western goshawk. 

ginitsoh, desert sparrow hawk. 

gis, gees, giz, gis, gees, to turn. 

L to turn it up out (a screw); 
to turn it on (a faucet). 

F. ha-dees-gis (dii, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. haas-gees (hani, 
hai, haji, haii, haah) P. hdd-giz 
(hdmi, hayii, hajii, haii, haoo) 
R. ha-nds-gis (ndnf, nef, hjf, neii, 
ndh) 0. ha-oos-gees (66, yo, jo, 
oo, ooh) 'it 'adaasgizi hani- 
gees, unscrew the screw! to ha- 
nigees, turn on the water! 

2. to screw it in. 

F* bii 'adees-gis Cadii, Midoo, *a- 
zhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) I. bit Mis- 
gees (*ani, Mi, 'aji, Mi, 'ooh) P. 
bit n-giz ( nni, ayn, ajn, ii, 
'ooh) R. bit 'a-nds-gis (ndnf, nef 
njf, neii, ndh) O. bit 'oos-gees 
Coo, *ayo, 'a jo, *oo, 'ooh) yeigo 
bit Migiz, I screwed it in tight; I 
tightened it (as a nut). 
bit becomes yit in 3o> 

3. to become crooked. 

F. didoogis I. diigees P. diigeez 
R. ndiigis O. doogees *N. digiz 
: shil[f bighe^l shit diigeez, my 
saddle slumped to one side with 



*The neuter means "it is croo- 
ked/' binaa' digiz, he is cross- 

4. to be lazy; to be crazy, 
clumsy or "dopey" (with pro- 
pounded t'66). 

N. diis-gis (dini, dii, jidii, dii, 
dooh) 'ayoo dinigis, you do not 
do (your work) well (because you 
are lazy, stupid or too young). 

5. to be slow witted; stupid. 
N. shi-tadazdfnoozgis (n\ f bi, ha 
nihi, nihi) 

gis, gis, gis (giz), gis, gis, proba- 
bly related to the preceding 

1 . to wash it (anything perme- 
able as cloth, wool, etc.). 
F. dees-gis (dff, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yiis-gis 
(yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bPdii-) 
P. se-gis (sfni, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) 
(bi'dis-) R. neis-gis (neii, nayii, 
njii, neii, naooh) (nabi'dii-) O. 
ghos-gis (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh (bi'do-) 

2. to wash it (anything imper- 
meable as glass, table, floor); to 
scrub it. 

F. taa-dees-gis (dn, idoo, zhdoo, 
dit, dooh) (bi'doo-) C-l. tanas- 
gis (taanf, taneiV taajf, taneii 
tanah) (tanabi'di-) P. taase- 
giz (taasfnf, tanefz, taajiz, taa- 
sii, taasoo) (taabi'dis-) R. tanr 
nas-gis (nanf, n6f, naji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. tan<5os-gis (tana- 
66, taayo, tadjo, tanaoo, t6na- 
ooh) (ta6bPd6-) 


3. to wash oneself. 

F. ta*ddi-dees-gis (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l, ta'd-dfs-gis 
(di, df, zhdf, dii, doh) P. ta a- 
des-giz (dini, dees, zhdees, disii, 
disoo) R. ta'a-ndfs-gis (ridf, n- 
df, nfzhdi, ridii, ndoh) O. ta a- 
dos-gis (doo, do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 
gish, geesh, gish (gizh), gish, 
geesh, to cut. 

1. to cut it; make an incision 
hi it. 

F. deesh-gish (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yiish- 
gish (yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bi'- 
dii-) P. she-gish (shim, yizh, 
jizh, shii, shoo) (bi'dish-) R. 
neish-gish (neii, nayii, njii, neii, 
naooh (nabi'dii-) O. ghcsh- 
gish (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo ghooh) 

2. to cut it in pieces; to slice it. 

F. nihideesh-gish (nihidfif, niidi- 
yoof, nizhdiyoot, nihidii!, nihi- 
doot) (nibidPyool-) I. nfhesh- 
geesh (nihtt, niyiii, njiit, nihiil, 
nihot) (nibi'diil-) P. nihel-gizh 
(nihfnit, niyiish, njiish, nihiil, ni- 
hoot) (nibi'diish-) R. nina-hash- 
gish (hit, yiit, jiit, hiil, hoi) (bi'- 
diil-) O. nihosh-geesh (nihooi, 
niiyot, nijiyot, nihool, nihoot) 

3. to cut it in two. 

F. aha-deesh-gish (dii, idoo zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. 'a- 
ha-nfsh-g^esh (ni, yi, jf, nii, noh) 
(bi'deel-) P. 'aha-ni-gizh (mi, 
yini, zhnf, nii, noo) (bi'dee!-) R. 



aha-nash-gish (ndni, ne», naji, 
neii, nah) (nabi'dil-) O. 'ahd- 
osh-geesh (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) 

4. to shear it (as a sheep). 
F. ta-dideesh-gish (didii, ididoo. 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh (bidi 1 - 
doo-) C-l. td-dish-geesh (di, idi, 
zhdi, dii, doh) (bi'di-) P. td-dii- 
gizh (dn'ni, idi'i, zhdff, dii, doo) 
(bi'doo-) R. td-ndfsh-gish (hdi, 
neidi, nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) (nabi'- 
di-) O. td-dosh-geesh (doo, ido, 
zhdo, doo, dooh) (bi'do-) 
gish, digging stick; walking 

godei, up; upward, bikooh go- 
dei yishddt, 1 am walking up a- 
long the wash. 

goh, geeh, go* (goh), goh, geeh, 
to flow; fall. 

1 . to start falling; to trip. 

F. dideesh-goh (didii, didoo, j idi- 
doo, didii, didooh) I. dish-geeh 
(di, di, jidi, dii, doh) P. de-go* 
(dfni, deez, jideez, dee, disoo) 
R. ridfsh-goh (ridi, ndi, nizhdi, rV 
dii, ndoh) O. dosh-geeh (doo, 
do, jido, doo, dooh) 

2. to be falling. 

Prog, yish-goh (yi, yi, joo, yii, 

3. to fall down. 

F. hada-deesh-goh (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. ha-daash-geeh 
(dani, daa, daji, daii daah) P. 
ha-daa-go* (deini, daa, dajff, de- 
ii, daoo) R. hada-ndsh-goh (na- 


ni, nd, nji, neii, nah) O. hada- 
oosh-geeh (66, oo, jo, oo, ooh) 

4. to make him fall down (as. 
from a cliff). 

F. hada-deesh-goh (diit, idoot„ 
zhdoot, diil, doot) I. hada-ash- 
geeh (nit, it, jit, iil, of) P. ha~ 
dddt-go', demit, day fit, da j ill, 
deiil, daoot) R. hada-ndsh-goh 
(ndnit, neit, njit, neii I, ndt) O* 
hada-oosh-geeh (66t, yoJ, jot 
ool, oot) tsekooh goyaa ha- 
dddtgo', I pushed him into the 

5. to fall into the water (with 
propounded to biih, or taah, into 
the water). 

F. deesh-goh (dii, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. yish-geeh (ni, yi, ji, yii 
ghoh) P. yi-go' (yinf, yi, jii, yii, 
ghoo) R. ndsh-goh (ndni, nd, n- 
jf, neii, nah) O. ghosh-geeh 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

6. to fall down and hit the 

F. niki-dideesh-goh (didii, didoo 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. nikf- 
diish-geeh (dii, dii, zhdii, dii, 
dooh) P. niki-degoh (dfni, deez, 
zhdeez, dee, disoo) R. nikf-ri- 
diish-goh (ndii, ndii, nizhdii, n- 
dii, Adoh) O. niki-doosh-geeh 
(doo, doo, zhdoo, doo, dooh) 

7. to knock it over (one ani- 
mate object). 

F. naa-*adeesh-goh ('aditt, 'ii- 
doot, 'azhdoot, 'adiil, *adooO I. 
naa-Mishgeeh Cani*, Mil, a J it, Mil, 
'oot) P. naa-*iit-go* Cifnft, ayiit, 



'a jiit, Mil, *oot) R. naa-anash- 
goh ('ananit, 'anetf, 'anjil, 'one* 
ill, anal) O. naa-'oosh-geeh 
root, 'ayot, 'ajot, ool, 'ooi 

8. to kneel; to genuflect. 
This verb is given with zero 

classifier, although it is possible 
to insert the l-classifier. 
JF. ntsi-dideesh-goh (didii, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. ntsi- 
dinish-geeh (dini, dee, zhdee, di- 
nil, dinoh) P. ntsi-dinf-go' (dff- 
ni, dim, zhdini, dinii, dinoo) R. 
ntsi-ndish-goh (ndf, ndf, nizhdf, 
ridii, ndoh) O. ntsi-dosh-geeh 
{doo, do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 

9. to be in a kneeling position. 
N. ntsi-dfrni'sh-go 1 (dffnfl, dees, 
zhdees, diiniil, diinot) 

The l-classifier may be omitted 
or included. 

1 0. to flow up out. 
F. hodoogoh I. haageeh P. haa- 
go' R. hanagoh O. haogeeh 

11. to start flowing along. 
F. didoogoh I. digeeh P. deezgo' 
R. ridfgoh O. dogeeh 

12. to be flowing along. 
Prog, yigoh 

13. to flow; to arrive flowing. 
F. doogoh I. yfgeeh P. nfgo* R. 
nagoh O. ghogeeh 

14. to flow as far as a point 
(ond stop). 

F. ndoogoh I. niigeeh P. ninfgo* 
R. ninagoh O. noogeeh 

1 5. to flow out of sight; flow 
into a hole or enclosure (with 


propounded yah); to flow away 
(with propounded yoo 1 ). 
F. 'adoogoh I. 'iigeeh P. 'iigo' 
R. anagoh O. 'oogeeh 

16. to overflow; run over. 

F. gho'qdoogoh C-l. gho'qq'l P. 
gho'qqgo' R. gho'qnagoh O 

17. to ram (with the head); to 
tackle (in football). 

F. azdeesh-goh fazdii, 'azdoo, 
iizhdoo, 'azdii, 'azdooh) I. *a- 
jish-geeh fadzf, 'adzi, 'iiji, 'a- 
dzii, 'adzoh) P. 'adzff-go* ('a- 
znm, adzn, ujn, adzn, a- 
dzooh) R. anjish-goh Candzf, 
'aridzf, 'aneiji, 'andzii, 'andzoh) 
O. 'ajosh-geeh Cadzoo, 'adzo, 
'iijo, 'adzoo, 'adzooh) 

18. to ram or butt him; to tac- 
kle him (in football). 

F. deesh-goh (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) I. yiish-goh (yii, yiyii, 
jii, yii, ghooh) P. se-goh (sini, 
yiz, jiz, sii, soo) R. neish-goh 
(neii, nayif, rijii, neii, ndooh) O. 
ghoosh-goh (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 

19. to bump into it; to collide 
with it. 

F. br-dideesh-goh (didn, didoo 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. bi- 
diishgeeh (dii, dii, zhdii, dii 
dooh) P. bf-de-goh (di'nf, deez 
zhdeez, dee, disoo) R. bf-nidifsh- 
goh (nidii, nidii, nizhdii, nidii, 
n i dooh) O. bf-doosh-goh (doo 
doo, zhdoo doo, dooh) 
*bi- becomes yf- in 3o. 



20, to collide (two 3rd person 
objects, os cars). 
F. 'ahfdidoogoh I. 'ahidiigeeh 
P, 'ahideezgoh R. 'ahimdiigoh 
O. 'ahidoogoh 
gohniinii, Coconino. 
gohweeh, coffee. 

gohweeh bee yibezhi, percolator, 
coffee pot. 

gohweeh hashtt'ishi, cocoa. 
golchoon, comforter; quilt. 
goiizhii (or gholixhii), skunk. 
got, geed (god), geed, go', geed, 
to dig. 

1. to dig it up out; to mine it. 
F. ha-deesh-got (dfi, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi*doo-) I. haash- 
geed (hani, hai, haji, haii, haah) 
(bi'di-) P. h6a-geed (hafni, ha-, 
yff, hajff haii, haoo) (bi'doo-) 
R» ha-nash-go* (nanf, nei, riji, 
n6ii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. ha-osh- 
g64d (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

2. to dig it bock up; to disinter 

F. ha-ndeesh-got (ndif, neidoo, 
nfzhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (nabidi*- 
doo-) I. ha-nash-geed (nam, 
nei, nji, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) P 
ha-naa-geed (nefnf, nayoo, rijoo, 
reii, naoo) (nabi'doo-) R. ha- 
nf-nash-go' (nanf, nef, naji, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. hana-osh 
geed (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

3. to dig a hole. 

F. haho-diyeesh-go+ (diyfi, diyoo 
zhdiyoo, diyii, diyooh) (diyoo-) 
C-l. ha-hash-geed (ho, hwii, hoji 
hwii, hoh) (hwii-) P. ha-h66- 


i^ ^— __ I,, i ,, in i ^— — ^ — — p— ^— ^^»^— 

geed (hwnni, hwiiz, hojii, hwii, 
hooh) (hwiis-) R. hana-hash-go' 
(ho, hwii, hoji, hwii, hoh) (hwii-) 
O. ha-hosh-geed (hoo, hwiyo, ho- 
jo, hoo, hooh) (hwiyo-) 

4. to drain off water. 

F. dideesh-got (didii, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) (didoo-) I. 
dish-geed (df, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) 
(di-) P. dee-geed (diini, yidee, 
jidee, dee, disoo) (dees-) R. ri- 
dfsh-go' (ndf, neidi, nfzhdi, ndii, 
ndoh) (ndf-) O. dosh-geed (doo, 
yido, jido, doo, dooh) (do-) shi- 
keyah bikaa'doo to dideeshgoJ, 
I'll drain the water off of my 
land (by digging a ditch). 

5. to be digging along on it; 
to be spading it along; to be 
bucking along (a horse). 

Prog, yish-gof (yi, yoo, joo, yii ; 
ghooh) (bi'doo-) 

6. to be digging (intr.) 

Prog, 'eesh-goi fii, 1 oo, *ajoo, *ii, 

7. to dig or spade it in a line; 
to dig a ditch. 

F. deesh-got (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, dii 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) P. nf-geed 
(yini, yinf, jinf, nii, noo, 
(bfdee-) R. nash-go' (nanf, net, 
nji, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. 
ghosh-geed (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi*do-) to nfgeed, I dug 
a ditch for the water. 

8. to stab him; stick into him 
(as a knife or thorn). 

F. *baa 'adeesh-got Cadift, *ii- 
doot, 'adiil, 'adoot) (Ydool-) I. 



baa "iish-geed ('anil, fit, ajil, 
-HI, oot) (V el-) P. baa 'nt-geed 
Ciinft, 'ayiit, 'ajift, Mil, *oot) Co- 
'ol-) R. baa 'anash-go' Cananft, 
'aneit, 'an jit, 'aneiil, 'anal) ('a- 
na'al-) O. baa bosh-geed Coot, 
ayot, 'ajot, bol, 'oot) Cool-) 

bibeezh shaa ayntgeed, he ran 
his knife into me. 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

9. to cover it (with dirt). 
F. *bik'ii-deesh-got (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (bik'ihwiidoo-) 
I. bi-k'iish-geed (k'ii, k'iyii, k'ijii, 
k*ii, k'ioh) (k'ihoo-) P. bi-k'ii- 
geed (k'iini, k'iyii, k'ijii, k'ii, k'i- 
oo) (k'ihoo-) R. bik'i-neish-go' 
(neii, nayii, njii, neii, naooh) (na- 
hoo-) O. bik'i-oosh-geed (66 
yoo, joo, oo, ooh) (hoo~) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

10. to hoe (intr.). 
F. naho-deesh-got (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. na-hash- 
god (ho, ha, hojf, hwii, hoh) P. 
na-hoo-geed (hwnni, hoo, hojif 
hwii, hoo) R. nina-hash-go' (ho, 
ha, hoji, hwii, hoh) O. na-hosh- 
geed (hoo, ho, hojo, hoo, hooh) 

11. to start bucking (a horse), 
F. didoolgot I. dilgeed P. dees- 
geed R. hdflgo' O. dolgeed 

12. to buck around (horse). 
F. ndoolgot C-l. naalgeed P 
nasgeed R. ninalgo' O. naool- 
geed tip shit naalgeed, the 
horse is bucking with me. 

13. to stick it out (os one's 


F. ha-deesh-got <diit, idoot, zh- 
doot, dii I, doot) I. haosh-geed 
(hanit, hail, hajit, haiil, haat) 
P. haat-geed (hainit, hayiit, ha- 
jfit, haiil, hadot) R. ha-ndsh-go' 
(nanr't, neii, nfjft, neiii, nat) O. 
ha-osh-geed (66t, yot, jot, ool, 
oot) sitsoo' haatgeed, I stuck 
out my tongue. 

gonaa, across, da'ak'eh 'atniT 
gonaa to nilf, water is flowing a- 
cross the middle of the field. 
gone', inside (gh enclosure), kin 
gone' hozhoni, it is nice inside 
the house. 

-goo, to; along the extension of. 
naalghehe ba hooghangoo deya 
I'm going to the store, tabqqh- 
goo, along the shore. 
ghoolk'qqh, tinder box 
ghoozhch'jid, March. 
gosh, gozh, gozh, gosh, gosh, to 
turn intestines inside out. 

1. to make sausage. 
F. hdeesh-gpsh (hdiit, neidoot, 
nfzhdooJ, ridiil, hdoot) C-l. 
nash-gpzh (nanit, neft, njit, neiil, 
nat) P. nfset-gpzh (nfsfnit, nefsh 
njfsh, nishiil, nfshoot) R, nf- 
nash-gpsh (nanit, neft, najft, ne- 
iil, nat) O. naosh-gpsh (naoot, 
nayot, nijot, naool, naoot) 


Many of the h-initial stems are 
actually gh-initial, but change 
gh to h after t. Thus, many of 
these same stems will also be 
found under gh. It should be 
kept in mind that the t-classifier 



becomes I in the 1 st person duo- 
plural, and in the passive, and 
that h then becomes gh. 
ha a, what? how? dineshq' haa 
gholghe, what is "man" called? 
haadi, where? haadishq* nik6- 
yah, where is your land? haadi- 
shq' n'dizhchi, where were you 

haah, here! (as in asking one to 
hand something here) 
hdahgooshff, diligently; hard. 
haahg66sh{[ nishfehnish, I work 
ed diligently. 

haohideeneez, tapering to c 

haa'i, where. haa*i(shq') nifni'q 
where did you leave it? 
haa'ishq', let me. haa'fshq* 
nish'i, let me see it. It is used 
like colloquial "let's see," as 
when one expresses his desire to 
examine something held by an- 
other person. 

haa'i yee*, let's see now — . 
hdajida, (to) somewhere, haaji- 
da Y\\ shit dooldlosh, I'll go some 
where on horseback. 
haajishff, somewhere. haapsh[( 
ifya, he went somewhere. 
hdaji'shfj, (as far as) somewhere, 
dn to haaji*shii ndoogoh, this 
water will flow somewhere. 
haak'oh, Acoma, N. M. 
hodld, because; for. doo ndeesh- 
daat da, haa la doo shit ya'ahoo- 
t'eeh da, I won't go back, for I 
don't like the place. 
hoo neeltV, how many? howlojfrt, f iil, *oot) R. na'ash-r 


much (in number)? haa neeltV 
go ninizin, how much do you 
want (as sacks of grain)? 
haaz'di, ladder. 

hqqt, han, hon, hqqh, han, to 
throw one object. 

1. to throw it up in the air. 
F. yei-deesh-hqqt (dnt, diyoot, 
zhdiyoat, diil, doot) (yaabi'di- 
yoolghqqi) I. yad-hiish-han (hiit 
yiyiit, jiit, hiil, hoot) (bi'diil-) P. 
yaa-hiit-han (hiinit, yiyiit, jiit, 
hiil, hoot) (bi'diil-) R. yana- 
hiish-hqqh (hiit, yiyiit, jiit, hiil, 
hoaO (bi f diil-) O. yaa-hoosh- 
han (hoot, yivot, jty6t, hool, hoot) 

2. to throw it; to slam it (o 
door); to throw it oway (with pro- 
pounded ydd\ oway). 
F. "ahideesh-hqqt fahidiit, Midi- 
yoot, 'ahizhdiyoot, 'ahidiil, *ahi- 
doot) fabidi'yool-) I. 'ahish- 
han fahit, 'ayiit, 'ajiit, 'ahiil, 'a- 
hot) fabi'diil-) P. 'ahiit-han 
fahiinft, iiynt, 'ajiyfft, 'ahiil, 'a- 
hoot) fabidi'yool-) R. 'ana- 
hash-hqqh (hit, yiit, jiit, hiil, hat) 
(bi'diil-) O. ahosh-han fahoot, 
'iiyot, *ajiyot, 'ahool, *ahoot) fa- 

hgql, hqq, hqq\ hqqh, hqq\ to 

F. 'idf'neesh-hqqt fidPnirl, 
noot, 'izhdfnoot, idf'nfil, 
noot) C-l. ash-hqq' fit, 'a 
jit/iil, ot) P. t ift.hqq t f f«n:t 


(nd'fi, no at, rVjtt, nd'iil, nd'60 
O. osh-hqq ('dot, 'of, ajot, *ool, 

hadah, down; downward, hadah 
'ahifihan, I threw it down. 
hadahiil|, waterfall. 
hadahoneeydnigii, mirage. 
hadahonighe*, banded calcar- 
eous aragonite. 

hddqq', when (in the past)? hd- 
dqq la noo'ddzh, when did you 
two come? 

hddqqshq', how long ago? when? 
hddqqshq' kwii ymfyd, how long 
ago did you come here. 
ha do, heat. 
hdgo, come here! 
hagosh|j, all right; OK. 
hah, hddh, hoi, hah, hddh, to be 

1. to start to become winter. 
F. ch'idoohah I. ch'ehddh P. 
ch eehai R* ch'fndhah O. ch'do- 

Also the inchoatives: F. *idf*- 
noohah P. *i*niihai. 

2. to be passing (a winter or a 

Prog, yihah 

3. to become winter; to pass (a 
winter or year). 

F. doohah I. yihddh P. yfhai R. 
nahah O. ghohddh 

4. to become winter (back). 

F. ridoohah I. ndhddh P. ndd- 
hai R. nf nahah O. ndoohddh 

5. to spend the winter; to pass 
the year. 

F. shi-doohah (ni, bi, ho, nlhl, ni- 


hi) C-l. shee-haah (nee, bee, 
hwee, nihee, nihee) P. shee-hai 
(nee, bde, hwee, nihee, nihee) 
R. nd-shee-hah (nee, bee, hwee, 
nihee, nihee) O. she-ohddh (ne, 
be, hwe, nihe, nihe) 

6. to be (years) old. 
F. shee-doohah (nee, bee, hwee, 
nihee, nihee) I. shi-ndhddh (ni, 
bi,ho, nihi, nihi) P. shi-nddhai 
(ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi) O. she-o- 
hddh (ne, be, hwe, nihe, nihe) 
naadiin shinddhai, I am twenty 
years old. dikwushq' ninddhai, 
how old are you? 
hah, quickly; rapidly. *aydo hah 
naaghd, he walks rapidly. 
hdhaashchiT, sharp pointed. 
hahi, quickly. hahf ntfnfdzd, 
you returned quickly. 
hahgoshq', when (in the future)? 
hahgoshq 1 shaa difnddt, when 
will you come (to see) me? 
hahod'd, noise. 
ha'a'aah, east. 

ha'a'aohd£e*go, from the east. 
haVahji, easterly. 
ha'a'aahjigo, on the east side. 
ha'a'aahjigo, eastward. 
ha'aftsedii, walnut. 
ha'asidi, watchman. 
ha'dt'eegi, where? (specific lo- 
cation) haat^egishq' nfinfq. 
where did you leave it? (ha*dt'£e- 
gi is practically synonymous 
with hdadi). 

ha'dViegi da, wheresoever. 
ha'dt'eego, how; why. ha'dt'£e- 
go shj[ nihik6yah bikda'gi ch'il 



hdahodoodleet, I don't see how 
there will be grass on our land 
again, ha'at'eego sh[{ ch'il *a- 
din, I don't know why there is no 
g rass, 

ha'at'eegoshq', why? ha'at'ee- 
goshq* nanfldzid, why are you a- 

ha at'iisha/* what (is it)? ha'a- 
t'fishq' ninizin, what do you 

ha'dt'iishq* biniighe, why? what 
for? ha'at'ffshq' biniighe 'ani- 
t'f, why did you do it? 
ha'at'iishji, something. ha'a- 
t'nshii yiyiiyqq', he ate some- 

ha'naa, across, halgai ha'nac 
hcottiit, the rain is moving a- 
cross the plain. 

hai bi-, whose? difshq* hai b\\[[ , 
whose horse is this? 
haidssh, which? haidfsh ninizin, 
which do you want? 
hdidishq', (ib. haidfsh), which? 
hdishq/, who? hafshq' *anit'[, 
who are you? 

haait'do (= haait'eego), how? 
haait'ao sido, how hot is it? 
haait'eegoshq' (or hait'eegoshq/) 
how? why? hait'eegoshq' *aT[ 
how is it done? hait'eegoshq* 
doo shichT yanitti' da, why do 
you not talk to me? 
hak'ax, coldness; chill. 
halchiitah, Painted Desert. 
halgai, prairie; plain. 
haf. haa*, haal, hal, haat, to club 
1 . to beat it (as a drum); to 


shell it (corn, clubbing the ears). 
F. deesh-hat (dirt, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yish- 
haat (nil, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi*- 
dil-) P. yit-haal (yinit, yiyfi+ / jiit, 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. nash- 
hai (nanit, neii, rijit, neiil, nat) 
(nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-haat (ghoot, 
yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
'asaa' yishhaat, I'm beating the 

2. ro shell (corn) (intr.). 
'a-deesh-hat (difi, doot, zhdoat, 
diil, door) C-l- 'ash-haat ('ft, at, 
ajit, 'iil, 'ot) P. 'iit-haal Omit, 
'lit, 'ajift, Mil, *oot) R. na ash- 
hat (na'it, nd'at", rVjit, na'iil, na'- 
61) O. '6sh-haa+ ( 06*, '6t, 'ajot, 
'ool, 'oot) 

3. to strike him a blow with a 

F. ndideesh-hat (hdidiit, neidi- 
doot, nfzhdidoot, rididiil, hdi- 
doot) (nabidi'dool-) I. ndiish- 
haat (ridiit, neidiit, nizhdiit, ridiil 
hdoot) (nabi'diil-) P. ndift-haal 
(ridifnft, neidiit, nizhdiit, ndiil, 
hdoot) (nabPdool-) R. ni-na- 
diish-hat (nadiit, neidiit, nazh- 
diit, nadiil, nadoof) (nabi'dii!-) 
0. hdoosh-haat (ridoot, n&doot* 
nizhdoat, ndool, ndoot) (nabi*- 

4 4 to beat him with a club. 

C-l, nanfsh-hat (nanit, neinit, 
nazhnit, naniil, nanot) (nabidi*- 

5, to bat it off into space (as a 



F. 'abfzhdeesh-hat ('abizdiit, 'a- 
yfzdoot, 'abiizhdoot, 'abizdiil, 
*abi'zdoot) I, *abijf$h-haat (abi- 
dzit, 'ayidzi't, 'abfijif, 'abidziil 

abfdzot) P. abidzfit-haal (abi- 
dzfinfnft, ayfdzfit, 'abtijiit, 'abi- 
dziil, 'abidzoot) R. 'abfnjfsh- 
ha-t Cabindzit, 'aymdzf-t, 'abinei* 
jit, 'abfndziil, *abindz6t) 0. 'obi- 
josh-haat ('abfdzoot, 'ayfdzot, 
*abfi j6+ y 'abidzool, 'abfdzoot) 

6. to wrap it (with paper, cloth 
F. *bit deesh-hat (dift, yidoot, ji- 
doot, diil, doot) fadool-) I. bit 
yiish-hat (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, 
ghoot) (Mil-) P. bit set-hat (si- 
nft, yis, jis, sill, soot) ('as-) R. 
bit neish-hat (neiit, nayiit, njiit, 
neiil, ndoot) (na'iil-) O. bit 
ghosh-hat (ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, 
ghoot) C6I-) 

*bit becomes yit in 3o. 
hatgizh, forked (as a tree); V- 

hanaadlj, Huerfano, N. M. 
hane', story; tale (bahane'). 
hanii, a particle difficult of 
translation, doo hanii kot'eego 
'anfleeh da, why don't you make 
it this way? doo hanii ni *atdo* 
nilf[' bik'i dah 'fnnt da, why 
don't you saddle your horse too? 
shf hanii t'eiya bilagaanaa bi- 
zaad shit beehozin, I'm not the 
only one who understands Eng- 

haniibqgz, full moon. 

haoh, yes. 

hasbidi, mourning dove. 


hash, hash, hash, hash, hash, to 


1 . to bite it (once). 
F. deesh-hash (dnt, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
hash (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) P. shet-hash (shfnit, 
yish, jish, shiil, shoot) (bfdish-) 
R. neish-hash (neiit, nayiit, rijiit, 
neiil, naoot) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ghosh-hash (ghoot, yot, jot, 
ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
hash, hadsh, hazh, hash, hadsh, 
to bite. 

1 . to take a bite of it. 
F. bi-dideesh-hash (didfit, didocrf 
zhdidoot, didiil, didoot) (di'dool-) 
I. bi-dish-haash (dit, dit, zhdit, 
diil, dot) Cdilr) P. bi-dfft-hazh 
(dffnit, dift, zhdift, diil, doot) 
Cdool-) R. bi-nfdish-hash (nf- 
dft, neidit, nizhdit, nidiil, nfdot) 
(nfdil-) O. bi-dosh-haash (doot 
dot, zhdat, dool, doot) Cdol-) 
hashch'eeh, gods. 
hashkeeji naat'adh, war chief 
hashk'aan, yucca fruit; fig; ba- 
nana; date. 
hnshtTish, mud. 

hashtTish tse nadleehi, cement. 
hostgqyaal, six bits; 75 cents. 
hcstiin, man; husband (bahas- 
tiin, her husband). 
hastoi, elders; menfolk, 
hastoi dahoyaanii, scientists, 
wise men; savants. 
hataafii, chanter; shaman. 
hdts'ihyaa, sneeze; "ker-choo." 
haza'aleehtsoh, wild celery. 



haxeitsoh, small squirrel. 
hazeists'dsii, chipmunk. 
hazho'ogo, carefully, hazho'6- 
go bitsahildh, separate them 

hazhoo'ogo, slowly; with care, 
hazhooogo ydatti', I talked 

haz'q, can (with the future), tse 
bee kin 'ddeeshti'itgo haz'q, I 
can make a stone house, chidf 
niinahji' ch'eeh 'adoot*[{tgo haz- 
'q, it is possible that the car can- 
not make the grade. 
heel, he, hj, gheeh, heel, to kill 
(one object). 

1. to start to kill it. 

F. bidi'neesh-heet (bidi'niit, yi- 
di'noot, bizhdi'noot, bidi'nnl, 
bidf'noot) P. bi'niit-hi (bin* nit, 
yfniit, bizh'niil, bi'niil, bi'noot) 

2. to kill him, it. 

F. diyeesh-heet (diyiit, yidiyoot, 
jidiyoot, diyiil, diyoot) (bidi*- 
yooi-) 1. sis-xe (sit, yiyiit, jiit, 
siil, sot) (bi'diil-) P. set-h[ (sinft, 
yiyiis, jiis, siil, soot) (bTdfis-) O. 
sos-xeet (soot, yiyot, jiyot, sool, 
soot) (bi J diyol-) 

3. to worry. 

I. yinf shii-the (nii, bii, hwii, ni- 
hii, nihii) yinf biithe, he is wor- 
rying (his mind is killing him), 

4. to drown. 

This verb is conjugated by al- 
tering the object pronoun pre- 
fix on the verb, which is here gi- 
ven with 3rd person bi-, him. E.g. 
to biisx[, he drowned (lit, water 


killed him). The inchoative per- 
fective (it has started to kill him) 
translates the English present. 
F. to bidiyootheet (Inchoative) 
P. to bi'niith| P, to biisx[ R. to 
nabiilgheeh O. to biyoHaeet 

k'asdqq' to nabiilgheeh, he of- 
ten nearly drowns. 

5. to be starving to death; to> 
be very hungry (one person). 

This meaning is rendered by 
substituting the word dichin r 
hunger, for to, in no. 4. Thus, 
dichin shi'niithf, I am starving; I 
am very hungry. 

6* to be pining away; to be 
dying of melancholy. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ch'ifnan, melan- 
choly, to the verb forms of no. 4. 
Thus, ch'nnau bi*niithi, he is 
pining away. 

7. to be full of mischief. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'adilaah, mischief 
to the verb forms in no. 4. Thus, 
'adfldah shi'niith[, I am full of 

8. to be killed by lightning. 
*ii'ni', lightening is propound- 
ed to the forms given under no. 
4. Thus, Mi'ni* biisxf, he was kill- 
ed by lightning. 

9. to die of old age. 

sq, old age, is propounded to 
the verbs given under no. 4. sq 
biisxf, he died of old age. 
heel, pack; burden (bigh£6l). 
heeneez, tapering; heart shaped 



heets'66z, tapering; conical. 
hfsh, hff sh, hff xh, hfsh, hff sh # 

a stem having to do with the slow 
{movement of liquid (as the slow 
flowing of molasses; or of water 
flowing slowly here and there). 

1. to fall (mushy matter). 

¥. ndooth§sh I. naathe|sh P. 
naa+h^zh R. ninath^sh O. na- 

2. to irrigate (lit. to cause it to 
flow meandering among them). 
F. bitah ndi'neesh-h§sh (ndPnfft, 
ndi'noot, nizhdPnoot, ndi'niil, 
ndi'n6ot) C-l. bitah na'nish- 
h££sh (na'nft, na'nit, nazh'nit, 
na'niil, na'not) P. na'net-h£§zh 
(nan f nit, na'neesh, nazh'neesh, 
na'niil, na'noot) R. ni-na'nish- 
h§sh (na*nft, na'nft, nazh'nit 
na'niil, nd'not) O. na'nosh- 
he§sh (na'noot, na'not, nazh'not, 
na'nool, na'noot) shinaadqq* 
bitah ndfneeshh^sh, I shall irri- 
gate my corn. 

hf s, h?§ s, hf $ z, hf s, h§§ s, to itch 
{no doubt related to h^sh). 
F. dooh^s C-l. yih^s, P. yfh§§z 
R. nah^s O. ghoh^es 
hit, heet, heel, hit, heet, to quiet. 
1. to become quiet; to quiet 
down; to be calm. 

The parenthetic forms refer to 
Impersonal "it." 

F. dideesh-hit (didfit, didoot, jidi- 
doot, didiil, didoot) (hodidoo- 
ghit) I. diish-heet (diit, diit, ji- 
diit, diil, doot) (hodiigheet) P. 
diit-heel (dfnft, diit, jidiit, diil, 


doot) (hodiigheel) R. ndiish- 
hit (ndiit, ndiit, nizhdiit, ndiil, 
ridot) (ndhodiighit) O. doosh- 
heet (doot, doot, jidoot, dool, 
doot) (hodoogheet) 

2. to be quiet, still, or calm. 
N. dmish-heel (dfnit, dees, jidees 
dinfi, dmoo) (hodeezgheel) 

3. to appease him with it; to 
quiet him with it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition 
bee, with it (yee in 3o.) to the 
verb forms of no. 1 . Thus, bee- 
so naa nf'q bee didnthit biniighe, 
I gave you money so you would 
be quiet, beeso bee nidiitheel, 
I appeased (quieted) you with 

4. to get dark. 

F. chahodoothit *P. chaho'niit- 
heel P. chahootheel N. chahat- 
heet R. chanahathit O. chahot- 

*The inchoative perfective, 
rendering "it has started to get 
dark; it is getting dark." 
hinaah bijei, cell (of the body). 
his, hees, hix, his, his (hees), to 
turn, gyrate. 

1. to turn it around. 
F. nidees-xis (nfdift, neidoat, nf- 
zhdoot, nidiil, nfdoot) (nabidi'- 
dool-) I. nas-xees (nanit, neit, 
rijit, neiil, nat) (nabPdil-) P. 
niset-hiz (msinft, nefs, njfs, nf- 
siil, nisoot) (nabi'dis-) R. ni- 
nas-xis (nanft, neft, najft, neiil, 
not) (nabPdil-) O. naos-xis (n6- 



66t, nayot, njot, naool, naoot) 

2. to be turning it around* 
Prog, naas-xis (naat, nayoot, ri- 
joot, neiil, naat) 

3* to score him; frighten him. 
F. tsfbididees-xis (tsibididfft, tsf- 
ididoot, tsibidizhdoot, tsfbididiil 
tsfbididoat) (tsibidfdool-) I 

tsibidfs-xees (tsibidit, tsfidit, tsf- 
bizhdit, tsfbidiil, tsfbidot) (tsfbi 1 - 
dii-) P. tsfbidiit-hiz (tsibidiinit, 
tsfidees, tsfbizhdees, tsibideel, 
tsfbidoot) (tsfbi'dool-) R. tsibi- 
nfdfs-xis (tsibinfdft, tsineidit, tsf- 
bimzhdit, tsfbinidiil, tsfbinidot) 
(tsfbinabi'dil-) O. tsibidos-xees 
(tsfbidoot, tsfidot, tsfbizhdot, tsi- 
bidool, tsibidoot) (tsibi'dol-) 
his, pus. (blhis) 
hi, hjjh, h\\\ hi, hjT, to melt 

1. to melt it. 

F. deesh-hi (dfit, yidoot, jidoot, 
dill, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yish- 
h[(h (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bf- 
dil-) P. yit-h[f (yfntt, yiyitt, jftt, 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. nash-hj 
(nanft, neit, njit, neiil, not) (na- 
bi'dii!-) O. ghosh-hjfh (ghoot, 
yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to thaw it (back) out. 

F. ndeesh-hi (ndiit, neidoot, nf- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) 1. n6sh- 
h[[h (nam+, netf, njit, neiil, not) 
P. naat-hff (n£imt, nayiit, njift 
neiil, naoot) R. nf-nash-h| (na- 
nft, neft, najft, neiil, not) O. na- 
osh-hif (na66t, nayot, njot, na- 
ool, naoot) 


hod ah, up; high, tsidii hodah- 

go tsin yqqh dah sida, the bird is 

sitting up high in the tree. 

hodighol, bumpy; rutted (area) 

hodiina'go, after while; soon. 

hodiina'go inda shich *j ch'inf- 

ya, after a while he came out to 


hoghee*, awful; dreadful. 

hoghee*, Steamboat Canon, Ariz 

ho'dizhchjjgi, birthplace, (shi'- 


hola; holohei, I don't know. 

hoi, hood (hod), hod, ho', hood, 

to rock; limp. 

1 . to rock it back and forth. 

F. ndidf neesh-hot (ndidi'nfit, ne- 
ididinoot, ndidTniil, ndidi'noot) 
C-l. ndf'nfsh-hood (ndPnft, nei- 
dfnit, nizhdf'nft, ndf'nfil, ndV~ 
noot) P. ndi'net-hod (ndmnit, 
neidf'nees, nizhdi'nees, ndTneel, 
ndi'noot) R. ni-nadi'nish-ho* 
(nadFnit, neidi'nit, nazhdPnit, 
nadPniil, nadPnoot) O. ndP- 
nosh-hood (ndPnoot, neidPnot, 
nizhdPnot, ndfnool, ndPnoot) 

2. to limp about; to be lame 
(the C-l). 

F. ndf neesh-hot (ndPniit, n- 
di'noot, nizhdi'noot, ndPniil, n- 
dPnoot) C-l. na'nish-hod (na'nit 
na'nit, nazh'nit, na'niil, na'nat) 
P. na'net-hod (na*ninft, na'nees, 
nazh'nees, na'neel, na'noot) R. 
ni-na*nish-ho' (na'nit, na'nft, na~ 
zrVnft, na'niil, na'not) O. no'- 



nosh-hod (na'noot, no'not, nazh- 

'not, na'nool, na'noot) 

honadsii', finally; Qt last. 

honibqah, fireside. 

honishgish, fire poker. 

honooji, rugged (area). 

hoodzo, zone (marked off area). 

hooghan, home; dwelling (bi- 


hool'ddgoo, forever; always. 

hool'aagoo johonaa'ei 'adinft- 

diin dooleet, the sun will always 


hooshdddii, whip-poor-will. 

hootso, meadow. 

hosh, hddsh (hosh), haazh, hosh, 

hddsh, to boil or bubble. 

1. fro make if- boil or bubble; to 
bring it to o boil. 

F. ha-dmeesh-hosh (dinfft, idi- 
noot, zhdfnoot, dfniil, dfnoot) 
(bididi'nool-) I. ha-nish-haash 
(nil, in it, zhnit, niil, not) (bidi'- 
ril-) P. ha-nfit-haazh (nnnft, i- 
r fft, zhnii't, niil, noat) (bidi'nool-) 
R. haa-nfsh-hosh (nit, init, zhnft, 
niii, not) (bidi'nil-) O. ha-nosh- 
haash (noot, inot, zhnot, noo!, 
noot) (bidi'nol-). gohweeh ha- 
mfthaazh, I made the coffee. 

2. to spurt or gush out (as wa- 
ter from a fountain). 

F. hadadi'noottiosh I. hada'nit- 
haash C-l. hada'nithosh P. ha- 
da'neeshhnazh R. handa'nit- 
hosh O. hada'nothaash 

3. to go to sleep; to sleep. 

F. Mi-deesh-hosh (dnt, doot, zh- 
doof, diil, doot) L Mish-haash 


Ciit, Mit, 'ajiit, Mil, 'oot) C-l. ash- 
hosh ('it, 'at, ajit, Mil, ot) P. Mit- 
haazh (Minit, Mit, 'ajiit, Mil, 'oot) 
R. na'iish-hosh (na'iit, na'iit, rV- 
jiit, na'iil, na'ot) O. 'oosh-haash 
Coot, oot, 'ajoot, 'ool, 'oot) 

4. to go back to sleep. 

F. na'ii-deesh-ghosh (diil, dool, 
zhdool, diil, doot) I. na-Mish- 
ghaash (Mil, 'HI, 'jiil, Mil, oot) P. 
na-Mil-ghaazh (Minil, Mil, 'jiil, Mil 
'oot) R. nfna-Mish-hosh (Mil, Mil, 
Cjiil, Mil, 'oot) O. na'-oosh- 

ghaash Cool, 'ool, 'jool, 'ool, 'oot) 

5. to put him to sleep. 

This meaning is rendered by 
simply prefixing the pronoun ob- 
ject to the forms of no. 3. Thus, 
bi'iideeshhosh, I shall put him to 
sleep; yiMithaazh, he put him to 
sleep (3o. yi-); shiMithaazh, he 
put me to sleep. 

hosh, hozh, hozh, hosh, hozh, to 

1. to tickle him. 
F. deesh-hosh (dift, yidoot, jidoot 
diil, doot) C-l. yish-hozh (nit, 
yit, jit, yiil, ghot) P. yft-hozh (yf- 
nft, yiynt, jnt, yiil, ghoot) R. 
nash-hosh (nanft, neft, rijft, neiil, 
nat) O. ghosh-hozh (ghoor, yot, 
jot, ghool, ghoot) 
hosh, thorn; cactus (bighosh). 
hosh bineestV, cactus fruit. 
hosh niteeli, prickly pear. 
hdzho, well. hozho bikMhoo- 
geed, cover it well with dirt! 
hweeldi, Fort Sumner, N. M. 
hwudeelto', slippery (place). 



It must be kept in mind that in 
the 1st person duoplural and in 
the passive the stem becomes t'- 
initial (from the 1st person duo- 
plural d, and from the d-classi- 
fier respectively) in verbs where 
the d-classifier is inserted, so 
many of these same stems will 
be found under t'-. 
'idadii'a', branch (bidadiiV). 
'ih, to be dirty or filthy. A de- 
fective verb conjugated as foll- 
ows: t'66 shaa-*ih (naa, baa, 
haa, nihaa, nihaa) (t*66 baa 
hoo'ih, the place or area is dirty) 
'fhoo'aah, education; learning. 
'Pdilzoot, whistling sound. 
'ViVq, sunset. 

TneePqqh, measurement (the 
act of measuring). 
Tniiyqq*, infection; contamina- 
tion (lit. it has started to eat). 
'iich'ah, meatus. 
'iich'qhii, Gypsy moth; moth. 
*iidqq\ at that time; then (in the 
past). "udqq chidf *adin, at 
that time there were no cars. 
'iideetqq', deep; thick (as water, 
soap suds, etc.). 
'iigqsh, semen (biigqsh). 
*iigeh, wedding. 

'iighaan, backbone; vertebra 

'iighqqtsiighqq', spinal cord. 
'ii'alt'ood, injection. 
*iPnP # thunder. 

iPsinil, heald sticks. 


'iikadh, sand painting. 

'lino, life, be'iina', his living; 

his livelihood. 

lino bo silaii, resources (from 

which a living can be made). 

'iishch'id, womb; uterus (biish- 


*llh# a stem used with dloh, 

laughter, to render "chuckle/' 

C-l. dloh hahinish-'Uh (hahintt, 

haiiniil, hahizhnit, hahiniil, ha- 


'lli T VI), *X\\ $ i!h, %\ to look; 

to see. 

1. to look. 

F. dideesh-*[i+ (didii, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) C-l. desh- 
(or dfnish-) 'if (dfnf, deez, jideez 
dee, dfsoo) P. dee-Mf (diini, dee, 
jidee, dii, doo) U. desh-'iih (di, 
di, jidi, dii, doh) R. ndish-t'[[h 
(ndi, ndi, nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) O* 
dosh-'if (doo, do, jido, doo, 
dooh). bee 'adeest'ff bee dinish- 
'if, I am looking through a tele- 
scope. dinPJf, look! shini- 
chxooshtt'ah bee dee'[f, I look- 
ed out of the corner of my eye. 

2. to look for it, or for him. 

F. ha-dideesh-'i[t (didii, ididoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) C-l. ha- 
desh-'if (dini, ideez, zhdeez, 
dee, disoo) P. ha-dee-'ff (dfini, 
idee, zhdee, dii, doo) R. ha-n- 
dish-t'jjh (ndi, neidf, nizhdi, ndii 
ndoh) O. ha-dosh-'ff (doo, ido, 
zhdo, doo, dooh) ch'eeh hai- 
dee*[[\ he looked for it in vain. 

3. to look at it or him. 



F. dmeesh-'iit (dfnitf, yidinoot, ji- 
di'noot, dfnfil, dfnoot) (bidi'nool-) 
I. nfsh-*{ (ninit, ylnii, jinft, niil, 
not) (bidi'nfl-) P. ne<§t-'tf (ni- 
r\\\ t yineet, jineet, nfil, noot) (bi- 
di'neel-) U. nish-'jjh (nit, yi- 
ntt, jinif, niil, not) (bidi'ml-) R. 
nanish-'ilh (nanit, neinft, nazh- 
nii, naniil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) 
O. noosh-*if (noot, yinoot, jinoot, 
nool, noot) (bidi'nol-) 

4. to see it. 

Prog, yish-'[ (yfnf, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bi'doo-) 

5. to be able to see. 

Prog, 'eesh-'t ('iini, 'oo, 'ajoo, 'ii, 
'oh) doo hozhp 'eesfVft da, I. 
cannot see well. 

6. to guide him (lit. to see o 
place or an area for him). 
Prog. *ba hweesh-'i (hwiini, hoo, 
hojoo, hwii, hooh) 

* ba becomes ya in 3o. 

7. to obey him (lit. see things 
according to him, or his way). 
N,' *bik'eh honish-'i (honit, hoi, 
hoji't, honiil, honot) bik'eh ho- 
nish'j[ dooleet, I will obey him. 

The passive is bik eh hoIX he is 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

8. to look at each other. 
F. 'ahf-dimil-'iji (dfnoot, dmool, 
zhdmool) C-l. 'ahi-nfil-'f (not, 
nil zhnfl) P. 'ahi-nfel-'ff (noot, 
reel, zhneel) R. na'ahi-nfil-'iih 
(not, ml, zhnfl) 0. 'ahi-nool-T 
(noot, nool, zhnool) 

9. to see each other. 


Prog, ahii-(t)'( ('ahooh, ahoo, 

10. to become gray dawn; to 
be daylight. 

F* 'aftso hwiidool'ut I. 'altso 
hool'iih N. hooPin P. 'attso 
noosed R. 'attso nahoorjih O. 
'attso hool'ijh 

'ill, 'iih fin), % 'fjh, 'ji*, to hide 
or be invisible. 

1. to steal it. 

F. dfneesh-'iit (dfnff, yidfnoo, jidi 
noo, dfnfi, dfnooh) (bidPnoo-) I. 
nish-'[[h (nf, yini, jini, nii, noh) 
(bidi'ni-) P. ne-*{[* (nfnf, yineez, 
jineez, nee, noo) (bidi'nees-) R. 
nanfsh-'lih (nanf, neini, nazhni, 
ndnii, nanoh) (nabidi'ni-) O. 
nosh-'Jft (noo, yino, jino, noo, 
nooh) (bidi'no-) bee ne u\ I 

stole it from him. 

2. to steal; to be a thief. 

F. a-dfneesh-'ii+ (dfnff, dfnoo, 
zhdfnoo, dfnfi, dfnooh) L *a- 
nish-'iih (anf, ani, zhni, nii, 
noh) P. a-nS-u' Wnf, neez, zh- 
neez, nee, noo) R. nd'nfsh-'flh 
(na'nf, ncmf, nazh'nf, na'nii, na- 
noh) O. , a-n6sh- i H* (noo, no, 
zhno, noo, nooh) 

3. to hide it. 

F. ndidineesh-'a+ (ndidmfit 

neididfnoot, ndizhdfnoot, ndi- 
dfnfil, ndidfnoot) (nabididP 
nool-) I. ndfnfsh-'jjh (ridfnft 
neidfnft, nfzhdfnft, ridf- 

nfil, ndfnoot) (nabidPnfl-) N 
nanish-'in (nanft, neinit, nazh- 
ntf, naniil, nanot) (nabidPnil-) 



P. hdineeMi 1 (ndinfnit, neidi- 
nees, nfzhdinees, ndinee, ridi- 
noo) (ndbidi'nees-) R. ni-nadf- 
nish-'uh (nddfnit, neidfnit, nazh- 
di'nii, nadfniil, nddinoot) (ndbi- 
df nfl-) O. ridi'nosh-'jih (ndinoot 
neidinoi, nizhdmot, ndinool, n- 
dinoo+) (ndbidf'nol-) 

4. to give it to him unobserv- 
ed; to "slip" it him. 

F, baa dfneesh-'i|t (dtnift, yidi- 
noot, zhdmool, diniil, dfnoof) I. 
baa nish-'Jih (nfl, yinit, jintt, niil, 
not) P. baa ninfi-'u' (nfi'nif, yini- 
nil, jininfi, niniil, ninoot) R. baa 
namsh-'ifh (nani\, neinit, nazh- 
nit, naniil, nanot) O. baa nosh- 
* f 1+ (nooi, yinoi, jinot, nool, noot) 
naakaii todithit naabeeho yaa 
neiniPfih, the Mexican repeated 
ly "slips" whiskey to the Nava- 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

5. to find him out; to discover 
him; to catch him in the act. 

F. ha-dideesh-'jjt (didiil, ididool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) (bidi 1 - 
dool-) I. ha-dinish-'iih (dinil, i- 
deel, zhdeel, diniil, dinoot) (bi*- 
deel-) P. ha-dinish-'Jf (dinmil, 
ideel, zhdeel, diniil, dinoot) (bi*- 
deel-) R. ha-hdish-'i[h (ndfl, ne- 
idil, nizhdtl, hdiil, ndo+) (nabi*- 
dil-) O. ha-dosh-'fit (dool, idol, 
zhdol, dool, doot) (bi'dol-) 

bilfi* bee ne'if nt'§§' hashideel- 
'{[', I stole his horse but he found 
me out. bighanji* yishaatgo bi- 
leechqq'i 'atse hashideeTfr, as I 


was approaching his home his 

dog discovered me first. 

'#*, 'i, 'Ud, 'jih, *ijh, to act, do. 

1. to be nauseated by it; to 
have one's stomach turned by it. 
F. deesh-'ijt (dif, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) S-P. se-'ijd (sfnf, yiz, jiz, 
sii, soo) R. nash-*j[h (ndnf, nei, 
nji, neii, nah) O. ghosh-'jjh 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) ro- 
di+hit 'ayoo yishdlqq* nt'§§' t aa- 
doo hooyanf se'ijd, I used to 
drink a lot of whiskey, but sud- 
denly I couldn't stand it any 

2. to act upon it futilely; to 
fail at it. 

The following verb forms are 
preceded by cfVeeh, in vain. 
F. 'ddeesh- ui ('adifi, 'fidoot, a- 
zhdool, adiil, adoot) C-L ash- 
'ifanit, 'fit, ajit, 'iil, '61) P. Tit- 
'iid ('iini*, 'ayiit, ajif+, Til, '6ott 
R. 'dndsh-'jjh ('ananM', 'dnefi, Na- 
niil, 'aneiil, 'andt) O. '6osh-'[f 
C66+, 'ayot, 'ajot, *6ol, 'oot) 

3. to use it. 

F. choi-deesh-'{[+ (dfit, doot, zh- 
doot, dii I, doo+) (chobidi'dool-) 
C-l. choinish-'[ (choinit, choyoot 
choijoot, choiniil, choinoot) (cho- 
bi'dool-) P. choiset-'iid (choisi- 
nii, choyoos, chojoos, choisiil 
choisool) (chobi'doos-) R. cho- 
naosh-'jih (naoot, nayool, ni- 
joat, naool, naoof) (nabi'dool-) 
O. choosh-'ff (choaf, choyof, cho 
jot, chool, choof) (chobi'dol-) 
'ak*e*eshchiigo bee 'akVelchf 



hi chonaosh'iih teh, I use a pen- 
cil to write. 

4. to be useful; to be of use. 

F. choidoo'iit C-l. choo'i P. 
chooz'i[d R. chonaoot'tih O 
choo'if. +tl* naabeeho ya cho- 
daoo'[, horses are useful to the 

5. to be good for nothing; to 
be useless (a person or thing). 

This verb is used in the nega- 
tive sense, and is preceded by 
t'aadoo and followed by da. The 
postposition bee, with it, also 
precedes the verb. 
N. t'aadoo bee choosh-*ini da 
(chi'ini, choo, chijoo, choo, 

6. to be in excess of one; to be 
too much for one; to be beyond 
one's stamina or ability. 

This verb is used in the nega- 
tive sense, so doo precedes and 
da follows the forms. The post- 
position bee, with it, is often em- 
ployed. (The verb can be used in 
the positive sense of to be able to 
stand it.) 

F. doo bee soh-deesh-'ut da (dill, 
dool, jidool, diil, dooi) P. doo bee 
soh-desh-iid da (dfnil, dees, ji- 
dees, deel, disoot) doo soh- 
desh'ijd da, I couldn't stand it 
any longer, deesk'aaz doo bee 
sohdeesh*i[t da, I don't want to 
face the cold. 'ashdla* beeso 
doo bee sohdeesfV[R da, five dol- 
lars is beyond my means. 

7. to bark (a dog). 


F, nahodoot'iit I, ndhodiW'ilh C- 
I. nahat'in P. nahoot'jjd R* ni- 
naha+'[ih 0. nah6t'([* 

8. to imitate it. 
N. beesh-'i (binil, yeil, bijil, biil, 
boot) tsidii beesh*[, I am imi- 
tating the bird. 
'iliinii, genuine; valuable. 
'it, conifer needle; evergreen 
branch (bi'iil). 
'it dah not ahi, padlock. 
'it hozh?, joy; happiness, (shit 
hozhg, I am happy.) 
'it 'adaagizi, screw. 
'it 'adaalkaati, nail. 
if 'adaalkaati dtts iisiigii, tack. 
'it naa'aash, cousin (son of one's 
paternal aunt, or of one's mater- 
nal uncle) (shit naa'aash, my 
cousin (lit. he goes about with 

'if ndhodighdah, dizziness. 

'if nashjingo hatdal, corral 


'ina'adlo', trick; cheating; fraud 
(shina'adta*, my trick; I am 

inchxp i, property (binchxgu). 
'inda, then; and then, chizh 'a- 
hidifnitkaalgo 'mda yah 'ahidfi- 
jih, when you have chopped the 
wood, then carry it in. 

% 'iff, U 'if, % to breed (ani- 

F. da'ffdoo'it C-l. da'd'Ht P. da- 
'iPit R. nda'o'i* O. da\S # it 

k'ad dibS da'o'ift, the sheep are 
breeding now. 



'is, 'ees Viz), *eez, 'is, *ees, to step 
1 » to step down on to o surface 
(as on to the floor). 

F. niki-didees-'is (didiil, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil) I. niki-dinis-*ees 
(dinil, deel, zhdeel, diniii, dinot) 
P. niki-dinis-'eez (diinil, deel, zh- 
deel, diniii, dinoot) R. niki-ridis- 
*is (ndii, ndii, nizhdil, ndiil, Mot) 
O. niki-dos-'ees (dool, dol, zhdol 
dool, doot) 

2. to walk around quietly. 
C-l. naas-'iz (nanil, naal, njil. 
neii I, naat) 

3. to take a step; to step off 

F. ndidees-Ms (ndidiil, ndidool, 
nizhdidool, ndidiil, ndidoof) I 
ndinis-'ees (ndinil, ndeel, nizh- 
deel, ndiniil, ndinof) P. ndinis- 
'eez (ndfinil, ndeel, nizhdeel, n- 
diniil, ndinooO R. ni-nadfs-'is 
(nadil, nadil, nazhdil, nadiil, no- 
dot) O. ndos-'ees (nd66I, ndol, 
ni zhdol, ndool, ndoof) 

4. to step lightly along. 
Prog, yis-'is (yfl, yil, jool, yiil, 

5. to stand on him or it. 

N. *bik l i-dmis- , eez (dinil, dees, 
jidees, diniii, dinot) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
'ish, 'eesh, 'eezh, 'ish, 'eesh, to 
lead them (2 or more objects). 
1 . to start leading them along. 

F. dideesh-'ish (didif, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I dish- 
eesh (di, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) P. 


de-'eezh (dini, yideezh, jideezh r 
dee, dishoo) R. ndfsh-'ish (ndi r 
neidi, nizhdi, ndii, ridoh) O- 
dosh-'eesh (doo, yido, jido, doo, 

2. to start off leading them. 

F. dah dideesh-'ish (didii, yidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) I. dah diish- 
*eesh (dii, yidii, jidii, dii, dooh) 
P. dah dii-'eezh (dini, yidii, jidii, 
dii, doo) R. dah ndiish-'ish (n- 
dii, neidii, nizhdii, ndii, ndooh) 
O. dah d6sh-'eesh (doo, yido, ji- 
do, doo, dooh) 

3. to be leading them along. 
Prog, yish-'ish (yi, yoo, joo, yii, 

4. to lead them; to bring them 
(leading them). 

F. deesh-'ish (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. nish- 
'eesh (nf, yi, jf, nil, noh) (bi'dee-) 
P. nf-'eezh (yini, yinf, jini, nii, 
noo) (bi'dee-) R. nash-'ish 
(nani, nei, hji, neii, ndh) (ndbP- 
di-) O. ghosh-'eesh (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) shao 

nPeesh, lead them tome! 

5. to string them (beads). 

F. deesh-*ish (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
1 eesh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi*di-> 
P. she-'eezh (shini, yizh, jizh,, 
shii, shoo) (bi'dish-) R. nash- 
'ish (ndnf, nei, riji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. ghosh-'eesh (ghoo 
yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 
'ishishj||zh f poison tvy. 



Since the d-classifier combines 
♦with zh to give j, many of the 
jstems listed here will also be 
found under zh. 
jadd bqqh nina'niti, leggings. 
jddd Id nii, centipede. 
jaa'abani, bat. 
jaa'i, coffee pot. 
jaatt'odf, earring (bijaatt odl). 
jddi, antelope. 
jddishdl^'ii, prairie wren. 
jah, jeeh, fee' jah, jeeh, plural 
stem of to run (V. ghot) and to 
lie down (V. teet). The same 
stem is used in the following un- 
related meanings. 

1. to grease it (cor, wagon). 

¥ . deesh-jah (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yish- 
jeeh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
5-P. she-jee* (shini, yizh, jizh, 
shii, shoo) (bi'dish-) R. nash- 
jah (ndni, nef, njf, neii, ndh) (nd- 
foi'di-) O. ghdsh-jeeh (ghod, yd, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'dd-) 

2. to glue them together; to 
weld or solder them together. 

To solder, weld or glue it to it 
is rendered by substituting bf- 
<yi- in 3o.) for 'ahf- in the follow- 
ing forms. 

f\ 'ahf-dideesh-jah (didiit, idi 
doot, zhdidoot, didiil, didoat) (bi- 
di'dool-) I. ahfdiishjeeh (diil 
idiit, zhdiit, diil, doot) (bi'diil-) 
P. 'ahf-diit-jee' (dintf, idii*, zh- 
diit, diil, doot) (bi'dHI-) R. 'ahf- 


nfdiish-jah (ni'dut, n^idiit, nidiil 
nidoot) (ndbi'diil-) O. ahi- 
doosh-jeeh (doot, idoot, zhdoot 
dool, doot) (bi'dooU) 

3. to make, build, start it (fire) 
F. di-dideesh-jah (didiit, ididoot, 
zhdidoot, didiil, didoat) (didool-) 
I. di-dish-jeeh (dft, idit, zhdit, 
diil, dot) (dil-) P. di-diit-jee' 
(difnft, idiit, zhdiit, dill, doot) 
(dool-) R. dee-dish-jah (di't, idit, 
zhdit, diil, dot) (deedfO O. dU 
ddsh-jeeh (doot, iddt, zhddt 
dool, doot) (ddl-) 

4. to rekindle it; to build it 
back up (a fire). 

F, dee-dideesh-jah (didn't, idi- 

doot, zhdidoot, didiil, didoot) (di- 

dool-) I. dee-dish-jeeh (dit, idit, 

zhdit, diil, dot) (dil-) P. de6-dfft- 

jee* (di'inft, idfft, zhdiit, diil, doot) 

(dool-) R. dindd-dish-jah (dit, 

idit, zhdit, diil, dot) (dM-) O. 

dee-ddsh-jeeh (dddt, idot, zhddt, 

dool, doot) (ddl-) 

janezhi, sash garter (a band a- 

bout 2 inches wide and 2 feet in 

length used to fasten leggings). 

jq\ to have the legs drawn back 

(as when one sits with his arms 

on his knees, or lies on his side 

with his legs drawn back). 

N. 'aha-dilnish-jq , (dfmil, dees, 

zhdees, dffni'il, diindt) 

jeeh, resin; pitch; chewing gum. 

jeeh dsghdzii, rubber. 

jeeftd, soot. 

jeesda', dried pitch. 

jeeshoo', turkey buzzard. 



jei'adj|h, tuberculosis. 
jei'adjth ba hooghan, tuberculo- 
sis sanatorium. 

-ji, on the side. Ve'aahji, on 
the west side. 

-ji\ os far qs; up to. tseji' nini- 
ya, I went up to the rock. 
-jigo, in the direction; on the — 
side. 'eVaahjigo shikeyah, my 
land is on the west side. 
-jigo, toward; -ward. Ve'aahji 
go, westward; toward the west. 
jih, jaah (jaah), jaa\ jih, jaah, to 
handle plural separable objects 
of small size, as grains of sand, 
shot, pebbles, bugs, seeds, seve- 
ral strands of beads, strings, or 
larger objects as bottles, puppies 
etc. if there is a large number of 
them bundled together, as an 
armful, for example. For the 
derivational prefixes V. 'aat. 

1. to undress, 
F. ha-di'deesh-jih (di'dii, di'doo, 
dizh'doo, di'dii, di'dooh) I. ha T - 
diish-jaah (ha'dii, ha'dii, hazh'- 
dii, ha'dii, ha'dooh) P. ha'diish 
jaa' (ha'dini, ha'dii, hazh'dii, 
ha'dii, ha'dooh) R. haa'diish-jih 
(haa'dii, haa'dii, haazh'dii, haa- 
'dii, 'dooh) O, ha'doosh-jaah 
(ha'doo, ha'doo, hazh'doo, ha* 
doo, ha'dooh) 

jih, jih (ji*), jih, jih, jih, to grasp. 
1. to grab, grasp or take hold 
of it (to have ahold of it in the 
neuter (N.) form. 

F. deesh-jih (dif, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yiish-jih 


(yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bi'dii-) 
P. she-jih (shini, yizh, jizh, shii, 
shoo) (bi'dish-) R. neish-jih (ne- 
ii, nayii, rijii, neii, naooh) (nabi'- 
dii-) O. ghosh-jih (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) N. yfni's- 
ji' (yini, yo, jo, yfnfi, ymoh) (bi'- 

jif, jiid (jid), jid, ji', jiid, to han- 
dle anything by means of one's 
back. For the derivational pre- 
fixes V. y 6o\. 

1 . to be a prostitute. 
N. ash-jit CR, 'at, 'ajit, 'iil, 'of) 
jifhazhi, hackberry. 
jish, medicine pouch. 
jishchaa*, grave; graveyard. 
il day. 

jj'ani'ijhi (lit. day thief), a type 
of mouse that comes out during 
the day. 

jf'olta', day school. 
jijdqq', today (the part already 
past), j[[dqq' naashnishgo 'ffi- 
'q, today I worked until sunset. 
lift, ji|h (zhin), in , jifh, j|jh, to 
be black. 

1 . to become black. 

F. yideesh-ji[i (yidn, yidoo, jii- 
doo, yidii, yidooh) I. yiish-j[jh 
(yini, yii, jii, yii, ghooh) P. yiish- 
iiF (yini, yii, jii, yii, ghooh) R. 
neish-jffh (neini, neii, ri jii, neii, 
ndooh) O. ghoosh-jyh (ghoo 
ghoo, joo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to be dark brown. 

N. di-nish-zhin (nil, nil, zhnil, 
niil, not) 

3. to be black. 



N. finish-zhin (tini, ti, jil, tinii, 
tinoh) (3s. halzhin) 

4, to become dusk. 
F. hi+idoojiit I. hitiiji[h P. Hitii- 
ja R. nahitiijj[h O. hitoojiih 

5* to become early twilight. 
F. nV hwiidoojijt Prog* nV hoo- 
j[f{ P. nV hoojii" R. nV nahoo- 
jfih O. nV hooj[[h 

6. to move along as a speck in 
the distance. 

Prog, yish-jii* (yf, yi, joo, yii, 
ghooh) (3i. oojiR) 

Hi** iifci# iiid, jjjh, jjfd, to jump. 

1. to jump. 

F. dah dfneesh-j[[t (dmi'N, dinool, 
shdinool, dfnfil, dfnoof) I. dah 
nish-jijd (nil, nil, shnil, niil, not) 
P. dah nesh-jffd (nmil, neesh, ji- 
neesh, neel, noot) R. dah na- 
nfsh-jffh (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, not) 
0. dah nosh-jffd (nool, nol, jinol, 
nool, noot) tfoo'goo dah df- 
neesh, I'll jump out. tsin bi- 
tis dah neshjifd, I jumped over 
the stick. 

2. to jump back. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t qqji', back, to the 
forms in no. 1 . 

3. to sit on one's haunches; to 

S-P. dah shish-jifd (shinil, yish, 
jish, shiil, shoot) 
jish, jjsh, jjsh, jish, jjsh. 
1. to turn over. 

F. nahi-dideesh-jish (didii, didoc 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. nahi- 
deesh-jish (df, dee, zhdee, dee, 


dooh) P. nahi-desh-jish (dini, 
deesh, zhdeesh, dee, dishoo) R 
ninahi-deesh-jish (dee, dee, zh- 
dee, dee, dooh) O. nahi-dosh- 
jish (doo, do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 

2. to be turning over. 
Prog, na-heesh-jjsh (hif, hoo, hi- 
joo, hii, hooh) 
jjsh/ jjzh, jjzh, jjsh, jjzh, to crush 

1 . to crush it. 
F. deesh- j[sh (dfit, yidoot, jidoat, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yish- 
j[zh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi 1 - 
dil-) P. shet-j[zh (shinft, yish, 
jish, shiil, shoot) (bi'dish-) R. 
nash-jish (nanit, neft, njit, neiil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-jjzh 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoor) 

jo, you know; you see; well, jo 
rodithit biniinaa doo ya'ahoo- 
r'eeh do, you know, it is because 
Df whiskey that things aren't 
going right. 

jo 'akon; jo *akonee\ see! see 
there! (as when one's expectat- 
ions are born out) jo 'akonee' 
'ayoo nidaaz, see there, it is very 
heavy! jo 'akon 'aad£|' yigaat 
see, there he comes! 
jo nit beehozingo, well, you see - 
johonaa'ei, sun-bearer; sun; 
watch; clock. 

johonaa'ei bina'asttee*, ring o- 
round the sun. 

johonaa'ei bitt'661, sunbeam; 
watch fob. 

johonaa'ei daaztsg, eclipse of 
the sun (lit. the sun is dead). 



johonaa'ei 'ahViisiigii, watch. 
johonaa'ei > iit T ini JP watchmaker 
johonaa'ei ntsaaigii, clock. 
jol, joot (joot), jool, jo*, joot, to 

handle non-compact matter, as 
wool, tangled cord, hair, brush, 
etc. For the derivational prefix- 
es V. aat. 

1 . to cover it (with brush, or 
other similar matter). 

F. *bik'ii-deesh-jot (dfit, doot, 
zhdoot, dill, doot) (bidPdool-j 
I. bi-k'iish-joot (k*ih\ k'iyiit, k'i- 
jiif, k'iil, k'iot) (k'ibi'diil-) P. 
bi-k'iit-jool (k'iinit, k'iyiit, k'ijiit 
k'iil, k'oot) (k'ibi'diil-) R. bik'i- 
neish-jot (neiit, nayiit, njiit, neiil 
naoot) (nabi'diil-) 0. bik'i- 
oosh-joot (66t, yoot, joot, ool, oot) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

2. to fall (non-compact mat- 

F. ndoojot I. naajoot P. naajooi 
R. ninajot O. naoojoot 

3. to drop it (wool, etc.). 

F. ndeesh-jot (ndfft, neidoaf, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi'- 
dooi-) I. naash-joot (nanit, neit, 
njit, neiil, naat) (nabi'dil-) P. 
naat- jool (nefnft, nay i ft, njfft, ne- 
iil, naoot) (nabi'dool-) R. ni- 
ndsh-jot (nanit, neft, najft, neiil, 
not) (nabi'dil-) O. na-osh-joot 
(661, yot, jot, ool, oot) (bi'dol-) 

4. to mix it with it (as one wool 
with another), 

F. *bit 'attaa-ndeesh-jot (rtdfft, 


neidoot, nizhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) 
I. bit 'attaa-nash-joot (nanft, ne- 
ft, nj ft, neiil, nat) S-P. bit 'attaa- 
nfshet-jool (nfshinft, neish, njfsh, 
nfshiil, n f shoot) R. bit 'attaanf- 
nash-jot (nanit, neit, najft, neiil, 
nat) O. bit 'attaa-naosh-joot 
naoot, nayot, njot, naool, naoot) 
*bit becomes yit in 3o. 

5. to be mixed together (wool). 
F. 'attaahdooljot I. 'attaanal- 
joot P. 'attaanashjool R. at- 
taaninaljot O. 'attaanaoijoot 

6. to move in or out of sight 
(as gas, fog, cloud, etc.); to be 
moving along (the progressive). 

F. Vdoojot I. 'adijoot Prog, 'oo- 
jot P. Tffjool R. 'ana'ajot O. 
o'ojoot. k'os johonaa'ei yi- 

ch'qqh Tffjool, a cloud obscured 
the sun. 

7. to be round like a ball; to 
be "chunky." 

N. dinish-jool (dini, di, jidi, di- 
nii, dinoh) 

joogii, crested bluejay, 

joot, ball. 

J99*/ — » J99<t f99 h * J99"# to re- 
gain one's good humor; to get 
back into a good humor (V. zhg) 
This verb is conjugated for per- 
son by merely altering the pro- 
noun prefix on the postposition 
-it, with. 

F. shit nahodoojppt Prog, shit 
nahoojgpt P. shit nahooj<?<?d R. 
shit nfnahoojpph O. shit naho- 




kddt, kaoh (kd), kq, kddh, kddt, 

to handle anything in a vessel 
(as in a pail, box, basket, pan). 

The derivational prefixes that 
are added to this stem will be 
found under 'dd+. 

1 . to dip it out (as water). 

F. ha-deesh-kdd+ (dii, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I* haash-kaah 
(hani, hai, haji, haii, haoh) P. 
hdd-kq (hdini, hayfi, hajii, haii, 
haoo) R. ha-ndsh-kaah (ndni, 
nef, hji, neii, ndh) O. ha-osh- 
kaat (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) 'dsaa' 
bighfde§* to hddkq, I dipped the 
water out of the pot. 

2. to spill it, 

F. yei-deesh-kdd! (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (yabidi'doo-) I. 
yaash-kaah (yaa, yayii, yajii, 
yeii, yaah) (yabidi'dii-) P. yaa- 
!<q (yeini, yayii, yajii, yeii, yaoo) 
(yabi'dii-) R. yandash-kddh 

(yanda, yddyii, yddjii, yaneii, 
yandah) (yandbi'dii-) O. ya- 
ooshkddJ (66, yoo, joo, oo, ooh) 

kadi kaoh, kq, kddh, kddt, 
to dawn. 

1 . to dawn (a faint light in the 
east, but still dark). 

F. hayidoolkddl I. haiiikaah P, 
hayutkd R. haneilkddh O. ha- 

2. to spend the night 1 . 

F. shii-dootkdd-r (nii, bii, hwii, ni- 
hil nihii) I. shii-fkaah (nii, bii, 


hwii, nihii, nihil) P. shii-skq (nii, 
bii, hwii, nihii, nihii) R. nd-shii- 
tkddh (nii, bii, hwii, nihii, nihii) 
O. shi-yotkddh (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 

3. to become day. 
F. yidoo+kddt I. yitfkaah Prog. 
yooikdd+ P. yiskq R. neflkddh 
O. yotkddl 

kddt, kddh, kdd', kddh, kddh, to 
make a sandpainting. 
F. Mi-deesh-kda-P (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. Mish-kddh (Mini, 
Mi, *ajii, Mi, 'ooh) P. Mise-kdd' 
(Misinf, Miz, 'ajiz, Misii, Misoo) R. 
ndMish-kddh (ndMini, ndM'i, rVjii, 
ndMi, nd'ooh) O, 'oosh-kddh 
Coo, 'oo, 'ajoo, 'oo, *ooh) 
kddt, kddt kddl, kdd*, kddt, to 
set slender objects (as posts) in a 
series or in a line) 

1. to set them in a line. 

F. dineesh-kddt (dinfif, yidmoat, 
jidinoot, diniil, dinoot) (bidi'- 
nool-) Prog, neesh-kddt (nfft, yi- 
noo+, jinoar, niil, nooi) (bidf- 
noo!-) P. nit-kddl (niinit, yinit, 
jinft, niil, noar) (bidi'neel) R. 
ndnish-kdat (nan ft, neinit, ndzh- 
ntf, ndniil, ndnot) (ndbidi'nil-) 
O. dindsh-kddt (dmoor, yidfnot 
jidfnot, dinool, dmoot) (bidi'nol-) 

2. to set them in a circle. 

F. hdfneesh-kddf (ndinitt, neidi- 
noof, nizhdinooi, ridmfil, ndi- 
noof) (ndbidf'nool-) I. ndnish- 
kddl (ndnil, neinit, ndzhnfJy nd- 
niil, ndnof) (ndbidi'nil-) P. nd- 
ner-kddl (ndnfnii, neinees, ndzh- 



nees, ndniil, ndnoot) (ndbidi'- 
nees-) R. ni-ndnish-kddt (ndmt, 
neinit, ndzhni't, ndniil, ndndt) 
(ndbidi'nil-) 0. ndndsh-kddl 
(ndnoot, neinot, ndzhnot, ndnool 
ndnoot) (ndbtdi'ndl-) 
kaawa, Kiowa. 

kqal, kq, kan, kqqh, kqqh, to 

1. to beseech, beg, it of him. 
F. nei-deesh-kqqt (dn, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (ndbidi'doo-) I. 
ndosh-kq (neini, ndyoo, ndjoo, 
neii, ndoh) (nabi'doo-) P. nei- 
siskan (neisfm, ndyoos, rijoos, 
neisii, neisoo) (ndbi'doos-) R. nf- 
na-osh-kqqh (neini, ndyoo, nd- 
joo, neii, ndooh) (nabi'doo-) O. 
na-osh-kqqh (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) 
(bi'doo-) t'dadoo ydnitti'i bi- 
dishniigo neisiskan, ! begged 
him not to talk, shaa nTaah bi- 
dishniigo neisiskan, 1 begged 
him to give it to me. 

2. to offer it; advertise it. 
C-L bo'oosh-kqqh (bf'oot, yi'oot 
bf'joot, bf'iil, bf'oot) shinaa- 
dqcV taji' bo'ooshkqqh, I am ad- 
vertising (or offering) part of my 

kanaaghdii, sickly person. 

koh, kah, kah, kah, kah, to shoot 

(with an arrow). 

1. to shoot it with on arrow. 
F. deesh-kah (dift, yidoot, jidoot 

dill, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
kah (yiit, yiytit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) P. set-kah (sfnit, yis, 
lis. siil, soot) (bi*dis-) R. neish- 


Kah (neiit, ndyiit, hjiit, neiil, nd- 

oot) (ndbi'diii-) O. ghosh-kah 

(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 


kah, kddh (kai), kai, kah, kddh, 

the plural stem of to walk or go 

(V. gddt). 

1. to be crowded (lit. they are 
walking about on one another). 
F. 'atk'indookah C-l. 'atk'inaa- 
kai P. 'atk'inaaskai R. 'atk'ini- 
ndkah Q. 'atk'inaookai 

2. to get confused; to get mix- 
ed up with one another. 

This verb is altered for person 
by changing the pronoun object 
of the postposition -it, with. 
F. shit 'attaaridookah I. shit 'at- 
taandkddh P. shit 'attaandskai 
R. shit 'attaanmdkah O. shit 'at- 
taandookddh. Iq'f yee nashi- 
neeztqd' nt'ef attso shit attaa- 
ndskai, he taught me so many 
things that I got confused, dibe 
shit 'attaandskai, the sheep got 
mixed up for me (as when my 
flock merges with another). 
kah, kddh, kdd', kah, kddh, to 

1. to trail it down; catch up to 
it by trailing; apprehend or run 
down (a criminal). 
F. bideesh-kah (bfdut, yfidoot, 
bfzhdoot, bfdiil, bfdoot) (bfdool-) 
C-l. bfnish-kddh (bfnft, yfft, bfjit, 
bfniil, binot) (bet-) P. binit-kdd' 
(bunff, yiinit, bfzhnft, bfniil, bi- 
noot) (beel-) R. bindsh-kah (bf- 
ndni't, yfnei't, bt'rijft, bfneii!, bf- 



not) (binaW O, b6osh-k6ah 
(boot, yiyot, bijor, bool, boot) bo- 

2. to investigate it; find out a- 
bout it, 

F. ndeesh-kah (ndn+, neidoof, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiit, r>dooO (nab id i*- 
dool-} C-I. naash-kaah (nanit, 
neit, nfH 1 , neiil, naat) (nabi'dil-) 
P. niset-kaa* (nisfnrf, neis, njis, 
nisiil, nisoot) (nabi'dis-) R. ni- 
nash-kah (nanft, nett, najfi, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'diU) 0. naosh- 
kaah (naoo, nayo, njo, naoo, na- 
oot) (nabrd6l-> 

so* nisetkaa*, I investigated the 
stars; studied the stars, 

3. to convict him. 
F 4 beedeesh-kah (beednt, yeeyi- 
doal, beezhdooi, beediil, bee- 
doot) (beedooi-) I. beenish- 
koah (beenit, yeneR, bee jit, bee- 
niil, beenot) (benal-) P. beenft- 
kaa' (beeyfnit, yeeyintt, beezh- 
nH, beeniil, b6enoo+) (benal-) 
R, bem'nash-kah (benmanit, yi- 
n inert, binfjil, beninSiil, beninat) 
(binmal-) 0* benaosh-kaah 
(benaoot, ymayot, bfnajot, be^ 
naool, benaoot) (benaool-) 
k<i\ tc sway. 

N. naanf-dfnish-kq' (dfnf, dim', 
zhdfnf, dinfi, dfnoh) 
kot, kaod (kad), koad (kad), ka\ 
kaad, a stem having to do with 
motion or handling of a flat ob- 

1 . to slap him (once). 


doo, nizhdidoo, rididii, rididooh) 
(nabidt'doo-) I* ndiish-kaad (n- 
dii, neidii, nizhdii, ridii, ridoh) 
(nabi'dii-) P. ridi'i-kaad (ndfini, 
neidu, nizhdii, ridii, ndoo) (na- 
bi'doo-) R. ni-nadiish-ka' (na- 
dii, neidii, ndzhdii, nadii, nadoh) 
(nabfdii-) O. ridoos-kaad (h- 
doo, neidoo, ndzhdoo, ndoo, ri- 
dooh) (nabi'doo-) 

2. to slap him one time after 

C-I. na-nish-kad (nani, neini, 
nazhni, nanii, nanoh) 

3. to clap the hands. 
F. 'ahi-deesh-kat (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-I. 'ahesh-kad 
Cahini, 'ahe, ahiji, ahii, ahoh) 
P. ahise-kad (ahisini, 'ahez, 'a- 
hfjiz, ahisii, 'ahisoo) R. ahi- 
nash-ka' (nani, na, rijf, neii, nah) 
O. 'ahf-oosh-kad (66, oo, jo, oo, 
ooh) sha 'ahrdaazkad, they 
clapped for me. 

4. to drop it (a vessel in which 
one is carrying things, or a large 
number of plural separable ob- 
jects, animate or inanimate). 

F. ndeesh-kat (ndiit, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi*- 
dool-) I. naash-kaad (nanit, ne- 
it, njit, neiil, naaf) (nabi'dil-) P. 
naat-kaad (n^init, nayfii, njf» # 
neiil, naoot) (nabi*dool-) R. ni- 
nash-ka' (ndnit, neit, najft, neiil, 
not) (nabi'dil-) O. na-osh-kaad 
(66t, yof, jot, ool, oofl (nabi'dol-) 

5. to knock It over (a wall, hay 

F. ndideesh-kaf (ndidff, n6idi-|stack, stack of dishes, house). 



F. naa-'adeesh-kaf ('aditf, 'iidoat 
'azhdoot, 'adiil, *adoot) I. naa- 
'Hsh-kaad (antf, 'ii+, 'ajiit, 'HI, 
'oof) P. naa-'iil-kaad ('unit, 'a- 
yiii, 'ajfi't, 'iil, oot) R. naa-'a- 
nash-ka* ('ananfi, 'anefJ, 'anjit, 
'aneiil, anal) O. naa-'oosh- 
kaad (oo+, *ayot, 'ajot, 'ool, 'oof) 

6. to be disappointed; to sigh. 
This verb is conjugated by al- 
tering the pronoun prefix on the 
postposition -qqh, beside. It is 
given herewith for the 3rd pers. 
F. bqqh nahodookat I. bqqh na- 
hakaad P. bqqh nahookaad R. 
bqqh ninahaka 1 O. bqqh naho- 

7. to sew it. 
F. rideesh-ka+ (ndiii, neidoot, nf- 
zhdoaf, ndiil, ridoo+) (nabidi*- 
dool-) C-l, nash-kad (nanft, ne- 
ii, njif, neiil, na\) (nabi'dil-) P. 
nisei-kad (nismil, nefs, rijfs, nf- 
siil, nfsoot) (nabi'dis-) R. nf~ 
nash-ka' (nanft, nefi, najit, n6iil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. na-osh-kad 
(66*, yot, jot, ool, 00+) (bi'doi-) 

*atnf'nf*qqd66 bik'iji' ni'e^' n- 
deeshkat, I'll sew your shirt this 

8. to sew (intr.). 

F. n'deesh-kai (n dfft, rVdoot, nf- 
zh'door, rVdiil, rVdobt) C-l. na'- 
ash-kad (na'R, na*a+, fVjfi, na'M!, 
na'ot) P. rVs&-kad (rVsinit, nd*- 
ds, rVjis, rVsiil, rVsoot) R. nf-na- 
'dsh-ka' (nd'ft, nd'dt, nd'jil, na*- 
iil, nd'ot) O. nd'dsh-kad (nd'oot 
rd'ot, rVjot, nd'ool, na'oof) 


9. to sew them together. 

F. ahi-dideesh-kat (didnl, idi- 
doot, zhdidoot, didiil, didoot) (bi 
di'dool-) I. 'aht-diish-kaad (dirt 
idiit, zhdiil, diil, docrf) (bi'diil-) 
P. ahi-diit-kad (dinit, idiit, zh- 
diit, diil # doo+) (bi'diil-) R. ahf- 
ridiish-ka* (ndiit, neidiit, nizhdiit 
ndiil, ndoot) (ndbi'diil-) O. 'ahf- 
doosh-kaad (dooi, idoot, zhdoot, 
dool, dool) (bi'dool-) 

10. to herd them out (horizon- 
tally, as from a canon or corral). 

F. ch'i-dfn&sh-kat (din iff, idi- 
nool, zhdinoot, dfniil, dinoot) (bi- 
di'nool-) I. ch'i-ninish-kaad (ni- 
nft, ineei, zhrieel, n in iil, ninol) 
(bidi'neel-) P. ch'f-ninft-kaad 
(niinit, ininft, nizhnit, niniii, ni- 
noot) (bidi'neet-) R. ch'i-nd- 
nish-ka' (ndnii, neinit, ndzhnft, 
ndniil, ndnol) (ndbidi'nil-) O. 
ch'i-nosh-kaad (noot, inert, zh- 
not, nool, noot) (bidi'nol-) 

11. to be herding them along. 
Prog. neesh-ka+ (nfit, yinoot, ji- 
noo^ niil, noot) (bidi'nool-) 

12. to herd them back; to re- 
turn herding them. 

F. ndineesh-kat (hdiniit, neidi- 
noot, nizhdinoot, ndinfil, ndf- 
noot) (nabidfnool-) I. ndfnfsh- 
kaad (ndinit, neidmit, nizhdfnil,, rtdfrnW) (nabidfnfl-) P 
hdfnel-kaad (ridfnfnfi, neidmees, 
nizhdinees, ridmeel, ndinoot) 
(ndbidPnees-) R. ni-nanish-ka' 
(nanit, neinit, nazhnft, naniil, 
ndnot) (nabidi'nil-) O. na-nosh- 



kaad (ndnoot, neinot, ndzhnot, 
ndnool, ndnoot) (ndbidf nol-) 

13. to be herding them along 

Prog, ndneesh-kai (ndnh't, nei- 
noot ; ndzhnoot, ndniil, ndnoot) 

14. to herd them about. 

C-l. nanish-kaad (nanit, neinit, 
nazhnit, naniil, nanoot) (nabi* 

15. to herd (intr.). 

C-l. ncfnish-kaad (na'nft, na'nit, 
nazh'nit, na'niil, na'noot) 

16. to drive them of f of one- 
self (attackers); to counterattack 

F. 'dk'i-dineesh-kat (diniil, idi- 
nool, zhdfnool, dinfil, dindot) I. 
'dk*i-nish-kaad (nfl, inil, zhnil, 
niil, not) P. 'ak'i-neesh-kaad 
(nfinfl, inool, zhnool, niil, noot) 
R. 'dk'i-ndnish-ka' (ndnfl, n^inil 
rdzhnfl, ndniil, ndndt) O. 'dk'i- 
nosh-kaad (nool, inol, zhnol, 
nool, noot) 

17. to corner or stump them. 
(V. the stem cheet, to corner or 

stump him. The same prefixes 
ore used but the classifier and 
stems: tkat, tkaad, tkaad, tka\ 
and tkaad are used). 

18. to pet it; to caress it. 

F. nidfneesh-kat (nfdfnu, n6idf- 
noo, nfzhdfnoo, nfdfnfi, nidf- 
nooh) C-l. ndnfsh-kad (ndnf 
neini. ndzhnf, ndnii, ndndh) P 
nane-kaad (nanfni, neineez, nd* 
zhneez, ndnee, ndnoo) R. ni- 


ndnish-ka' (ndni, neini, ndzhni 

ndnii, ndnoh) O. ndndsh-kad 

(ndnoo, neino, ndzhnd, ndnoo 


kat, kaat, kaal, kat, kaat, to 

act on or with a flat object (?) 

1. to chop it apart (kindling). 
F. .'ahi-dideesh-kat (di'diit, idi- 
dooi, zhdidoot, didiil, didoot) (bi- 
dPdool-) C-l. 'ahi-dish-kaat (dft 
idit, zhdit, diil, dot) (bi'dil-) P. 
'ahi-dfit-kaal (dffnit, idfft, zhdfft, 
diil, doot) (bi'dool-) R. 'ahi-n- 
dfsh-kat (ndit, neidit, nfzhdit, n- 
diil, ndot) (nabi'diil-) O. 'ahi- 
dosh-kaai (doot, idot, zhdot, dool 
dooi) (bi'dol-) 

2. to drive it (a nail). 

F. 'adeesh-kat Cadi ft, 'iidoot, 'a- 
zhdoot, 'adiil, *adoot) I. Mish- 
kaat Canit, 'if*, 'ajit, 'ill, oot) P. 
'fft-kaal ('finft, 'ayift, ajfit, 'iii, 
'oot) R. *andsh-kat ('andnft, *a- 
neft, arijft, aneiil, andt) O. 
oosh-kaat Coot, *ayot, p ajot, 'ool, 

3. to close it (a door). 

F. dd-di'deesh-kat (di'diit, dP- 
doot, zhdi'doot, di'diil, di'doot) 
(bidi'dool-) I. dd-di'nish-kaat 
(di'nft, 'deet, zh'deet, di'niil, di'- 
not) (bidPnil-) P. dd-di*nit-kaal 
Cdifnit, di'ntt, zhdi'nft, di'niil, 
di'noot) (bi'deel-) R. da-ndfsh- 
kat (rVdft, ri'dft, ni'zh'dft,, 
n'ddt) (ndbf'dil-) O. dd-'dosh- 
kaat Cdodt, 'dot, zh'dot, 'dool, 
'doot) (bfd6l-) 
ke, to be mean. 




1 . to be mean; to scold* 

The verb used olone has the 
meaning of "to be mean/' but in 
conjunction with what is appar- 
ently the prepounded postposit- 
ion -ch'ah (perhaps meaning to- 
ward) the meaning is "to scold." 
S-P. hashish-ke (hashing hash, 
hojish, hoshii, hoshoo) shi- 

ch'ah hashke, he is scolding me. 
Ice, footwear; shoe (bikeel 
kebqqh ntf'izgo dah naazniligii, 
corn (on foot); callous (on foot). 
ke bee neilchihi, shoepolish (red) 
ke bee neilzhihi, bfack shoepo- 

ke biketal danineezigii, cowboy 

ke bit 'adaalkaati, cobbler's nail. 
ke deigo danineezi, boots (high). 
kegiizhi, Papago. 
ke'achogii, galoshes. 
kejeehi, tennis shoes. 
kek'eh, footprint. 
kelqqd, tips of the toes. 
kefchi, moccasin. 
kendoots'osii biketal nineezi 
cowboy boot shoes. 
kenitsaaigii, high moccasin (wo- 

keshjee', moccasin game. 
keshmish, Christmas. 
keshgolii, club-footed. 
ketf'ahi, Pima. 
ketPool, shoe lace. 
kets'iini, oxford (shoes). 
keyah, land (plural kedaayah). 
k'aabeesh, arrowhead. 
k'aabizhii, Cove, Arizona. 

k'aagheet, quiver (for arrows). 
kW, arrow (bik'a* or bikW). 
k'aalogti, butterfly. 
k'aat, ko, k'g, k'aah, k'aat* to 


1. to grind it (grain, etc.)* 

F. deesh-k'aat (dfi, yidoo, jldoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-i. yish- 
k'a (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
P. yi-k'q (yinr, yiyii, jfi, yii, 
ghooh) (bi*doo-) R. nash-k'aah 
nam, nei, nji, neu, nah) (nabi - 
di-) O. ghosh-k'aat (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 
k'aasda, arrow poison. 
Va;tt,-k'ft;«h, Vqqd, k'gqh, k>jn 
to tip or slant it; put it on edge. 

1 . to tip or raise it to a slant. 
F. dideesh-k'qqt (didiil, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiri, didoot) I. diish- 
k*qqh (diit, yidiit, jidiit, diil, doot) 
P. diit-k'qqd (dintf, yrdiil, jidiit, 
diil, doot) R. ndiish-k'qqh (ndiit, 
neidiil, nfzhdiit, ndiil, ndoaf) O. 
doosh-k'qqh (doot, yidqot, jidoof, 
dool, doot) 

2. to have cramps. 

F. dah dideeshk'qqt (didii, didoo, 
shdidoo, didii, didooh) I. dah 
dfish-k'qqh (dii, dii, shdii, dii, 
dooh) P. dah dii-k*qqd (dini, 
dii, shdii, dii, doo) R. dah ndiish- 
k'qqh (ndii, ndii, nfzhdii, ndii, n- 
dooh) O. dah doosh-k*qqh (doo, 
doo, shdoo, doo, dooh) shijaad 
dah diik'qqd, I have a cramp in 
the leg. 

k 'gqt, Wqqh, k'q, k'^h, k'^h, 
to burn. 



T. to moke fire (with fired rill). 

£. 'ii-deesh-k'qql (dfit, doot, zh- 
doof, di-il, doof) I. 'oosh-k'qqh 
*('iii, 'oot, ajoot, 'iil, oot) P. a- 
set-k'q CasfnfJ, 'as, 'ajis, 'asiil, 
*asoo+) R. na'oosh-kqqh (na 
iil, na'oot, rVjoot, na'iil, na'oot) 
O. 'oshk'qqh Coot, '6t, ajot, 'ool, 

2. to start burning. 
F. didook qqt I. dik qqh P. 
deezk qq' R. ndfk qqh 0. do- 

3. to be burning along. 
Prog, dook qqt 

4. to burn as for as a point 
-and stop; to stop burning. 

F. ndidook'qqt I. ndeek'qqh P. 
ndinik qq' R. ninadik'qqh O 

5. to burn up. 

T. adidook'qqt I. adik qqh P. 
adiik'qq' R. 'aridrVqqh O. *a- 

k ad, now. k'ad shit holne\ tell 
me now! 
k*adf$, nearly; almost; about to 
{with imperfective mode), k'ad- 
£e bi'niitsq, he is almost dying, 
k'ad^ dah diishaah, I am about 
to start off. 

fcah, k*ah, k'ah (k'aii), k'ah, 
k 1 ah, to be fat. 
1 . to become fat. 

F. dfneesh-k'ah (dinfil, dinool, ji- 
dfnool, dfniil, dfnoot) Prog 
neesh-k'ah (mil, nool, jinool, 
nii I, noot) P. nesh-k'ah (mm I, 
rnees, jinees, neel, noot) R. na- 


mshk'ah (nil, nil, zhnfl, mil, not) 
0. nosh-k'ah (nool, nol, jinol, 
nool, noot) 

2. to be gaining weight. 

This is expressed by an inchoa- 
tive perfective, meaning literally 
"(I) have started to become fat/' 
P. shi-'niilk'aii (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 

3. to fatten it. 

F. dineesh-k'ah (dfnfft, yidfnoot, 
drzhnoot, diniil, dfnoot) (bididF* 
nool-) C-l. nish-k'ah (nil, yinit, 
jinit, niil, not) (bidi'nil-) P. net- 
k'ah (nfnit, yinees, jinees, neel, 
nool) (bidfnees-) R. nanish- 
k'ah (nanil, neinit, nazhnit, na- 
niil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) O. 
nosh-k'ah (noot, yinol, jinot, 
nool, noot) (bidi'nol-) 
k'ai, k'ai, k'ai\ k*ai, k*ai, to 

1. to spread the legs apart. 

F. deesh-k'ai (dfi, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. yiish-k'ai (yii, yii, jii, 
yii, ghooh) S-P. se-k'ai 1 (sinf / 
yiz, jiz, sii, soo) R. neish-k'ai 
(neii, neii, njii, neii, naooh) 0. 
ghoosh-k'ai (ghoo, ghoo, joo, 
ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to walk about spread-leg- 
ged (as after riding horseback 
for the first time). 

C-L na'ash-k'ai' (na'ft, na'at, n*- 
jit, na'iil, na'ot) 

3. to straddle it. 

F. *bim-deesh-k*ai (dff, doo, zh 
doo, dii, dooh) S-P. binf-se-k'ai' 
(sini, naz, jiz, sii, soo) R. binf- 



nash-k'ai (nanf, na, naji, neii. 
nah) O. bi-naoosh-k'aih (naoo, 
naoo, nijo, naoo, naooh). nas* 
taan binisek'ai'go shit yi'ot, the 
log is floating along with me Ca- 
st raddle of it). 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
k*ai\ willow. 

k'ai* bii' to, Kaibito, Arizona. 
k'as, k'ads, k'aaz (k'az), k'as, 
k'dds, to be cold. 

1 . to be(come) cold weather. 
F. didootk'as I. ditk aas S-P. 
deesk'aaz R. ridftk'as O. dot- 

k» * r 

2. to be(come) cold (either in 
regard to the weather, or with 
respect to an interior area as in- 
side a house)* 

F. hodfnook'as I. honiik'aas P. 
honiik'aaz R. nahoniik'as O. 

The following si-perfective 
neuters also occur: honeezk'az, 
cold; honeezk'azi, it is cool; and 
hoozk'az, it is cold (as a refriger- 
ator, bit* hoozk'az, it is cold on 
the inside. shibee'azk'azi bii' 
hoozk'az, my refrigerator is cold 

3. to catch a cold. 

This verb is herewith given for 
the 1st person. It is conjugated 
by altering the pronoun prefix 
on the postposition -iih, inside. 
F. shiih dootk'as I. shiih yitk'aas 
P. shiih yitk'aaz R. shiih natk'as 
O. shiih ghotk'aas. k'ad biih 
yitk'aaz, he has a cold now. 


k'asdqq', nearly; almost, k'as- 
dqq' dasetsq, I almost died. 
k'ash, k'aash, k'aazh, k'ash, 
k'aash, to grind. 

1. to grind it (an axe); to grind 
it very fine (meal); to sing at the 
top of one's voice. 

F. deesh-k'ash (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
k'aash (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi*- 
di-) P. yf-k'aazh (yi'ni, yiyii, jii, 
yii, ghoo) (bPdoo-) R. nash- 
k'ash (ndni, nef, riji, neii, nah) 
(nabfdi-) sitsenit yiVaazh, I 
ground my axe. tt'eedqq* 'atah 
yiVaazh, last night I sang at the 
top of my voice with the group 
(as a chorus at a Squaw Dance). 

2. to be cramped (from sitting 
too long in one position). 

S-P. ndashish-k'aazh (ndashfnfl, 
ndaash, ndajish, ndashiil, nda- 
shoot) kot'eego nizaadgoo se- 
daago biniinaa ndashishk'aazh, 
I am cramped from sitting this 
way a long time. 

k'qs, k'qqs, k'gqx, k*qs, k'qqs, to 

1. to straighten it. 
F. deesh-k'qs (dn, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
k'qqs (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
P. yi-k'qqz (yini, yiyii, jii, yii, 
ghoo) (bi'doo-) S-P. se-k'qqz 
(sfni, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) (bi'dis-) 
R. nash-k'qs (nanf, nei, rijf, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. ghosh-k'qqs 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) Obi*- 



k*e (k'e-), friendship; peace, ni 
ch*j' k.enisdzin, I am friendly 
with you. k'endhasdlif, peace 

k'ee'dilgheeh, agriculture. 
k'eelgheii, seeds (for planting). 
keel, kV, kV, k'eeh, kV, to 

1 . to cool it (an object). 
F. dineesh-k'eet (din fit, yidinoot, 
jidinooi, diniil, dinoot) (b)di'- 
nool-) I. nish-kV (nit, yinit, ji- 
nil, niil, no!) (bidi'nil-) P. nel- 
k'e' (nmi't, yinees, jinees, neel 
noot) (bidi'nees-) R. nanfsh- 
k'seh (nanit, neinii, nazhnit, na- 
niil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) O 
nosh-kV (noot, yinot, jinot, nool 
nool) (bidi'nol-) 

2« to cool it (an area or space, 
as a house). 

This meaning is rendered by 
using ho- as the object prefixed 
to the forms in no. 1 . Thus ho- 
dineeshk'eef, I'll cool it; hodf- 
noatk'eef, he'll cool it. 

3, to cool off (an object); to 
stop hurting. 

F. dinook'eei I. nikV P. neez- 
kV R. nanfk'eeh 0. nokV 
k'eet'aan, prayerstick. 
k'eet'oh, bowguard. 
k'e'elto', fractured (as a bone). 
k'es, k'ees, k'f «x f k> s, k'f f s, to 
travel rapidly. 

1. to travel along rapidly; to 
go along in a hurry. 

F. *adi-dfnees-k'§s (dfnii, dinoo, 
zhdfnoo, dfni'i, dfnooh) Prog. 


*o-nees-k'§s (nil, noo, zhnoo, nii, 
noh) P. 'ani-nf-k'fez (ninf, ni, 
zhni, nii, nooh) *S-P, 'adf-ne- 
k'§gz (ni, neez, zhneez, nee, noo) 
**R. 'ainda-'nfs-k'fs ('ni, 'ni, 
zh'ni, 'nii, 'noh) O. 'adi-nosh- 
k ffs (noo, no, zhno, noo, nooh) 

halgai tse'naa gaagi 'anook*§s. 
the crow is flying rapidly over 
the plain. 

*The si-perfective means "tc 
be on one's way/' or "to be going 
to go/' whereas the ni-perfective 
form means "to go, arrive." 
**This form means to go back 
ond forth hurriedly. 
k*id, to be humped. 

The concept of hill is variously 
expressed, depending upon the 
shape and other characteristics 
of the hump. Thus: dah yis- 
k'id, a mounded hill; dah daas- 
k*id, a series of mounded hills 
rising here and there; deesk'id, 
an elongated hill or ridge; *ahi- 
deelk'id, two hills that merge; 
'atcrTj' niilk'id, to hills that al- 
most run together; ch'elk'id, a 
hill running horizontally out, as 
from a mountain; yflk'id, a hill 
or ridge that extends along (with 
out reference to its beginning or 
end; 'ahenalk'id, a curved or 
circular hill; binask'id, it is rin- 
ged by a hill; niilk'id, a hill runs 
to a point where it stops; yanaal- 
k*id, a mound. 

k'idi'nideel, fracture (of a brittle 
bone or other object). 



k'idi'nideel doo binoa tidilyaa, 

compound fracture. 

k'iittsoii, big rabbit brush 

k'iiltsoii dijooli, small rabbit 


k'iitrsoiitah, Cornfield, Arizona. 

k'il, k'eed, k'eed, kY, k'eed, to 


1. to copulate (intr.). 

F. a-deesh-k'it (dfi, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l, ash-k'eed ('i, 'a, 
'aji, 'ii, 'oh) P. ase-k'eed Casfnf 
'az, 'ajiz, 'asii, *asoo) R. nd'ash- 
i (na i, na a, n ji, na n, na oh) 
O. *6sh-k'eed Coo, '6, 'ajo, *oo, 

2. to copulate with her (tr.) + 
F. deesh-k'it (dn, yidoo, jidoo 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yish- 
k'eed (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
S-P. se-k'eed (sfnf, yiz, jiz, sii, 
soo) (bi'dis-) R. nash-k'i' (nani, 
re\, rijf, neil, ndh) (ndbr'di-) 0. 
ghosh-k'eed (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi'do-) 

k'is, k'is, k'is, k'is, k'is, to crack 
(a very fine, barely visible crack 
as that in turquoise). 
F, doolk'is I. yiilk'is P. yisk'is 
R. neilk'is O. gholk'is 

kMh, kjih, w\i\ k'jh, k'ijh, to 


1 . to peel it. 

F. bideesh-k'ih (bidift, yiidoot 
bizhdoot, bfdiil, bfdoot) (bfdool-j 
C-l. besh-k'ijh (bmil, yfit, bijit, 
biil f bo+) (Ml-) P. brrt--k v [r (Mf- 
nft, yfyftt, bfjiit,„bm, boot) (bee!-) 
R. bmdsh-k'ih (bjnanft, yineit. 


birijft, bineiil, binat) (bfndl-) O- 

boosh-k'[[h (boot, yfyot, bijot, 

bool, boot) (bool-) shibeezh 

bee nimasiitsoh bideeshkMh, I'll 

peel the potato with my knife. 

k'inidlddd, broken (as a string). 

k'inijit'ahi, currant. 

k'ineedlishii, stink beetle. 

k*ineeshbizhii, dumpling. 

k'ish, alder. 

k'ishishjfjzh, poison ivy. 

k'ool, to be undulating, wavy (as 

wool, terrain, etc.). 

N. doolk'ool (in reference to a 

definite object; hodoolk'ool (in 

reference to an area). 

k'oi k'ol, kot, k'o*, k'o*, to blink 

1 . to blink. 

F. dfneesh-k'ot (dfniil, dinool, ji- 
dinool, dfrnil, dinoot) I. niish- 
k'ot (niil, niil, jiniil, niil, nool) 
*C-I. nish-k'ot (nil, nil, jinil, niil, 
not) P. nesh-k'ot (nfnil, nees, ji- 
nees, neel, noot) R. na-niish- 
k'ot (niil, niil, zhniil, niil, noot) O 
nosh-k'ot (nool, nol, jinol, nool, 

*This form means to blink the 
eyelids several times, whereas 
the ordinary imperfective means 
to perform the act once. 

2. to lap against it (as waves)* 
N. bidilk ot. tsinaa'ee* to bi- 
dflk'ot, the water is lapping a- 
gainst the boat. 

k'os, cloud. 

k'osh, k'osh, k'osh, kosh, k'os»V 

to sour; spoil. 

1 . to start to spoil; to sour. 



F. didook'Qsh I. dik # Qsh P, dii- 

k'psh R. ridik'^sh O. dok'psh 

N. dik'QQzh (it is sour). 

k*99zh # body odor. 

kiis'aanii, Pueblo Indian. 

kif, kid (keed) kid, ki*, kid (keed) 

to move or act in a slow manner. 

1 . fro ask for it; request it; beg 
for it. 

F. yideesh-kit (yidff, yfidoo, yfzh- 
doo, yidii, yidooh) (bidi'doo-) I. 
yfnish-keed (ymi, yo, jo, yfnii, 
yfnoh) (bi'do-) P. yf-keed (ymf, 
yiytf, jn, yinii, yinoo) (bfdee-) 
R. ndyfmsh-kf (nayini, nayo, n- 
jo, nayfnti, nayinoh) (nabfdo-) 

0. yfnosh-keed (yinoo, yo, jo, yi- 
noo, yinooh) (bi'do-) nU[[ nii- 
keed, I asked you for your horse. 

2. to ask (a question). 

F, na'i-dideesh-kit (didnt, dt- 
doot, zhdidoot, didiil, didoat) I. 
na'f-dish-kid (dft, dit, zhdit, diil, 
dot) P. na'i-deet-kid (diinit. 
deef, zhdeel, diil, door) R. nina- 

•r-drsh-ki* (dft, dit, zhdft, dfii, 

dot) O. na'i-dosh-kid (doot, dot, 
zhdar, dool, doot) 

3. to ask him; to inquire of 

F. nabfdideesh-kit (nabididift 
nayfdidoot, nabfzhdidoot, nabi'- 
didiil, nabfdfdoot) (nabidi'doo-' 

1. nabfdish-kid (nabidit, nayidft 
nabizhdit, nabidiil, nabidot) (na- 
bf'df-) P. nabideet-kid (nabidii- 
nit, nayideet, nabizhdeet, nabi- 
diil, nabidoot) (nabf'dee-) R 
ni-nabfdfsh-ki' (nabidit, nayidit 



nabizhdit, nabidiil, nabidot) (na 
bPdi-) O. nabidosh-kid (nabi- 
doot, nayidot, nabizhdot, nabi- 
dool, nabidoot) (nabrdo-) 

4. to starr moving (slowly as 
the hands of a clock). 
F. didoolkit !• dilkeed P. dees- 
kid R. ndflki* O.dolkeed 

5. to be moving along slowly 
(as the hands of a clock). 
Prog, yilkit 

6. to move; make a complete 
move (clock hands). 

F. doolkit l.yilkeed P. yilkid R, 
nalki* O. gholkeed 

7. to make a complete circuit; 
to pass (an hour) (referring to 
clock hands making a complete 
circuit around the clock). 
F. 'ahee'doolkit I. ahee ilkeed 
P. 'ahee'ilkid R. ahenina'alki' 
O. 'ahee'olkeed 

8. to pass (time by the clock). 
Prog, oolkit dikwiigoola ool- 
kit, what time is it? 

9. to chew or eat it (a bulky, 
roundish object, as an apple, 
loaf of bread, sheep head, etc.). 

F. deesh-kit (difl, yidool, jidool, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-l. yish- 
keed (nil, yil, jil, yiil, ghot) (bf- 
dil-) P. yish-kid (yfnfl, yool, jool 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. nash- 
kV (nanil, neil, hjil, neiil, nat) 
(nabi'di!-) O. ghosh-keed (ghool, 
yol, jol, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

10- to get skinned (as one's 


F, tsiih doolkit P. tsiih yilkid R. 
tsiih ndlki' O. tsiih gholkeed 
kin, house. 

kin bii' nii'oh nda'adohigii, out- 
side toilet. 

kin dah fichii, Kin lichee, Ariz. 
kin doori'izhi, Towaoc, Colo. 
kiniizhoozh, (slender objects as 
planks or logs, are) leaning side 
by side (against something), 
tsin niheshju" kiniizhoozh, the 
lumber is leaning (against some- 

kin loni, city; town. 
kin lani, Flagstaff, Arizona. 
kin tichii'nii, San Juan (people 
of the Pueblo of San Juan). 
kin tigaai, Baca, N. M. 
kin tigaai, Moenave, Arizona. 
kinteel, Pueblo Pintado, N. M. 
kinteel, Wide Ruins, Arizona. 
kinteel Aztec, N. M. 
kits'iil (or 'asaats'iil), potsherds. 

kodei, up this way. kodei hasf- 

neeh, climb up this way! 

kodi, here, kodi shighan, my 

home is here. 

koh, kooh, kwih, kwih, kooh, to 


1. to vomit; to regurgitate. 

F. dideesh-koh (didii, didoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
k66h(di, di, jidi,dii, doh) P. de- 
kwih (dini, deez, jideez, dee, di- 
soo) R. nash-kwih (nanf, no, njf, 
neii, nah) O. dosh-kooh (doo, 
do, jido, doo, dooh) 


ha'naa ninajah, the sheep run 

across here. 

kone*, here inside, kone' hooz- 

do, it is warm here inside. 

konisheii, that small (konisheii 

is used instead of *konftts , nsi; 

V. the stem sheii). 

kooni, here about, kooni to t 06 

'ahayoi, there is a lot of water 

here about. 

kos, kees, keez, kos, kees. 

1. to cough; start coughing. 

F. ha-didees-kos (didfil, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. ha- 
dis-kees (dfl, dil, zhdil, diil, do!) 
P. ha-dees-keez (diinil, doot, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) R. ha-ridis-kos 
(ndil, ndil, nfzhdfl, hdiil, ndot) 
O. ha-dos-kees (dool, dol, zhdol, 
doo I, doot) 

2. to cough; to have a cough. 
N, dis-kos (dfl, dil, jidil, diil, 
dot) (This verb is formed by pre- 
fixing the prefixes of the imper- 
fective mode to the stem of the 

3. to have the whooping cough 
(i.e to cough spasmodically). 

N. a-ndfs-kos (ndil, ndil, nizh- 
dil, ndiil, ndot) 

4. to start to think about it. 

Prepound baa, about it, to the 
following verb forms. 
F. ntsl-didees-kos (didn, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) (hodi- 
doo-) I. ntsf-diis-kees (dii, dii, 
zhdii, dii, doh) (hodii-) P. ritsi- 
dii-keez (dini, dii, zhdii, dii, 

konaa, across here, konaa dibe|dooh) (hodii-) R. ntsf-ndiis-kos 



(ridii, ndii, nizhdii, hdii, ridoh) 
(nahodoo-) O. ntsf-doos-kees 
(doo, doo, zhdoo, doo, dooh) (ho- 

5. to think about it. 
baa, about it, is prepounded. 
F. ntsi-dees-kos (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (hodoo-) C-l. ntses- 
kees (ntsini, ntse, ntsiji, ntsii, n- 
rsoh) (ntsaha-) P. ntsi'-se-keez 
(sini, z, jfz, sii, soo) (has-) R. ntsi- 
nas-kos (nanf, na, riji, neii, nah) 
(naha-) O. ntsoos-kees (ntsoo, 
ntsoo, ntsijo, ntsoo ; ntsooh) (n- 

koshd^e', toward one from near- 
by, t'aadoo boa 'ahonisinf t'ah 
nt'e§' koshd^ 1 kQ' na'atbqqsii 
yilghot, before I was aware of it 
the train was bearing down on 
me (was nearly upon me). 
koyaa, down this way. koyaa 
hadaninaah, come down this 
k$\ fire. 

kp* bee niltsesi, fire extinguisher 
kp'k'eh, fireplace. 
k©' no'atbgasii, train. 
kp* na'albqasii bitiin, railroad. 
kp' yinittsesi, fire engine. 
koo, here about; through here. 
kpo tt'oh 'adin, there's no grass 

kppl, kpoh, k$\ kpph, kpoh, to 

1. to moke it smooth. 

F. dideesh-kgpt (didftt, yididoot, 
jididoat, didiil, didoot) (bidi*- 
dool-) I. diish-k99h (di it, yidiit, 


jidiit, diil, doot) (bi'diil-) P. 
diit-kg' (dintf, yidiit, jidiit, diil, 
doat) (bi'dool-) R. ndiish-k^gh 
(ridiit, neidiit, nizhdiit, ridiil, n- 
doot) nabi'dool-) O. dbosh-kggh 
(doot, yidoot, jidoat, dool, doot) 

2. to iron it (i.e. to smooth it 
back to its former state). 

F. ndideesh-kpQl (rididfft, neidi- 
doot, nfzhdidoot, ndidiil, hdi- 
doot) (nabidi'dool-) I. ndiish- 
kggh (hdiit, neidiit, nizhdiit, n- 
diil, ndoot) (nabi*d?il-) P. ndiit- 
kQ* (ridinit, neidiil, ni'zhdiit, ridiil, 
ndoot) nabi'dool-) R. ni-na- 
diish-kgph (nadiit, neidiit, nazlv 
diit, nadiil, nadoot) (nabi'diil-) 
O. ridoosh-kpph (ndoot,. neidoot 
nfzhdoot, ridool, ndoot) (nabi'- 

3. to be ice copped; to be co- 
vered with o layer of ice. 

(The verb form itself means to 
be covered with a layer, and o- 
ther nouns can replace ''ice.") 
F. tin bik'ididoolkpgt I. tin bik'i- 
dilkpph P. tin bik'idiilkp' R. tin 
bik'indiilkpph O. tin bik'idool- 

k$ot, k^h (k$9'), koph, kpoh 
(k^o'), to swim. 

1 . to swim (to a point and 

F. n'-deesh-kppf (n'dfft, n'doot, 
nizh'doot, n'diil, n'doal') I. ni'- 
nish-kpph (ni'nit, ni'ft, n'jit, ni 1 - 
niil, ni'not) P. nPnit-kpp (ni'ff- 
nit, ni'nft, nizh'nit, ni'nii), ni'- 



noot) R. ni-na'ash-kwh (ncTit, 
na'ai, nd'jit, na'iil, na'of) O. ni- 
'osh-kgph (ni'oot, nfot, n'jot, ni'- 
ool, ni'oaf) 

2. to swim about; to go swim- 

F. n'deesh-kggf (iVdiit, n'doot, 
nizh'doo*,. n*diil, n'doof) C-l. 
na'ash-kgg' (na'tf, na'aJ, n'jit, 
na ill, na'ot) P. ni'set-k^ (ni'- 
sin it, na'as, n'jis, ni*siil, ni'soot) 
R. ni-na'ash-k^h (na% na'at, 
na'jfi, na'iil, na\M) O. naosh- 
k99* (na'oot, na*6t, n'jof, na'ool,. 

The prefixes ni-, to a point, and 
na- about, converge in form, ni*- 
setkQtp' can also mean "I swam 
to a point." The two following 
sentences will illustrate: tooh 
tse'naa ni'setkpg', I have swum 
across the river (at some time or 
another); tooh bii' m"setk$9' , I 
have been swimming in the ri- 

kos, k^fs, k§£z, kos, kf$s, refers 
to the falling or turning of a 
slender stiff object. 

1. to fall downward (a slender 
stiff object). 

F. ndook9s I. naak^s P. naa- 
ke£z R. ninak9s 0. naok§§s 

2. to fall over sideways (as a 
tree, pole, etc.). 

F. naa'adook9s I. naa'iik§§s P. 
naa*iik££z R. naa'anakps O, 

3. to fall from (my) grasp (a 
slender stiff object). 


This verb is conjugated for per- 
son by merely altering the pro* 
noun prefix on the noun -lak'e, 
the (area of the) hand. It is given 
herewith in the 1st person. 
F. shilak'e hadook9S I. shildk'e 
haak?§s P. shilak'e haak§§z «.R* 
shilak'e hanak9s O. shilak'e 

4. to revolve; to turn over (a 
slender stiff object). 

North is called nahook9s, be- 
cause the Big Dipper appears to 

F. nahidook9S I. nahook9S P. 
nahazk^z R. ninahak9s O, na- 

kwe'e, right here, kwe'e shitya- 
'ahoot'eeh, I like it here. 
kwii, here (less closely defined a- 
rea than that denoted by kwe'e). 
kwii dl<?9* t'66 'ahayoi, there are 
lots of prairie dogs here. 

Due to the fact that verbs with 
l-initial stems become dl-initial 
with the addition of the d-classi- 
fier, many of the same stems will 
be found under dl. A few l-initi- 
als take the J-classifier, becom- 
ing ♦-initial, and some of the 
same stems will again be found 
under t. 

Stem initial I becomes t after 
sh and \. 

\qqt, — / l$gd, diqqh, Igqh, to in- 
crease; become many. 

1. to increase; become many. 



This verb is conjugated in the 
duoplural only. 

F. dii(dJJqqt (dooh, doo, jidoo) 
Prog. yii-(d)lqqt (ghoh, yi, joo) 
P. yii-(cf)lqqd (ghooh, yi, jff) R. 
neii-dlqqh (ndh, nd, njf) O. 
ghoo-(d)lqqh (ghooh, ghd, jo) 
Id, Iddh, lad\ dla, lddh, to gath- 
er; pick up. 

1. to gather them; pick them 
up; to choose them. 

F. ndhideestvta (ndhidu, neidi- 
yoo, ndhizhdoo, ndhidii, ndhi- 
dooh) (ndbidi'yoo : ) C-l. na- 
hdsh-tddh (ndhf, ndyii, rijii, nd- 
hii, ndhoh) (ndbi'dij-) P. ndhd- 
Idd' (ndhmf, ndyiiz, njiiz, ndhii, 
ndhoo) ndbi'diis-) R, nf-nd- 
hdsh-dla (ndhi, ndyii, ndjii, nd- 
hii, ndhoh) (ndbi'dii-) 0, na- 
hdsh-tddh (ndhoo, neiyd, nji 
yd, ndhoo, ndhooh) (ndbi'diyd-) 

2. to separate it from it (as 
wool, for example). 

F. *bitsa-hideesh-tah (hidif, i- 
diyoo, hizhdiyoo, hidii, hidooh) 
(bidiyoodioh) C-l. bits'd-hdsh- 
tddh (hf, yii, jii, hii, hdh) (bi*» 
diidlah) P. bits a-hd-ldd' (hfni, 
yiiz. jiiz, hii, hoo) (bi'diisdldd*) 
R. bits*d-ndhdsh-dla (ndhi, ndyii 
ndjii, ndhii, ndhoh) (ndbi'diidla) 
O. bits'd-hosh-tddh (hod, iyd, ji- 
yo, hoo, hooh) (bidi'yodlddh) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

3. to be full of mischief. 

N. she-'ddflddh <ne, be, hwe, nt- 
he, nihe) 


Id, it is; it occurred to me. fad 
'iidqq' Iff bii dah diildloozh Id,, 
it just occurred to me that he has 
already started off on horse- 
back, dii hastiin r aydo bidziil 
Id, it occurs to me that this man 
is very strong. 

Iddqd\ if; in case, t'dadoo le'e 
biniinaa nett'ah Iddqq' doo hah 
dadi deeshdat da, If I am delay- 
ed by something I'll arrive there 

lajish, glove; mitten. 
lashdodn, ribbon. 
Idtah 'adijooli, flax. 
Idtsiin, wrist. 

Idtsiin ndzt'i'i, wrist-band. 
Idtsini, bracelet: 
Idtsini bindd', set (in bracelet). 
Iq'qo', uh huh; I see; yeah. 
Iq*i, many; much. (Also used as 
a verb stem in niidld'i, we ore 
many; noh+q'i, you are many; 
Iq'f, fhey are many; jilq'f, they 
are many). Iq'i 'attah 'ddaat'eii, 
many kinds. 

Iq'idi, many times. Iq'fdi naal- 
ghehe bd hooghangdd niseyd, I 
have gone to the store many 

leet, leeh (lj, 1$), In*, dleeh, \e\ to 
become; be. 

1. to start to become; to start 
to come into existence. 

F. hodidooleel I. hodileeh P. ho- 
deezlfj" R. ndhodidleeh O. ho- 
dole 1 

2. to become. 

F. deesh-teet (dff, doo, jidoo, dir, 



dooh) I. yish-teeh (ni, yi, ji, yii, 
ghoh) P. $e-lif (sfni, si, )\z t sii, 
soo) R. ndsh-dleeh (ndnf, nd, A* 
ji>. n£ii, ndh) ■©. ghdsh-fe' (gh66, 
ghd J6, ghoo, ghooh) 

3. to be progressively becom- 

Prog, yish-teel (yi, yi, joo, yii, 
ghoh) sdni yishfeet, I am be- 
coming older (day by day). 

4. to be. 

N. nish-t( (nf, ni, jf, nii, noh) 
din6 nishtf, 1 am a man. 

5. fro be healthy. 

shdnah, health (?) is prepound- 
ed to the forms under no. 4. Thus 
shdnah nisht}, f am healthy. 

6. to hesitate; to waiver; to be 
culturally backward. 

The words (bi)chY ni* ore pre- 
pounded to the forms under no. 
4, the pronoun object of the post 
position -chY, toward, represent- 
ing the object of the verb. Thus, 
bich'i* ni' nisht[, I am hesitant 
with regard to him; t'dadoo bi- 
ch'i* ni 1 nilfni, bichT ydnttti', 
don't hesitate to talk to her! naa- 
beeho fa* ni* danil[, some of the 
Navaho are backward. 

7. to exist. 

This verb, in 3rd person, also 
translates impersonal there is, 
there are, as to hdl£, there is wa- 

N. honish-tp (horn, h6, hojf, ho- 
nii, honoh) 

8. to become again. 

F. nda-deesh-dleet (dff, doo, zh- 


doo, dii, dooh) I. ndd-ndsh- 
dleeh (ni, nd, ji, n6ii, ndh) P. 
ndd-sis-diy (sini, nds, jis, sii, soo) 
0. ndd-ndoosh-dleet (nddd, nd- 
oo, hj6, ndoo, ndooh) Prog* ndd- 
nddsh-dleet (ndd, ndd, joo, n£ii, 

9. to become back (again); to 
revert to one's former state. 

F. rideesh-dleet (ridii, ridoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ridooh) L nash-dleeh 
(ndni, nd, riff, n6ii, ndh) Prog, 
nddsh-dleet (naa ndd, rijoo, neii, 
nddh) P. nisfs-dlif (nfsfnf, nds, 
rijfs, nfsii, nfsooh) R. nf-ndsh- 
dleeh (ndnf, nd, ndji, n6ii, ndh) 
O. nd-oosh-dle* (6d, oo, jd, oo, 

10. to become involved in it; 
to get into it; take part in it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bee 'atah to the 
forms given under nos. 2, 4, 8, 
or 9. Thus, bee 'atah deeshteet, 
I'll become involved in it; get in 
it; bee *atah ndddeeshdleet, I'll 
again become involved in it. 

11. to become or be hungry, 
or thirsty. 

These meanings are rendered 
by prepounding dichin, hunger, 
or dibdd* thirst, to the forms un- 
der nos. 2, 3, 4, 8, or 9. Thus, 
dichin s£l[{\ I became hungry, 
dibdd* sel{i', I became thirsty, di- 
chin nisrvrf, I am hungry. 

12. to get out of breath. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yisdah, out of 



breath (?), to the forms given un- 
der nos. 2, 4, 8 or 9. Thus, yis- 
dah selu , I got out of breath. 

13. to crave it; need it; want it 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bfdin to the forms 
given under nos, 2, 4, and 8. For 
example, bidin nisht[, I crave it. 
(In 3o. bf- becomes yf-) 

14. to be with one; to stick to 
or with one. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition -it, 
with, to the forms given under 
nos. 2 and 4, Thus nit nisht[, I 
am with you. t'aa 'iidzaagi t'aa 
nit nishtft dooleet, whatever hap- 
pens I'll stick with you. 

15. to assemble; meet; con- 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'atah, together, tc 
the (duoplural or dist. pi) forms 
given under nos. 2, 3, 4, 8 or 9. 
Thus, *atah yileet, they are ga- 
thering; 'atah siidlfj', we met; 'a- 
tah ridiidleet, we will get back to 
gether (meet again). 

16. to become united. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding W\, one, unison, to 
the forms (dpi and dist. pi) gi- 
ven under nos. 2, 3, 4, 8, 9. For, 
example, ta*f siidlif, we became 
united; ta'f niidlf, we are united; 
fa*f nfsiidlff, we reunited. 

17. to rank amongst thorn. 
This meaning is rendered by 


prepounding bee 'atah to the 
forms given under nos. 2, 4, 8, 
or 9. Thus, tad gone' yee 'atah 
silfl, it ranked 3rd among them. 

18. to become overwhelming 
in amount; to become too much 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bide'aneelqq', the 
number (or amount) is above 
him, to the 3rd person forms gi- 
ven under nos. 2, 3, 8, or 9. For 
example, bide aneelqq* silif , it 
overwhelmed him. 

19. to come into existence; to 
become (area or place); to be 

F. hodooleet I. haleeh P. hazlii 1 
R. nahadleeh O. hole* (Prog. 
hooleet) )[ (tt^e*) hodooleet, it 
will become day (night). *anaa' 
hazl([*, war broke out. dees- 
k'aaz hodooleet, it (weather) will 
become cold. *awee* hazlu', the 
baby was born. 

20. to become again (area or 
place; to again come into exist- 
ence; to be born again (another). 

With ta*, one, an, another, 

some, the meaning is for another 
one to become or come into be- 
ing. Thus, awe<§* hazlfi' doo bi- 
k'iji* ta* naahdsdlff*, a baby was 
born, and afterward another was 

F. n66hodoodleet I. n66h6dleeh 
Prog. n6ahoodleet P. naahas 
dl[r O. naah6dle' 



21. to revert (to o former stote 
or condition; to become (bock) 
(ploce or area). 

F. nahodoodleet I. nahadleeh P. 
nahasdlif R. ninahadleeh O. 
nahodle' nahosdzadn bikda 
ri'oh bee hodoott'izh hahasdl[f 
the earth again became green 
with grass (i.e. reverted to a state 
of being green with grass) 

22. to break out (war). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding 'anaa', war, to the 
forms given under nos. 19, 20, 
or 21. (Also 'anaa' help, there is 

23. to come into possession of 
it; to have it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition 
-ee, by means of, to the follow- 
ing verb forms. It is altered for 
person by changing the pronoun 
object of the postposition, and 
is given herewith in the 1st per- 

F. shee hodooleet I. shee haleeh 
P. shee hazlff N. shee hol<? R. 
shee nahadleeh O. shee hole* 

24. to be bluffed or scared 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bit ghee\ terror 
with him, to the forms given un- 
der nos. 19, 20, or 21 Thus, bit 
ghee* hodooleef, he will be scar 
ed out. Hitler bisilaago t*66 
*dhay6i biniinaa Checoslovakic 
bi+ ghee* dahazl{f because 


hitler's soldiers were many Che- 
cosiovakio was scared out. 
25* to recover one's heolth. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding shanah, health (?), 
to the forms given under no. 9. 
Thus, shanah nisisdlti', I recov- 
ered my health, 

26. to get well (from illness). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding ya'dt'eeh, well, to 
the forms given under no. 9. As 
ya'at'eeh nfsisdl[[', I got well. 

27. to occur; to be (an event). 
F. adooleet I. 'aleeh P. *azl[f 
R. na'adleeh O. *6le\ naaa- 
hoohai 'adooleet, there will be a 
chicken pull, dfkwfishq' 'azlif, 
what time is it? naakidi *azl[[\ 
it is 2 o'clock, keshmish *azl[[\ 
it became Christmas. 

28. to be held (a meeting). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding 'atah, together, to 
the forms given under no. 27. 
Thus, atah 'azlff, there was a 

29. to pass away; to die. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bizee, his mouth 
to the forms given under no. 19. 
Thus, bizee* hazl£[*, he died. 

30. to be worth; to be of value; 
to cost. 

This meaning Is rendered by 
prepounding bqqh to the forms 
given under no. 27, with the ad 
dition of a neuter verb form '(If. 
Thus, dfkwfishq' bqqh azlu 



how much did it cost? dikwiishq' 
bqqh 'il(, how much is it worth? 
doo ' i lit d Q / <t >s cheap, worth- 
less, doo bqqh 'ilini da, it is of no 
value, worthless. 

31. to perspire. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding to -qqh, water be- 
side (on), to the forms given un- 
der no. 19. Thus, to shqqh 
hazlif, I am perspiring. 

32. to hove a close coll; to 
hove o narrow escape. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -kaa'jiV upon, tc 
the forms given under no. 19. 
Thus, shikaa'ji* hazl£t', I had a 
close call. 

33. to be a complaint about it. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding baa saad, words a- 
bout it, to the forms given in no. 
19. Thus, baa saad hazl[[\ a 
complaint arose about it. Also 
the neuter, baa saad holg, there 
is a complaint about it. 

34. to be agreement about it. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding bee Iq, ok with it, to 
the forms given under no. 27. 
Thus, bee Iq *azl[f , there came 
to be agreement about it. 
leel, le\ le*, dleeh, le*, probably 
related to the above stem. 

1, to appear; to move or roam 

F. naho-deesfvteet (df?, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C4. na-hash-te* 
(ho, ha, hoji,.hwii, hoh) P, na- 


hose-le' (hasini, haz, hojiz, ho- 
sii, hosoo) R, nina-hash-dleeh 
(ho, ha,, hoji, hwii, hoh) O. no- 
hosh-le' (hoo, ho, ho jo, hoo, 
hooh) naatsis'qqdi nahashte'- 
go sheehai, I spent the winter 
roaming the Navajo Mountain 

leel, le (le), la, dleeh, leet, to 
handle a slender flexible object, 
or an object the characteristics 
of which are unknown (such as 
what would be represented by 
indefinite something, anything). 
This stem refers to such objects 
as a rope, cable, snake, strand 
of hair, strip of bark, sapling, 
flexible green branch, etc. For 
the derivational prefixes V. 9 66\. 

1 ♦ to commit adultery. 
F. o-dideesh-t£6t (didff, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. 'a- 
dish-te (df, di, zhdi, dii, doh) P. 
•a-dff-la (dffnf, dff, zhdii, dii, 
doo) R. 'a-ridfslvdleeh (ndf, n- 
df, nizhdf, ndii, ndoh) O. 'a- 
dosh-+eet (doo, do, zhdo, doo, 

2. to fold it (blanket, etc.). 
F. 'ahqqh dmeesh-teet (dinii, yi- 
dmoo, jidinoo, dinii, di'nooh) 
(bidfnoodleet) I. *ahq<Jh niish- 
le (nii, yinii, jinii, njj # noob) (bi- 
drniidl6) P. 'ahqqh nii-la (nini, 
yinii, jinii, nii, nooh) (bidi'nii- 
dla) R. naniish-dfeeh (nanii, 
n&inii, nazhnii, ndnii, nanooh) 
(nabidiniidle^h) 0. noosh-tee* 
(noo, yinoo, jinoo, noo, nooh) 



(bidi'noodlttt) beeldlei o- 

hqqh niild, i folded the blanket, 
beeldlei ahqqh niildago sit- 
tsooz, the blanket lies folded. 

3. to pay him. 

* Instead of inserting d in the 
1st person duoplural, and in the 
passive, the following verbs in- 
sert the l-classifier and change 
the stem initial to gh before e, 
and to y before a. 
F. "bichT n'deesh-ieet (n'dii. 
n'doo, nizh'doo, n'diil, n'dooh) 
(n'doolgheet) I. bichY na'nish- 
ie (na'ni, na'i, n'ji, na'niil, na'- 
noh) (na'ilghe) P. bich'f naYif-la 
(na'i'ini, na'ni, nazh'ni, na'niil, 
na'noo) (na'flya) R. bich'f ni- 

r * r t 11**1 / * » * * I r t * • ' 

na ash-dleeh (na i, no a, na ji, 
nd'iil, nd'dh) (nd'dlgheeh) O 
bich'i' na'dsh-feef (na'dd, nao, 
n'jd, na'ool, na'ooh) (na'dlgheet) 
bik'eh bich'f n'deesh+ee*, I'll 
pay him for it. 
**bi- becomes vi- in 3o. 

4. to repay him; pay him bock 
In this paradigm the d-classifi- 

er is inserted, and the verb is re- 
gular in the 1st person duopl, 
but in the passive l-classifier is 
inserted with the stem changes 
noted in no. 3 above. 
F. *bichT ni-nd'deesh-dteet (nd- 
'dh, nd'doo, ndzh'doo, nd'dii, 
nd'dooh) (nd'doolghe6t) I. bi- 
ch'i* ni-nd'nfsh-dl£ (nd'ni, nd'i, 
nd'ji, na'niil, nd'ndh) (nd'flghe) 
P. bichY ni-nd'nfsh-dtd (nd'iinf, 
na ni, no ji, na nil, na nooh) 


(na'flya) R, bich'f ni-nd'dsh- 
dleeh (nd'i, nd'd, nd'ji, nd'iil, na~ 
oh) (na algheeh) O. bichT ni- 
nd osh-dlee* (nd'dd, nd'd, nd'jd, 
na'ool, nd'ooh) (nd*dlgh6et) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
5. to plant it. 

V. no. 3 for explanation of the 
stem and classifier changes. 
F. k'i-dideesh-ieet (didti, ididoo, 
zhdidoo, didiil, didooh) I. k'i- 
dish-te (di, idi, zhdi, dill, doh) 
P. k'i-dif-ld (dn'nf, idii, zhdii, diil, 
doo) R, k'ee-dish-dleeh (di, idi, 
zhdi, diil, doh) O. k'i-ddsh-teet 
(ddd, idd, zhdd, dool, dooh) 

6* to plant; to farm; to engage 
in agriculture. 

F. k'i-di'deesh-tee* (dt'dii, di'- 
doo, dizhTdoo, di'diil, di'dooh) 
C-L kVdish-te (kVdf, kTdi, k'i- 
zh'di, kVdiil, kVdoh) P. kV- 
dii-ld (kVdiini, kTdfi, k'izh'dif, 
kYdiil, kTdoo) R, k'ed'dish- 
dleeh (k'ee'di, k'ee'di, k'eezh'di, 
k ee'diil, k ee doh) O. kVddsh- 
\eei (kVddd, kVdd, k'izh'dd, k f i- 
'dool, kTdooh) 

7. to roll a cigaret. 
F. diih deesh-Jeet (dii, yidoo, ji- 
doo, diil, dooh) I. diih yislvte 
(ni, y'/ i'/ y»'l/ ghoh) P, diih yf- 
Id (yini, yiyfi, jii, yiil, ghoo) R. 
diih ndsh-dteeh {ndnf, n6f, ,n\i 
neiil, ndh) O. diih ghosh-teet 
(ghoo, yd, Jo, ghool, ghooh) 
\i\\ a certain one; an unfamil- 
iar one; one that; the fact that. 
\[\ lei' yiiltsq, I saw an unfamil- 



iar horse, 'i+hosh I6i' nich'j' 
yashti', it just occurred to me 
that I am talking to you and you 
are asleep. 

Hit, leeh, laa, 'j Cf!h), le', to cre- 
ate, make. 

This verb has several irregular 
features which must be born in 
mind. In the 1st person dpi and 
the passive forms of all the mo- 
des except the usitative (U) and 
the iterative (R), stem initial I is 
replaced by n (or y in the per- 
fective), and the I-classif ier is in- 

Note that with the addition of 
the prefixes naa-, again, and no, 
back, the d-classifier is added, 
except in the 1st person <Jp| an d 
in the passive forms which in- 
sert the l-classifier, with the al- 
terations of the stem initial vo- 
wel described above. 

1. to make it. 
F. adeesh-tfit Cadn, 'irdoo, azh- 
doo, adiil, adooh) ( abidi'dool- 
nut) I. 'ash-+eeh Cani, *fi, aji, 
'iil, 'oh) ( abi'dilneeh) P. 'ash- 
(or *iish-)taa ffini, 'ayii, *ajii, 
*M, '6oh) ( abi'diilyaa)) U. 'ash- 
'f ( anit, 'fit, '6|», *iil, '6*) Cabi*- 
dil'i) R. anash- (or *aneish-) i[h 

anein, anayiii, anjnl, anenl, 
'anaoot) fanabi'diil uh) O 
^oosh-te' C66, avo, 'ajo, ool, 
*6oh) Cabi'dolne') 

(The regular, or Passive A is 
F. adoolmf! I. 'aln£eh P. 'alyaa 


2. to moke it again; to make 
another one (with propounded 
ta', one, on, some). 

F. 'anaa-deeshdlfit fanaadii, '6- 
neidoo, 'anaazhdoo, 'anaadiil, 
'anaadooh) I. 'anaa-nash-dleeh 
(ni, net', jf, neiil, nah) P. 'anaa- 
nash-dlaa (neini, yii, jii, neiil, 
naooh) O. 'anaa-naosh-dle* 
naoo, yo, jo, naool, naooh) 

3. to repair it; make it back to 
its former state; remake it. 

F. andeesh-dliR ('dhdu, 'anei- 
doo, 'anizhdoo, 'ahdiil, 'ahdooh) 
Canabidi'doolniM) L 'anash- 
dleeh ( anani, anei, anji, ane- 
iil, anah) Canabi'dilneeh) P. 
'anash-dlaa Caneini, 'anayii, *a- 
njii, 'aneiil, f anaoo) Oanabf- 
diilyaa) R. 'ani-neish-'ijh (neiil, 
nayiil, ndjiil, neiil, ndoof) (nabi'- 
diil-) O. 'ana-osh-dle* (66, yo, 
jo, ool, ooh) (bi'dolne 1 ) 
The prefix naa- can, of course, 
be inserted after ni- (n-) to give 
the meaning "repair it again," 
as 'anfnaadeeshdlut, I shall re- 
pair it again. 

4. to do or moke it thus; to 
make it correctly. 

F. 'akodeesh-tfit Cakodfi, akwii- 
doo, akozhdoo, 'akodiil, ako~ 
dooh) ( akobidi'doolnift) I. \5- 
kosh-teeh ( akoni, akwfi, akojf, 
akwfil, 'akoh) fakobi'dilneeh) 
P. akwiish-taa ( akwiini, 'akwi- 
yii, akojii, 'akwiil, 'akooh) Ta- 
kobi'diilyaa) R. akoneish-'ifh 

U. 'al'f R. , 6n6l , Uh O. oolne') |C6k6n6iil, \5k6nayiil, akorijiil 



.^— • • • T i l in i i iw— i>— mmmmm m^— mm— —^— — — 

akoneHI, *dkon6oaf) Cdk6bi*- 
diil-) 0. 'akoosh-te' ( ak66, 'a- 
koyo, 'akojo, '<5k6of- f 6k6dh> fd- 

5. to chohge or alter it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding tahgo, otherwise, 
to the forms given under nos. 1 
and 2. Thus, lahgo *adeeshtn'J, I 
will change it. 

6. to clench the fist; to push 
things together in a pile; to fold 
it (as paper); to close it (book). 

These meanings are rendered 
by Drepounding 'atchT, toward 
each other, to the forms given 
under nos. 1, 2 and 3. Thus 'at- 
chT 'adeeshtnt, I'll push them 
together in a pile; shila' 'ateh'i* 
'adeesh+fR, I'll clench my fist 

7. to encourage one. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding taa -tf hasihgo, 
just hope with (one), to the forms 
given under nos: 1, 2 and 3, For 
example, t'aa nit hasihgo \5- 
niishlaa, I encouraged you. It 
will be noted that the pronoun 
prefixed to the postposition -it, 
with corresponds to the object- 
ive personal pronoun infixed in 
the verb 

8. to make a ditch. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding to yigeed, a ditch 
for water, to the forms given un- 
der nos 1 and 2, Thus, shida'a- 
k'eh bibqqhgi t6 yfgeed 'ashtaa, 


1 made a ditch on the edge of my 

9. to make it shiny; to shine 
it (as shoes, cor, etc.). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bizdilidgo, shiny, 
to the forms given under nos 1 
and 2, Thus, bfzdi'lidgo 'dshtod, 

1 shined it. 

10. to make it fay hand. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t ? aa yila bee, just 
by means of the hands, to the 
forms given under no. 1. Thus, 
t'aa yila bee 'ashtaa, I made it 
by hand; t'aa yf la bee 'dlyaa, it 
was made by hand. 

11. to make it clear; to clari- 
fy it; to leave no doubt about it* 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t'aa 'ifshjani, clear, 
to the forms given under nos. 1, 

2 and 3. Thus, t'aa 'ffshjanl 
'lish+aa, I made it clear. 

12. to pack them into it (as in 
packing things into a car). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bii* heel, into it a 
pack, to the forms given under 
nos. 1, 2 and 3. Thus, bii' heet 
'ash+aa, I packed them in it, 

13. to raise it, or lift it up. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prefixing dei-, up, to the forms 
given under nos. 1, 2 and 3. As, 
'eii dibe bitsif dei anffeeh, lift 
up that sheep's head! 

14. to gather or bundle them 



This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding *a+ah, together, tc 
the forms given under nos. 1 , 2 
or 3. Thus, 'atah 'adeesh+iit, I'll 
bundle them together. 

15. to open it (as a window). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding *qq, open, to the 
forms given under nos. 1, 2 or 3. 
Thus, *qq 'fishlaa, I opened it. 

16. to fertilize a field. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding nanise' bich'iyq 
da ak'eh bqqh, plant food on the 
field, to the forms given under 
nos. 1,2 or 3. Thus, nanise' bi- 
ch'iyq' da'ak'eh bqqh 'ashtaa, I 
fertilized (put fertilizer on) the 

17. to set them (slender ob- 
jects as poles) side by side. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding naaniigo shizhoozh 
go, lying crosswise side by side, 
to the forms given under nos. 1, 
2 or 3. Thus, naaniigo shizhoozh 
go 'adeeshtfit, I'll set them side 
by side. 

18. to terminate it; halt it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ni', earth (termina- 
tion), to the forms given under 
nos. 1 and 2. Thus, yiskqqgo 
shinaanish ni* adeeshtfft, I'll ter- 
minate my work tomorrow; k'ad 
chidf ni* 'adeesh+fft, now I'll halt 
the cor, 

19. to make it (a place, area). 
F. *aho-deesh-tff+ (dff, doo, zhdoo 


diil, dooh) I. ahash-teeh ('6ho, 
'aha, 'ahoji, ahwiil, ahoh) P. 
ahoosh-taa ('ahwiini, 'ahoo, 'a- 
hojii, 'ahwiil, 'ahooh) R. 'ana- 
hoosh-'iih (hool, hool, hojiil, 
hwiil, hool) O. ahosh-teeh Ca- 
in 66, *aho, 'ahojo, 'ahool, 'ahoot) 

20. to open a way for it (as for 
navigation, an army, etc.). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ba *qq, open for it, 
to the forms under no. 19. Thus, 
silaago ba 'qq 'ahwiilyaa, we o- 
pened a way for the soldiers. 

21. to bluff or scare him out. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -i+ ghee', with (one) 
fear, to the forms of no. 19, the 
pronoun prefixed to the postpo- 
sition -it, with, representing the 
object of the verb, and the infix- 
ed ho- In the verb standing for 
impersonal it, things (lit. to 
make things fearful for, or with, 
him). Thus, bit ghee' 'ahoosh- 
taa, I bluffed him out. 

22. to change tires (as when 
one has had a puncture). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding chidf bikee', tire 
(i.e. car's shoe), to the forms gi- 
ven under no. 3. Thus, chidf bi- 
kee 1 'andeeshdlfft, I'll change 
the tire. 

23. to be successful (at it); to 
succeed (in it); to accomplish it. 

F. \q deesh-lfft (dff, yidoo, jidoo, 
diil, dooh) I. fa' yish-teeh (ni, yi, 
ji, yiil, ghoh) P. -fa* yish-faa (yi- 



ni, yiyii, jii, yiil, ghooh) U. to* 
yish-'t (nit, yil, jit,- yiil, ghot) R. 
fa' nash-'Uh (nantt, nayiit, njiit, 
neiil, nat) O. +a* ghosh-te' (gh66 
y6/ jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

24. to fix it; to correct it. 
F. hasht'ee-deesh-dlffl (dii, yidoc 
zhdoo, diil, dooh) (doolnnt) I. 
hasht'e-nash-dleeh (nani, nef, 
rijf, neiil, nah) (nalneeh) P. 
hasht'e-nash-dlaa (neinf, nayii, 
rijii, n6iil, naooh) (nalyaa) R. 
hasht'enf-nash-'uh (nefl, nayiil, 
najiil, neiil, na+) (nal-) O. hash- 
te-naosh-dle' (naoo, nayo, njo, 
naool, naooh) (naolne') 

25. to prepare it; to make it 

F. hasht e-deesh-+fi+ (dii, idoo, 
zhdoo, diil r dooh) (bidPdoolnfitj 
I. hasht'e-esh-Jeeh (ni, i, ji, iil, 
oh) (bi'dilneeh) P. hasht'e-esh- 
taa (ini, iyii, jii, iil, ooh) (bi'diil- 
yaa) R. hasht'e-neish-'Uh (neiil 
nayiil, njiil, neiil, naoot) (nabi'- 
diil-) O. hasht'e-osh-te' (66, yo, 
jo, ool, ooh) (bi'dolne*) 

k'ad sitsask'eh hasht'edeesh- 
ffit, I'll make my bed ready now. 

26. to order it (as from a cata- 

F. *bfka Tdeesh-tift (Tdff, Tdoo 
'izh'doo, Tdiil, Tdooh) (Tdool- 
nfft) I. bika 'e'esh-leSh (Tf, 'e'e, 
Tjf, Till, Toh) CeMlneeh) P. 
bfka Tiish-laa (Tiini, Til, Vjr, 
"Piil, 'Pooh) (Tiilyaa) R. bfka 
ana'iish-'iih Cand'iil, , 6n6 , iil / 
TiVjiil, ana'iil, 'ana'oot) Cana 1 - 


OO, I - 

iil-) O, 6'6sh-te' ('6'66, 
jo, 'Pool, 'Pooh) ('o'olne') 
*bf- becomes yi- in 3o. 

27. to halt; to discontinue. 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding ni', earth (termina- 
tion), to the verb forms given un- 
der no. 26 (without the postposi- 
tion bika, of course). Thus, ni- 
lei tsin 'iPahadi ni' Tdeesh+itt, I 
will stop over there at that tree 
(as when one is traveling in a 

28. to copy it; to make a fac- 
simile of it; to take his picture. 

F. bPdeesh-liit (bi'dii, yPdoo, bi- 
zrTdoo, bi'diil, bi'dooh) (bi'dool- 
nffi) I. be'esh-teeh (be'f, yi'i, 
bi'ji, bPiil, bi oh) (be'elneeh) P. 
bPiish-taa (buini, yPii, bPjii, bi- 
'iil, bPooh) (bi'iilyaa) U. be'- 
esh-'[ (be'tt, yPii, bPjit, bi'iil, bi'- 
ot) (be'el-) R. bina'iish-'Uh (bi- 
na'iil, yind'iil, bina'iil, bind'oot) 
(bina'iil-) O. bP6sh-te' (bi'66, 
yi'6, bi'jo, bi ool, bPooh) (bi oU 
ne 1 ) ne'eshieeh ya\ I'll take 
your picture huh? t'66 be'elyaa, 
it's merely a copy of it; it is arti- 

29. to give him a chance or 
an opportunity. 

F. *ba 'ashja* deesh-tfii (dn, doo, 
jidoo, diil, dooh) (doolnfit) I. 
ba 'ashja* 'ashteeh ( f f, 'a, *aji, 
Mil, *oh) Oalneeh) P. ba 'ashja' 
MisMaa (Mint, 'ii, 'ajii, f fil, f ooh) 
Ciilyaa) R. ba ashja na'iish-jih 
(na'iil, nd'iil, rVjiil, na'iil, na'oot) 



(nd'iil-) O. osh-te' ( od, o, ajd, 
ool, ooh) (olne') 'ashja'at- 
'iinii t'ddtdhddi 'ashjcT 'iit'uh, 
opportunity knocks but once (lit. 
portunity only one time), 
portunitty only one time). 

The meaning of "to give him 
another chance" is rendered by 
prefixing the element ndd-, a- 
gain. It is herewith given in the 
1st person singular: F. bd 'ash- 
ja ndd'deeshdh'ii J. ba *ashja 
ndd'dshdleeh P. bd 'ashja ndd- 
'iishdlaa R. bd 'ashja nd'iish- 
'j[h O. bd 'ashja ndd'dshdle' 

*bd becomes yd in 3o. 

30. to injure him; punish him. 
F. 'ati-deesh-+fft (dii, idoo, zhdoo 
dill, dooh) (bidfdoolnfit) I. 'atf- 
sh-teeh Catini, 'atfi, 'atiji, 'atiil, 

atioh) fatibi'dilneeh) P. atfi- 
sh-+aa ('atiini, 'atiyii, 'arijii, 'a- 
tfil, 'atfooh) ('atflbi'diilyaa) R. 
'atf-neish-'iih (neiil, ndyiil, njiil 
neiil, ndoot) (ndbi'diil-) O. ati- 
osh-le 1 (do, yd, jo, ool, ooh) (bf- 
dolne*) doo 'dkwii 'dnit' ii da- 
go biniinaa 'atfniishiaa, you did 
not behave, so I punished you. 
rddtfhtf atee+'iinii at'e, whis- 
key is injurious. 

31. to harm one by magic. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding -'dlffl bee, by 
(one's) magic, to the forms of no. 
30. Thus, she'dlffl bee *atfdeesh- 
tfil, I'll harm him with my ma- 
gic (hex him). 

32. to be harmful, injurious. 


F. •otfdoolff* I. atf'iieeh P. ati- 
'iilaa U. ati'dTi R. atind'iil- 
'iih O. atiole' tddithW 'atPei- 
*i inii (or 'ate'eHinii) *dt*e, whis- 
key is harmful, 

33. to wink at him. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -ch'f -nddk'is, to- 
ward (one) one of (one's) eyes, to 
the forms under no. 1. Thus, 
bichV shinddk'is 'dsh+aa, I 
winked at him. 

Hit, Ii (ii), lii' dliih, lit' (Hih), has 
to do with sentiments of suspi- 
cion, trust, confidence, etc. 

It will be noted that the passive 
forms are irregular, taking on I- 
classifier, and changing the ini- 
tial vowel of the stem to n, al- 
though the 1st person dpi is reg- 
ular and inserts d before the 

1. to be suspicious of him. 

F. *baa 'ayahwii-deesh-tiit (dii, 
doo, zhdoo, dii, dooh) (doolnitf) 
N. baa *aya-hoosh-+i (hwiini, hoo 
hojoo, hwii, hoh) (hoolni) P. 
baa aya-hwiise-lff (hwiisfni, 
hooz, hojooz, hwiisii, hwiisoo) 
(hoosniP) R. baa 'ayand-hoosh- 
dliih (ndhwiini, hoo, hojoo, hwii, 
hoh) (hoolniih) O. baa *aya- 
hoosh-W (hod, hoo, hojoo, hoo, 
hooh) (hoolnfP) 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

2. to trust him; to have confi- 
dence in him. 

F. *baa jiideesh-fiit (dziidff, dzii- 

doo, dziizhdoo, dziidii, dziidooh) 



N. baa josh-ti (dziini, dzo, ijo, 
dzfinii, dzifnoh) P. baa dziise- 
li* (dziisini, dzooz, dzijooz / dzii- 
sii, dziisoo) R. baa nijosh-dliih 
(nfdzf, nidzo, neiji, nidzii, ni- 
dzoh) O. baa josh-ti ih (dzoo, 
dzo, ijo, dzoo, dzooh) t[[' \\- 
zhinigff baa josh+f, I have confi- 
dence in the black horse. Hitler 
doo baaijoliih at'ee da, Hitler 
cannot be trusted. 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o, 

3. to be expectant (not in the 
sense of birth, but of someone or 

. na nnish-fi (r\Q nni, nao, n - 
jo, na'ifnn, na'nnoh) na'finfsh- 
Kigo biniinaa tPoogoo ridi'sh- 
t'[[h, I keep looking out because 
I am expecting someone. 

4. to expect him. 

N. neinish-+f (nefni, nayo, njo, 
nefnii, neinoh) (nabi'dooInO 
nan i fnfsh+i, I'm expecting you. 

5. to depend on him; to rely on 

N. ba'ffnfsh-H (ba'nni, ya'6, ba- 
jo, ba'ifnfi, ba'iinoh) ya*6U, he 
is depending on him. na'oli, he 
is depending on you. ch'eeh na- 
'nnish-K, I cannot depend on you. 

6. to be undependable; un- 

This meaning is rendered by 
the following optative form: doo 
sha'joolif 'at'ee da, I am unde- 
pendable. sha'jooliP (that I 
might be depended upon; that 
one might depend on me) is al- 



tered for person thus: sha-'joo- 
liT (na, ba, ha, niha, niha) 
lit, lid, lid, li', lid, to smoke; to 

It is to be noted that when the 
t-classifier is added to an l-initi- 
al stem, the stem becomes t-init- 

1. to burn; to smoulder; to is- 
sue forth (smoke)* 

F. didoolit I. dilid P. dnlid R. 
ndili' U. dfli' O. dolid 

2. to make it burn; to cause it 
to smoke. 

The following verb contains 
the t-classifier which causes the 
initial I of the stem to drop out. 
However, \ does not change to I 
in the 1st person dpi and in the 
passive as would be expected, 
but drops out entirely. Thus, di- 
diidli+, not didiilit; and bidPdoo- 
dlit, not bidi'doolit. 
F. dideesh-tit (didif, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) (bidi'doo- 
dlit) I. dish-lid (df, yidi, jidi, 
dii, doh) (bPdidlid) P. dif-fid 
(dffnf, yidff, jidff, dii, doo) (bV- 
doodlid) U. dish4i' (df, yidi, ji- 
di, dii, doh) (bi'didli 1 ) R. ndfsh- 
fi* (ndi, neidi, nfzhdi, ndii, ndoh) 
(nabi'didli') O. dosh-tid (doo, 
yido, jido, doo, dooh) (bPdodlid) 
lin, to appear; to be in appear- 
ance; to look like. This stem is 
probably related to l[ (V. \eet). 

1. to look like (it); to be like 
(it) in appearance; to ressemble 
N. nahonish-lin (nahonf, naha 



nahojf, nahonii, nahonoh). dii 
teechqq'i mq'utsoh nahalin, this 
dog looks like a wolf, cheeh 
diniya nahom'lin, you look tired. 

2. to ressemble each other; to 
be similar in appearance. 
N. *ahinii(d)-lin ('ahinooh, *ahi 
noo, 'ahizhnoo). 'ahiniidlin, we 
ressemble each other. dze6h *6f 
biihtsoh yit 'ahinoolin, the elk 
and a big deer are similar in ap- 

3. to appear or look thus; to 
look like this; to look this way. 
N. ko-neesh-tin (nifni, noo, zh- 
noo, nii, nooh). shilii* konoolin 
nt'ee*, my horse used to look this 
way (as in showing a photo, for 

lish, Nzh, lizh, dlish, lizh, to uri- 

1. to urinate. 
F. a-deesh-iish (du, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) C-l. 'ash-tizh Ci, 'a, 
aji, 'ii, 'oh) P. 'ash<§-lizh ( ashf- 
nf, 'azh, 'ajizh, ashii, 'ashoo) 
R. na'ash-dlish (na'f na*a, rVjf, 
na'ii, na'ah) O. *6sh-tizh C66, 
'6, *ajo, 'oo, *oh) 

2. to urinate (tr.). 
This verb can be transitivized 

by inserting the t-classif ier. With 
addition of t-classifier, the stem 
is, to all intents and purposes, t- 
initial. However, in the 1st per. 
dpi, and in the passive forms t 
does not change to I but drops 
out entirely, and d is inserted. 
Compare li+, to burn or smoke. 

F. bideesh-tish (bidiit, yfdoot, bi- 
zhdoot, bidii, bidoot) C-l. besh- 
tizh (binit, yet, bijit, bii, boot) 
P. bishe-tizh (shinfi, yesh, bijish, 
bishii, bf shoot) R. bfnash-tish 
(bfnanit, yinat, bin j ft, bineii, bi- 
nd!) O. boosh-tizh (boot, yoot, 
bfjot, boo, boot) 

dit bfshetizh, I urinated blood; 
dit bishiidlizh, we urinated blood 
Ifh, Ijh (If|h), l|h, dljh, Ijh, to taste 

1. to be able to taste; to have 
a sense of taste. 
N. 'ash-tUh ff, 'a, 'aji, Mi, oh) 

2. to taste it. 
F. deesh-t[h (dn, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doodlih) I. yiish-tjh 
(yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bi'dii- 
dljh) S-P. se-ljh (sini, yiz, jiz, sii, 
soo) (bi'disdl[h) R. neish-dl|h (ne- 
ii, nayii, njii, neii, naooh) (nabi*- 
diidi[) O. ghoosh-tjh (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh (bPdoodli) 
\\ t to flow. 

This stem is herewith given in 
conjunction with a number of 
prefixes which derive various 

1 . to flow. 
'atts'anfli, they flow apart from 
each other; 'atts*adaazli, they 
(dist. pi) flow apart from one an- 
other; 'ahidiilf, they flow toge- 
ther (are confluent); 'ahidadiil[, 
they (dist. pi) flow together; bi- 
naazlf, it flows around it; *ahee- 
nflf, it flows in a circle; ch'fnfli, 
it flows horizontally out; haal[, 
it flows up and out (a spring); 



yah fill, it flows in (as into a 
hole; biih nilj, it flows into it (as 
a river flowing into the sea); biih 
daazlf, they flow into it (rivers); 
yoo' 'ifli, it flows away; nil[, it is 
flowing (or flows) along, nadl[, 
it drips down (as water from a 
leaky roof). 

2. to cause it to flow. 
Insertion of the {-classifier can 

render transitive verbs with the 
stem l[, but the l-initial of the 
stem is dropped, and in the 1st 
person dpi and in the passive, \ 
does not become I, as would be 
expected, but drops out and d is 

to make it flow up out. 
N. haat-Wi (hafnft, hayift, hajfft, 
hayinfi, hayinof) 

to make it flow along. 
N. yfnfsh-tj (yfnft, yinfi, jinft, y\- 
nii, yfnot) 

to make it flow to a point; to 
make it stop flowing. 
N. ninft-(t)[ (ninfi'nit, niinit, nizh- 
nfl, ninii, ninof) 

to make it flow (in, with pro- 
pounded yah; away, with pro- 
pounded yoo'). 

N. 'fft-tfli ('ffnft, 'ayftt, ajiit, *ii- 

mi, nnor) 

to make it flow in a circle. 

N. ahe6-nish-t[ (nit, init, zhnft, 

nfi, not) 

3. to bleed. 

dit shqqh haal( (blood is flowing 
up out on me). Altered for per- 


•- — 

son by changing the pronoun 
prefix on the postposition -qqh, 
alongside, on. 

loh, leeh (loh) lo* (loh), dloh, leek 

(loh), to act with a rope or cord. 

1. to lasso it; to trap, snare it. 

F. deesh-toh (dif, yidoo, jidoo A 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doodloh) I. 
yiish-toh (yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) 
(bi'diidloh) P. se-loh (smi, yiz A 
jiz, sii, soo) (bi'disdloh) R. ne- 
ish-dloh (neii, neii, hjii, neii, no- 
ooh) (nabi'diidloh) O. ghoosh- 
foh (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to catch them one after the 
other (as fish, or animals in trap- 

F. 'ahi-hideesh-+oh (hidii, idiyoo„ 
zhdiyoo, hidii, hidooh) (bidiyoo- 
dloh) I. 'ahi-hesh-teeh (hi, iyi A 
jii, hii, hoh) (bi'diidleeh) P, 
'ahi-he-lo* (hfnf, yiiz, jiiz, hee^ 
hoo) (bi'diisdlo') R. ahi- 

ndhash-dloh (nahi, nayii, hjii^ 
nahii, nahoh) (nabi'diidlo) O 
'ahi-hosh-leeh (hoo, iyo, jiyo 
hoo, hooh) (bidi'yodleeh) 

3. to defraud or "gyp" him. 
F. bidi'deesh-toh (bidi'dif, yidi*- 
doo, bizhdi'doo, bidi'dii, bidi'- 
dooh) (bidi'doodioh) I. bi'dish- 
feeh (bi'di, yi'di, bizh'di, bi'dii, 
bi'doh) (bi'didleeh) P. hi'de-lo" 
[bi'dfnf, yi'deez, bizh'deez, bi'- 
dee, bi'disoo) (bi'deesdlo 1 ) R, 
bin'dfsh-dloh (birVdf, yin'di, bi- 
nfzh'di, bin'dii, birVdoh) (bina*- 



dfdloh) O, bidosh-teeh (bi'doo, 
yi'do, bizh'do, bfdoo, bi'dooh) 

4. to cheat, defraud or "gyp J 

This meaning is rendered by 
changing definite objective bi- 
jn no. 3 to indefinte 'i-. Thus 
'idi/deeshtoh, I'll cheat. 

5. to strangle him with a cord. 
F. *bizak'i-dideesh-toh (didii, 
ididoo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) 
1. bizak'i-diish-ieeh (dii, idii, zh- 
dii, dii, dooh) P. bizak'f-dii-Io' 
{dini, idii, zhdii, dii, doo) R. bi- 
zak'f-ndiish-dloh (ndii neidii, nf- 
zhdii, ndii, ndooh) O. bizdk'f- 
doosh-teeh (doo, idoo, zhdoo, 
doo, dooh) **N. bizak'f-dimish- 
to' (dffnf, dees, zhdees, dffnfi, dff- 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
**The neuter means to be in a 
state of strangling him; i.e. to be 
actively engaged in compress- 
ing his throat with a cord. 

6. to apply the brake to it. 

F. bfdideesh-toh (bfdidif, yiidi- 
doo, bizhdidoo, bfdidii, bfdidooh) 
1. bfdiish-teeh (bfdii, yfidii, bfzh- 
dn\ bfdii, bfdooh) P. bfdii-lo* 
(bfdini, yfidii, bfzhdii, bfdii, bf- 
doo) R. bmdiish-dloh (bfndii, 
yfneidii, bmfzhdii, bmdii, bm 
dooh) O. bfdoosh-teeh (bfdoo 
yiidoo, bfzhdoo, bfdoo, bfdooh) 

7. to put on the brakes. 

This meaning is rendered by 
changing definite objective bi- 
in no. 6, to indefinite 'f-. Thus 


'fdideeshtoh, I'll put on the 

8. to guide it; to drive it (a car 
or wagon). 

F. deesh-toh (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doodloh) I. dish- 
teeh (di, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) (bi'- 
didleeh) P. n-lo' (yinf, yinf, jinf, 
nii, noo) (bfdeedlo*) R. nash- 
dloh (nani, nef, nji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'didloh) 0- ghosh-teeh 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'- 

9. to be driving it along. 
Prog. yish-+oh (yf, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bi'doodloh) 

10. to drive (intr.). 

F. 'a-deesh-+oh (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. 'a-dish-feeh (di, di, 
zhdi, dii, doh) P. 'anf-lo' Cffnf, 
'anf, 'czhnf, *anii, 'anoo) R. na'- 
ash-dloh (na'f, na'd, ri'jf, na'li, 
na oh) O. '6sh-teeh ('66, '6, a- 
jo, 'oo, 'ooh) 

11. to be driving along (intr.). 
Prog. *eesh-ioh ('if, 'oo, 'ajoo, 'ii, 

12. to weigh. 

N. dah hi-dfnish-dlo' (dfm, de 
zhde, dfnfi. dfnoh). 'ashdia' 
dah hidedlo*, it weighs five 

13. to weigh it. 

F. dah hidideesh-toh (hididff, yi- 
diyoo, hizhdiyoo, hididii, hidi- 
dooh) (bi'diyoodloh) I. dah hi- 
diish-teeh (hidii, yidii, hizhdii 
hidii, hidooh) (bi'diidleeh) P. dah 
hidii-lo* (hidini, yidiyii, hizhdii 



hidii, hidoo) (bi'diidlo') R. dah 

ndhidiish-dloh (nahidii, neidiyii 

nahizhdii, nahidii, nahidooh) 

(nabi'diidioh) O. dah hidoosh- 

teen (hidoo, yidiyoo, hizhdiyoo, 

hidoo, hidooh) (bi'doodleeh) 

lok'aach'egai, Lukachukai, Ariz 

and The S. W. Range and Sheep 

Breeding Laboratory near Fort 

Wingate, N. M. 

lok'aadeeshjin, Keams Canon , 


lok'aahniteel, Ganado, Ariz. 

lok'aa', reed. 

lok'aatsoh, cane reed. 

166s, 166s, I66z, 166s, 166s, to lead 

(one object). 

1. to start off leading it. 

F. dah didees-toos (didfi, yididoo, 
shdidoo, didii, didoo) I. dah diis- 
toos (dii, yidii, shdii, dii, dooh) 
P. dah dii-looz (dini, yidii, shdii, 
dii, doo) R. dah ndiis-toos (ridii, 
neidii, nfzhdii, ndii, ndooh) O, 
dah doos-toos (doo, yidoo, jidoo, 
doo, dooh) 

2. to be on one's way leading 
it; to be going to lead if. 

S-P. de-looz (dim, yideez, jideez, 
dee, disoo) 

3. to be leading it along. 
Prog, yish-foos (yf, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bi'doodloos) 

4. to bring it (leading it); to 
arrive leading it. 

F. dees-loos (dii, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doodloos) I. nis-toos 
(ni, yf, jf, nii, noh) (bi'deedloos) 
P. nf-looz (yrnf, yini, jinf, nii, 


noo) (bi'deedlooz) R. nas-dl66s 
(nam, nef, riji, neii, nah) (nabi*- 
didloos) O. ghos-loos (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'dodloos) 

5. to lead him to safety. 
This meaning is rendered by 
propounding yisda, safety, to the 
forms given under no. 4. Thus, 
yisda nilooz, I saved him; yisda 
shffnflooz, you saved me. 

The stems given as l-initial 
are quite probably l-initials with 
the t-classifier inserted. In the 
1st person dpi, and in the pass- 
ive forms I (I) is dropped, and d 
is inserted. 
faat, la, faa\ to hate. 

1 . to come to hate him; to hate 
him (in the neuter). 
F. jiideesh-taa+ (jiidii, yijiidoo, 
jijiidoo, jiidii, jiidooh) (bijiidi** 
doodiaai) N. joosh-+a (jiinf, yi- 
joo, jijoo, jiinii, jiinoh) (biji*- 
doodla) P. jiise-faa* (jiisfnf, yi- 
joos, jijoos, jiisii, jiisoo) (biji*- 
taat, fa, sa, faah, ta\ 

This stem has s-initial in the 
perfective stem. In order to avoid 
insertion of d, with resulting dz, 
I is inserted and the stem initial 
becomes z. Thus, nabfsiilza, not 
*nabisiidza, we destroyed it. 

Use of stems of the verb mean- 
ing "to walk, go," (V. gaat) seem 
to indicate that this stem is re- 
lated to gaat. In fact it is quite 



probable that tddt is the causa- 
tive form of gddt, and that low- 
toned +aat is related to goat as 
tddt is to goat. 

1. to destroy it. 

F. na-bideesh-iaat (bidii, yidoo, 
bfzhdoo, bidii, bfdoo) (brdool- 
dah) I. na-besh-td (bmf, ye, bf- 
jf, bfi, bfd) (be'eldeeh) P. na- 
bise-sd (bis/ni, ye, bfji, bfsiil, bf- 
sooh) (be'esdee') R. na-bmdsh- 
teah (bmdnf, yma, binjf, bfneii, 
bTndh) (bind'dldaah) O. na- 
bdosh-ta* (bfdd, yfoo, bfjd, bfoo, 
boo) (bodldeeh) 

2. to perform a ceremony. 

F. naho-deesh-iaat (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (di'doodlaai) I. 
ndho-diis-sd (dini, dii, zhdii, 
diil, dooh) Cdiiizd) C-l. na- 
hash-+d (ho, ha, hoji, hwii, hoh) 
(haghd) P. na-hose-sd (hosmf, 
ha, hoji, hosiil, hosoo) (haayd) 
R. nind-hdsh-taah (ho, hd, hdjf, 
hwii, hah) (hddaah) O. na- 
hdsh-tdd* (hod, ho, hojd, hoo, 
hooh) (hdya 1 ) 

Wat, tddh, sd, tad h r foot. 

1. to disturb the peace; to 
"raise hell." 

F. tsi'haho-deesh-tddt (dif, doo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) Prog, tsi'- 
hweesh-tddi (hwii, hoo, hojoo, 
hwii, hoh) P. tsfha-hoo-sd 
(hwiini, hoo, hojii, hwiil, hooh) 
R. tsi 1 hand-hdsh-tddh (ho, yii, 
jii, yii, oh) O. tsi'ha-hdsh-tddt 
(hoo, hd, hojd, hoo, hooh) 


2. to cure him; to restore him 
to life. 

F. ni'-nddbidldeesh-tddt (nddbi- 
didff, neididoo, nddbidizhdoo, 
nddbididii, nddbididooh) (ndd- 
bididi'doodlddt) I. nf-nddbi- 
diish-tddh (nddbidii, neidii, n'fia- 
bizhdii, nddbidii, nddbidooh) 
(nddbidi'diidlddh) P. ni-nddbi- 
dii-sd (nddbidini, neidii, nddbN 
zhdii, nddbidiil, nddbidooh) 
(nddbi'diilzd) O. nf-nddbidoos- 
sa' (nddbidod, neidoo, nddbizh- 
doo, nddbidool, nddbidooh) 

3. to make (me) drunk. 
These forms are altered to show 

person by changing the pronoun 

(shi-, me). 

F. tsPshididootddt I. tsfshidii- 

Iddh P. tsPshideesd R. tsi'ndshi- 

diitddh O. tsi'shiddtddh. to- 

dtthii tsPnashidiilddh, whiskey 

makes me drunk. 

tqqt, t<?qh, tqqd, tqqh, tqqh, to 

increase (V. Iqqt). 

This is the stem Iqqt with the t- 
classifier added. In the 1st per- 
son dpi and in the passive d is in- 
serted, and I (t) drops out) 

1 . to make it increase (in 

F. deesh-tqqt (dn, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidrdoodlqqt) C-l. 
yish-tqqh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) 
(bPdidlqqh) P„ yi-tqqd (yfnf, yic 
yii, jii, yii, ghooh) (bi'doodlqqd) 
R. ndsh-lqqh (ndnf, nef, njf, n6ii, 
ndh) (ndbi'didfqqh) O. ghdsh- 



tqqh (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

lah, once, lah beeso bik*infy<5, 
once I found a dollar. 
Idhdda, seldom; rarely. tahada 
bit na'ahiistseeh, I seldom see 

lahda, sometimes, tahda kwii 
deesk'aaz teh, sometimes it gets 
cold here. 

fohdi, elsewhere. tahdi naa- 
shaago dibe yazhi yizhch[[ 'a, 
the lamb was born when I was 

tahgo, otherwise; changed, tah- 
go 'adeeshtfft, I'll change it (or 
make it otherwise). 
fahgdd, elsewhere; in some plac- 
es; in other places, tahgoo ch*il 
K66 'adahayof, in some places 
there is much vegetation (of va- 
rious kinds). 
lahji, on the other side, tahji 
dlpp* t'66 'ahayof, there are lots 
of prairie dogs on the other side. 
lahjp, part (of), tahji 1 t'ah doo 
bfhoosh'aah da, I still haven't 
learned part of it. tahji' shaa 
nf'aah, give me part of it! 
fa\ one, an, some, other. to' 
shaa nfjaah, give me some of 

la* binadhaai, yearling. 
la'igii, the other one. ta'rgn 
shaa nf'aah, give me the other 

Id*i 'idlf, cooperation. 
ta*indi, not one; not even one. 
fa' nddnd, another; some more. 


to* naana nisin, I want another 
one (or some more). 
tdni, much; many. kwe'e kin 
tani hoolghe, this place is called 
"many houses/' 

tq, much; many. t6 doo tq yi- 
dziih da, there is not much water 

teechaVi, dog (bile&rhqq'i). 
leechqq'i bighan, kennel. 
leechqq'i biya', dog lice. 
teechqqydzhi, puppy. 
feel, teeh, tjf , feeh, *e\ to be- 
come. (V. leet) 

This is the stem leet, become, 
with the stem classifier t inserted 
to form a causative. In the 1st 
person dpi, and in the passive, I 
(t) drops out, and d is inserted. 

1 . to cause it to come into ex- 

F. deesh-teet (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doodleet) I. 
yish-teeh (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bP- 
didleeh) Prog, yish-teet (yf, yoo, 
joo, yii, ghoh) (bi'doodleet) P. 
se-tfi' (sfnf, yis, jis, sii, soo) (bi'- 
disdlff) R. nash-teeh (nani, n6f, 
njf, neii, nah) (nabi'didleeh) O. 
ghosh-teeh (ghoo, yo, j6, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi'dodleeh) 

2. to declare war on them. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bit *anaa\ war with 
them, to the following verbs. 
F. ho-deesh-teet (dfi, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. hash-teeh (ho, ha, 
hoji, hwii, hoh) P. hos6-t[f (ho- 
sfnf, has, hojis, hosii, hosoo) R. 



nd-hdsh-teeh (ho, ha, hoji, hwii, 
hoh) O. hosh-te' (hoo, ho, hojo, 
hoo, hooh) 

3. to complain about it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding baa saad, words a- 
bout it, to the verb forms in no. 
2. Thus, baa saad hoset[i*, I com- 
plained about it. A neuter is al- 
so used. Thus, N. baa saad ho- 
nish-lg (honf, ho, hoji, honii, ho- 
noh). baa saad honish+Q, I have 
a complaint going about it. 

4. to agree to it; to arrive at 
an agreement on it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bee Iq, ok with it, to 
the following verb forms. 
F. 'a-deesh-teei (dif, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. 'ash-leeh ('f, *a, *a- 
I'i, "\\, oh) P. 'ase-tif Casfnf, as, 
'ajis, 'asii, 'asoo) R. na'ash- 
teeh {na i, na a, n ji, na n, na oh) 
O. 'osh-te* ( oo, *6, *ajo, 'oo, 'ooh) 
teeghi*, within the soil. 
teeghi'igeed, trench. 
teeghi'td, Klagetoh, N. M. 
teeh, into the soil or ashes. 
leehdool'eez, cancer root. 
fee\ in the soil; in the ashes. 
lee'shibeezh, chicos (bitee'shi- 

feejin, coal (bi+eejin). 
feejin haage£d, coal mine. 
feejin haigedi, coal miner. 
leeshch'ih, ashes (bi leeshch'ih). 
Fees'ddn, bread (of the type bak- 
ed in ashes, or In an outdoor 


tees'ddn yilzhodi, Miiky Way. 
teets'aa', earthenware dish (bi- 

leetsoii, yellow ochre (bi+eetsoii). 
feeyddn, alkali. 

leezh, soil; dirt; dust (bileezh). 
leezh bee hahalkaadi, shovel 
(bi+eezh bee hahalkaadi). 
teh, usually, 'aak'eedgo dibe ya- 
zhi daneesk'ah Jeh, the lambs 
are usually fat in the fall. 
fe'etsoh, rat. 

fe'eydzhi, colt (bite'eyazhf). 
fe* hasin, jealousy. 
fe'oogeed, cellar; storage pit (bi- 
te oogeed). 
fribd, gray. 
hchiP, red. 

tichii' deez'dhi, Sanders, Ariz. 
tichii'go 'gqhadaajeehigii, meas- 

Hd, smoke (bilid). 
Hkan, sweet; tasty; good, shit 
tikan, I like it. 
fikizh, spotted. 
Hkon, inflammable. 
tit, Mid, lid, «\ tfid, to burn 

This is the stem lit, plus the +- 
classifier. (V. lit). 

1. to brand it (lit. burn it a- 
gainst it). 

F, bidi'deesh-W (bfdi'dff, yfdi*- 
doo, bfzhdi'doo, bidi'dii, bfdi*- 
dooh) (bidi'doodlit) I. bi'diish- 
tffd (bfdii,, yfdii, bfzh'dii, bi'dii, 
bf f dooh) (bPdiidlffd) P. bPdii- 
tid (brdini, yPdii, bfzh'dif, bPdii, 
bf'doo) (bf'diidlid) R. bm'diish- 
W (bfiVdii, yfn'dii, bmfzh'dii, bf- 



n'dii, bmdooh) (biWdiidlr) O. 
bfdoosh-tiid (bfdoo, yi'doo, bi 
zh'doo, bi'doo, brdooh) (bPdoo- 

Ktso, yellow; nickle coin (bifitso) 
Mtsoii, bile; acidity of the stom- 
ach (bititsoii). 
tizh, urine (bilizh). 
Kzh bee dah sighinigii, bladder 
(urinary) (bilizh bee dah — ) 
lizhin, black. 

fjjchogii, stud horse (bil[[chogii). 
tff t pet; livestock; horse (bi ![[')• 
dibe bil[f, his sheep. bil[i* tifigff, 
his horses. The various types 
of horses are described thus: \[\ 
dootfizhii, blue (gray) horse; \\\ 
tichif'ii, bay; tii+gai, white; Y\x Y\- 
tsoii, sorrel; Y\\ tibaf, roan; f{[sh- 
zhiin, black;* (\[{* bi-) tsiigha' \\- 
chifii, roan horse with red mane 
and tail; +[fst+* inir, spotted; \[[\- 
kiizh, paint; tijsht+izhii, brown; 
tjjthinii, mouse colored; (+([' bi-) 
tsiigha* tizhinii, buckskin; (♦[[' 
bi-) tsiigha* tigaii, palomino; t[f 
dinilzhinii, dark bay. 
tjl* bee yilzhohi, curry comb. 
Ill' bihett'ool, hobbles. 
Y$ bighan, horse corral. 
tii* bigheel, saddle. 
ffj* bigheel bidaahdf§' haa'ah- 
igii, saddle tree or horn. 

Ill* bigheel bikeed$$* haa'ahigii, 

cantle (of the saddle). 
Y$ bikq'ii, gelding. 
\\l' bikee', horseshoe. 
i\l bita'goo ni'ahigii, wagon ton- 


1^* bit sis* no, horsefly. 

Ill* da'atchini, wild horses (lit. 

horses that can scent). 

tj|' na'aghehe, saddle horse. 

Ijl' na'atbgqsii, work horse; team 

of horses. 

^itsaii, mare (bil[[tsa'ii) . 

ffi' yii'a'aati, feed bag. 

fob, noose (biloh). 

food, sore (bilood). 

food na'aghazhigii, ulcer. 

166*, fish (bitoo*). 

166' bik'ah, cod liver oil. 

166'tsoh, large fish; whale. 

I9, to exist (V. leet, teet) 

hcoo*, fxa, txaa\ taah, bcaa\ (V. 


A depreciative sense is inject- 
ed by inserting gh after on unas- 
pirated, or x after an aspirated, 
consonant. Thus, sg\ star; sxq', 
that such and such star; dzi-r, 
mountain; dzghit, that such and 
such mountain; dzqqdi, here; 
dzghqqdi, here (with an intona- 
tion of disgust or displeasure). 

1 . to get tired of it, 
F. 'adadideesh-txaat ('adadidn, 
'adeididoo, 'adazhdidoo, 'adadi 
dii, *adadidooh) I. 'adadeesh- 
fxa ('adadini, 'adeidee, 'adazh- 
dee, adadi i, 'adadoh) P. *ada- 
desh-txaa' Cadadini, adeidees, 
'adazhdees, 'adadee, 'adadisoo) 
R. 'ada-ndfsh-taah (ndf, neidi, 
nizhdf, ndii, ndoh) O. 'adadosh- 
bcad' Cadadoo, adeido, adazh- 
do, 'adadoo, 'adadooh) shi- 
naanish 'adadeshtxaa', I got tir- 



edof my work, t'dd 'dtaji' dib6 
t'dadoo yoo* 'onanfnifi ndish- 
niigo 'adandeshtxaa*, I'm tired 
of telling you all the time not to 
lose your sheep (lit. I'm tired of 

2. to get tired or bored with 

This meaning is rendered by 
inserting -ho- as the pronominal 
object, corresponding to imper- 
sonal it, in the verb given in no. 
1 above. Thus, 'ddahodeshtxad* 
I got bored; niba' sedaago 'dda- 
hodesh+xdd', I got bored waiting 
for you. 


This sound is not very common 
in Navaho, although in other 
languages of the same family, as 
Sarcee, m replaces Navaho b. 
The d-classifier, as well as the d 
inserted in the 1st person dpi, 
become * before m. We have 
written this * in the 1st person 
dpi forms. 

magitsoh, gorilla; ape. 
magi monkey. 

mat, moot, mal, mat, moot, to 
bolt food (as a coyote or dog). 

Given in the 3rd person only. 

1. to gulp it down (one piece). 
F. 'iidoomat I. 'iimddt P. 'ayif- 
mal R. 'anefmat O. *iiyomaat. 

teechqq'f *ats[' 'attso 'ayffmal, 
the dog bolted the meat at one 

2. to gobble them down (sev- 
eral pieces one after another). 


F. 'iidiyoomat I. ayiimaat P. *a- 

yiizmal R. 'andyiimat O. 'iiyd- 


mandagiiya, butter; oleomar- 


mas, mads, mddz, mas, mads, to 

roll (a spherical or animate obj.). 

1. to arrive rolling (intr). 

F. dees-mas (dif, doo, jidoo, dii*, 
dooh) I. nis-mdds (ni, yf, jf, niP, 
noh) P. ni-maaz (yinf, ni, jini, 
nii', noo) R. nas-mas (nam, nd, 
njf, neiV, ndh) O. ghos-mdds 
(ghoo, ghd, jo, ghoo', ghooh) 

2. to be rolling along. 

Prog, yis-mas (yf, yi, joo, yii', 

3. to roll in (with prepounded 
yah, into an enclosure); away 
(with prepounded yoo\ away). 

F. 'a-dees-mas (dif, doo, zhdoo, 

dii', dooh) I. 'iis-mdds Cani, *ii, 
aji, 'ii 1 , »ooh) P. 'ff-mddz Cfinf, 
ii, ajir, ii , oo) R. a-nas-mas 

(ndnf, nd, njf, neiT, ndh) O. 

? oos-mdds Coo, 'oo, 'ajo, 'oo , 


4. to roll it; to bring it (rolling 

F. dees-mas (dfft, yidoot jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. nis- 
mdds (nit, yft, jf*, niil, not) (bi*- 
deel-) P. nft-mddz (yfnit, yinft, 
jinft, niil, noot) (bi'deel-) R. 
nds-mas (ndntf, n6f+, rtjit, n6iil, 
ndt) (ndbi'dil-) O. ghos-mdds 
(ghoot, yof, jdt, ghool, ghoof) 

5. to be rolling it along. 



Prog, yis-mas (ytt, yoot, joot, yiil, 
ghot) (bi'dool-) 

Other transitive forms are 
made up just as in the case of 
the related stem bqs, to roll a 
circular object. V. bqs. 
masdeel, pie. 
mg'ii, coyote. 

The noun mq'ii, is also used as 
a verb stem in the following in- 

1. to be going along like a co- 
yote; to be "coyote-ing" along* 
Prog, neesh-mq'ii (nfi, noo, jinoo 
nil', nooh) 

2. to be "coyote-ing" back; to 
be returning like a coyote. 
Prog, na-neesh-mq'ii (nif, noo, 
zhnoo, r\\\\ nooh) 

3. to look for it (like a coyote), 
C-l. ha-nish-mq'ii (ni, ni, zhni, 
nii*, noh) 

mqudqq, ironwood or wild pri- 
vet (lit. coyote-food). 
mq'iideshgiizh, Jemez Pueblo, 
N. M. (coyote-pass); mq'iidesh- 
giizhnii, Jemez people. 
mq'ii doott'izhi, kit fox. 
mq'ii teeh yittizhi, Coyote Ca- 
non, N. M. 
mq'iitsoh, wolf. 

mq'iitsoh bee yigq# strychnine. 
mogi, monkey. 
mogitsoh, gorilla; ape. 
mosi, cat. 
mosikq*, tom-cat. 


The d-classif ier, as well as the 
d inserted in the 1st person dpi, 


become * before n. We shall 
write this ' wherever it occurs. 
naabaahii, warrior. 
naabeeho, Navaho. 
naadqq', corn. 

naadqq' bighoo', corn kernels. 
naadqq' bitsiigha', corn silk. 
naadlo'i, pail; bucket. 
naadooboo'iinii, small ground 
squirrel (lit. the one that his en- 
emies do not see). 
naaghfzi, pumpkin; squash. 
naa'ahoohai, chicken. 
naa'ahoohai bi'dadii, hen. 
naa'ahoohai bikq'ii, rooster. 
naa'ahoohai biya', chicken lice. 
naa'ahoohai biyazhi, chicks. 
naa'oti, bean. 
naa'oti nimazi, peas. 
naakaii, Mexican (lit. one that 
goes, wanders or lives about). 
naakaii bito\ Mexican Springs, 
N. M. 

naakaii tizhinii, negro. 
naaki doott'izh, twenty cents (lit 
two dimes), 

naaki \\ nda'anish, Tuesday. 
naakishchiin, twins. 
naakits'aadahgo, dozen. 
naakits'aadah yaal, twelve bits 

naaki ydal, two bits ($.25). 
naakVat'qhi, cotton cloth. 
naak'a'at'qhi dishooigii, velvet. 
naak'a'at'qhi disqsigii, silk. 

naaldloosh, quadruped (bina ? 

naaldlooshii, quadruped. 

naalchi'i, agent; ambassador. 



naalghe, property (binaalghe') 
naalghehe, goods; merchandise. 
naalghe he bo hooghan, trading 
post; store. 

naalghehe ya sidahi, store keep- 
er; trader; clerk. 
naal'eeti, duck; goose. 
naalnoodi, fleet lizard; (a) swift. 
naalte, slave (binaalte'). 
naaltsoos, book; paper. 
naaltsoos bee 'ach'iishi, sand- 
paper; carborundum paper. 
naaltsoos bikda' Velyaaigii, 

naaltsoos dadildonigii, firecrack- 

naaltsoos neighehe, mail carrier 
naaltsoos ntt'izigii, cardboard. 
naaltsoos tsits'aa', carton; pa- 
per box. 

nddf, naat, naat, 'naat, naat, a 
semi-postpositional used as a 

1 . to witness it; to be present. 
F. shi-doonaat (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 
nihi) N. shi-naat (ni, bi, ha, ni- 
hi, nihi) P. shfi-naat (nil, bfi, 
hwff, nihfi, nihil) R. na-shf-Yiaa+ 
(nf, bi, ha, nihi, nihi) O. sho- 
naal (no, bo, ho, niho, niho) 

na'akaidi shidoonaat, I'll see a 
Yei Bichei dance, shinadt na'a- 
kai,rm witnessing a Yei Bichei. 
naat, naah, na\ naah, naah, a 
stem which has to do with move- 
ment, life and duration. 

This stem may take either the 
zero, t- or d-classifiers. It will be 


kept in mind that the d-classif ier 
becomes * before n. 

1. to generate it (electricity) 
(lit. to make it have life)* 

F. hiideesh-naai (hiidiit, yidiyoot 
yizhdiyoot, hiidiil, hiidoot) (bi- 
di'dool-) I. hiish-naah (hiit 
yiyitf, hijiil, hiil, hoot) (bi'diil-) 
P. hiit-na' (hiinit, yiyiit, jiit, hiil, 
hoot) (bi'dis-) R. nahiish-naah 
(nahitf, nayiit, njii-t, nahiil, na- 
hoot) (nabi'diil-) O. hoosh- 
naah (hoot, yiyot, jiyot, hool, 
hoot) (bidi'yol-) to bee 'atsi- 
niltt'ish dahiilnaah, we make e- 
lectricity by means of water. 

2. to be alive. 

N. hinish-na (hinf, hii, jii, hinii', 
hinoh) shizhS'e hiinahQqdq^* 
when my father used to be alive. 

3. to resuscitate; to come back 
to life. 

This verb uses the d-classifier. 
F. nahi-deesh-*naat (dff, idoo, 
zhdoo, dii, dooh) Prog, na- 
heesh-'naat (hii, hoo, hijoo, hii, 
hooh) I. na-hiish-'naah (hff, hii, 
hijii, hii, hooh) P. na-hiish-na' 
(hffni, hii, hijii, hii, hoo) R. nf- 
na-hiish-'naah (hii, hii, hijii, hii, 
hooh) O. na-hoosh-'naah (hoo, 
hoo, hojoo, hoo, hooh) 

4. to endure; to last. 

F. didoonaat C-l. dina* P. dima* 
R. ndTnaah O. dona', to didoo- 
naat, the water will last; to doo 
dina* da, the water isn't lasting; 
to t'aadoo dffna' da, the water 
did not last. 





5. to endure; to last* 

ho-, impersonal "it, things/' is 
here used as the subject. The 
postposition -ee, with, by means 
of indicates what is, in English, 
the subject by altering the pro- 
noun prefixed thereto. It is here- 
with given for the 1st person sgl. 
F. shee hodidoonaat P. shee ho- 
dffna' R. shee ndhodi'naah O. 
shee hodona\ doo shee hodi- 
doonaat da, I won't last long (as 
on a job), t aadoo shee hodfina'i, 
I didn't last long, doo shee ndd- 
hodidoo'naat da, I won't last 
much longer (with respect to 
life) (seme I iterative ndd-, again, 
requires the d-classifier, which 
becomes * before n). 

6. to be fast (at thinking, or in 

This verb is used always in the 
negative sense, so doo, is always 
prepounded, and da, is post- 

N. ndish-na' (ndil, ndil, nizhdil, 
ndiil, ndot) doo ndilna goo ni- 
tsekees, he is a fast thinker (lit. 
he doesn't take long to think). 
'naa*, 'nd, 'naa', *naah, 'naa*, to 

1. to move (any part of body). 

F. nahi-deesh-*naat (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. na-hash-'nd 
(hf r ha, iii, hii, hoh) P. nahisfs- 
'naa' (nahisfnf, nahaas, njiis, na- 

hooh). t'dadoo nahrnani siniz[, 
stand still (without moving)! 
nddf, nddh, nd, nddh, ndd*, to 

1. to capture it or him. 

F. deesh-nddt (dirt, yidoot, jidoat, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) L yishr- 
nddh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) bi*- 
dil-) P. set-nd (sinft, yis, jis, 
siil, soot) (bi'dis-) R. ndsh-nddh 
(ndnft, neft, rijit, neiil, ndt) (nd- 
bi'dil-) O. ghosh-ndd' (ghoot, 
yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to have trouble. 

The following forms are given 
for the 3rd person. They ore al- 
tered for person by merely 
changing the pronominal prefix 
on the postposition -ch'i*, to- 

F. bichT nahodiyoo'naat I. bi- 
ch'i' nahwii'nd P. bichY na- 
hwiiVndd' R. bichY nindhwii'- 
naah O. bichY nahwiiyo'ndd' 
naafdni, Comanche. 
naatdzid, cancer. 
naat'aashii, tarantula. 
nddndtahdfe', from elsewnere. 
nddndtahgo, elsewhere. 
nddndfahgoo, (to) elsewhere. 
nddndtahji, on the other hand; 
\n another direction. 
nddndfa*, another; some more, 
nddndta' shaa nddnPaah, give 
me another one! 

naanii, sideways, naaniigo yf- 

hisii, nahisoo) R. nind-hdsh- \naat, walk sideways! 

'naah (hf, hd, jii, hii, hoh) O. 
no-hosh-'nad* (hoo, ho, hijo, hoo, 

naanii dinee'q, it is leaning (as a 



naanii dineet{, it is leaning las u 

fiaoniigo k'e*elto/> transverse 

naanish, work; job; business, 
nods, forward, naas mya, I went 
forward; advanced, 
naasee ts in atk'iniizhoozh 
longitudinal fracture. 
naase, naosee, lengthwise. 
nadsgoo, farther along; in the 

naashch'qq', decorated. 
naashgali, Mescalero Apache. 
naasht'ezhi, Zuni, N. M. (both 
the pueblo and the people). 
naatooho, Isleta, N. M. 
naat'aanii, boss; superinten- 
dent; chief; leader. 
naat'aaniineez, Shiprock, N. M. 
naat'ood, flexible; pliable. 
naatsedlozii, road-runner. 
naatsis'aan, Navaho Mountain 

naats'iilid, rainbow. 
ndats'o'ootdisii, whirlwind. 
naats'god, resilient (as a sweater 
or rubber). 

na beg Hi, wheelbarrow. 
naghai, that. naghai 'ashkii 
*ayoo be'adilaah, that boy is full 
of mischief. 

tiah, nah *nah, neeh, to for- 

1. to forget about him, it* 

F. *baa yidiyeesh-nah (yidiyff, 
yidiyoo, zhdiyoo, yidiyii', yidi- 
yooh) (hodiyoo*-) P. baa yise- 
nah (yisfnf, yooz, jiyooz, yisii, yi- 

soo) (hoyoos*-) 0. baa yposh- 
nah (yoo, yoo y jiyop, yoo, yooh) 
'(■hoyoo'r) R. bag nayoosh-'nah 
(nayoo, nayoo, rijiyoo, nayoo, 
ndyooh) (nahoyoo-) O* baa 
yoosh-neeh (yoo, yoo, jiyoo, ypo, 
yooh) (hoyoo*-) 

t'aa kd baa yooneeh, don't for- 
get about it! 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 
*riah, 'neeh, 'na\ 'nah, 'neeh, to 

1. to crawl up out; to climb up 
(as up a tree). 

In the sense of to climb up, as 
in climbing a tree the postposi- 
tion bqqh, alongside it, is pre- 
pounded to the verb. Thus bqqh 
hasis'na', I climbed it. 
F. ha-deesh-'nah (dn, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. hgash-'neeh 
(hani, .haa, haji, haii, haah) P 
hasis-'na' (hasmf, haas, hajis, 
hasii, hasoo) U. haash-*nah 
(hani, haa, haji, haii, haah) R. 
ha-nash-'nah (nam, na, nji, neii, 
nah) O. ha-osh-'neeh (66, 6, jo, 
oo, ooh) tsin bqqh hasis'na', I 
climbed the tree. 

2. to be creeping along. 

Prog, yish-'nah (yf, yi, joo, yii, 

3. to start crawling along. 

F. dideesh-'nah (didii, didoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
'neeh (df, di, jidi, dii, doh) S-P. 
desh-'na' (dfm, dees, jidees, dee, 
disooh) R, ndfsh-'nah (Mi, Ml, 



nizhdi, hdii, ridoh) O. dosh- 
*neeh (doo, do, jido, doo, dooh) 

4. to get up; to orise; to spring 

F. ridideesh-'noh (ndidii, ndidoo, 
nizhdidoo, ndidii, ndidooh) I. 
hdiish-'neeh (ridii, ndii, nizhdii, 
hdii, ndooh) P. ndiish-'na 1 (rt- 
dini, ridii, nfzhdii, ridii, ndooh) 
R* nmd-diish-'nah (dii, dii, zhdii, 
dii, dooh) O. ridoosh-'ne6h (n- 
doo, ridoo, nizhdoo, ridoo, ndooh) 

5. to arrive crawling. 

F. deesh-'nah (dii, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. nish-'neeh (nf, yf, ji, 
nii, noh) P. nish-'na* (yinf, yf, jf, 
nii, nooh) R. nash-'nah (nanf, 
na, riji, neii, nah) O. ghosh- 
'neeh (ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, 

6. to take a sweat bath. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding tacheeh, sweat- 
house to the following forms. 
F. deesh-'nah (dff, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) NT *se-tf (sfni, si, jiz, shii- 
teezh, shoo, shi, jizh, shii-jee\ 
shoo, shi, jizh) P. yish-'na' (yi- 
ni, yi f joo, yii, ghooh) R. nash- 
*nah (nani, na, rijf, neii, nah) O. 
ghosh-'neeh (ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo 

*The neuter is rendered by the 
neuter (si-perfective static) of 
feel, to lie (down); to be lying. 
This verb has three separate 
stem forms, corresponding to the 
sgl, d, and pi number; thus the 


three distinct stems, tacheeh 
yish'na', I took a sweat bath; ta- 
cheeh setf, I'm taking a sweat 

7. to climb over it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding baatis, over it, to 
the forms given under no. 6, with 
the addition of the following im- 
perfective: I. yish-*neeh (ni, yi, 
ji yii, ghoh). Thus, baatis yish- 
'na', I climbed up over it. 

8. to crawl as far as a point; to 
crawl up on or stalk it (game) 
(with prepounded baa). 

F. ni-deesh-'nah (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. ni-nish-'neeh (nf, 
i, jf, nii, noh) P. ni-nish-'na* 
(nffnf, nii, nijf, ninii, ninooh) R. 
ni-nash-*nah (nanf, na, najf, ne- 
ii, nah) O. noosh-'neeh (noo, 
noo, nijo, noo, nooh) tsedaa'ji* 
nii'na', he crawled up to the 
brink (of a precipice), bjih yaa 
nii'na', he crept up on (stalked) 
rhe deer. 

9. to crawl in (an enclosure or 
hole, with prepound yah, in); to 
craw! away (with prepounded 
y66\ away). 

F. 'a-deesh-'nah (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. 'iish-'neeh fani, 'II, 
aji, 'ii, *ooh) P. eesh-'na' ('ffnf, 
'ee, ajoo, 'ii, oo) R. a-nash- 
*nah (nam, na, rijf, neii, nah) U. 
f iish-'nah ('ani, Mi, 'aji, 'ii, ooh) 
0. 'oosh-'neeh ('oo, *oo, ajo, 'oo, 




10. to crawl or creep about. 
G»l. naash-na' (nani, naa, nji, 
neii, naah) 

11. to run off (as water from 
a watershed). 

The following verbs use the 
same stems as the foregoing, but 
without the d-classifier ('). 
F. yoo' 'adoonah I. yoo' 'iineeh 

. yoo itli P. yoo una R. yoo 
'ananah O. yoo' oon£6h. ko- 
doo to yoo' 'ananah, the water 
(repeatedly) runs off from here. 

12. to contract, have, or be 
suffering from it (a disease). 

F. shi-didoolnah (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 
nihi) I. shi-dilneeh (ni, bi, ho, 
nihi, nihi) P. shi-doolna' (ni, bi, 
ho, nihi, nihi) R. shi-ridflnah 
(ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi) O. shi-dol- 
neeh (ni, bi, ho, nihi, nihi). dikos 
shididoolnah I'll contract a 
cough; dikos shidilneeh, I'm con- 
tracting a cough; dikos shidool- 
r\a\ I have a cough. 

13. to give it to him (a dis- 

Replacement of definite ob- 
jective bi- (bee-) with indefinite 
'i- fee-) renders to spread it (a 

F. *bi-di'deesh-nah (di'diit, di'- 
doot, zhdi'doot, dPdiil, di'dooi) 
!. hi-'dish-neeh Cdit, 'dit, zh'dit, 
'diil, 'dot) P. bi-'dfil-na' (*dinit, 
'dfft, zh'dfft, "dill, 'doot) R. bee- 
'dish-nah Cdit, 'dit, zh'dit, 'dill 
'dot) O. bi-'d6sh~ne£h Cd66f, 
'dot, zh'dot, 'dool, *doot). j£P6- 

d[[h ee'di+nah, he spreads the 
tuberculosis. jei'adljh bi , dii+- 
na', I gave him the tuberculosis. 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

14. to fall from (my) grasp (a 
flat flexible object). 

F. shilak'e hadoonah I. shilak'e 
haaneeh P. shilak'e haana' R. 
shilak'e hananah O. shilak'e 

15. to be left over. 

F. ch'idinootnah I. ch'ini+neeh 
P. ch'inif+na' R, ch'inanitnah 
O. ch'inotneeh 

nah # neeh, na\ nah, neeh, (pro- 
bably related to, or identical 
with the preceding stem). 

1 . to swallow it. 

F. adeesh-nah (ad fit, 'iidool", a- 
zhdoot, 'adiil, adoot) ('abidi'- 
dool-) I. 'iish-neeh ('anit, 'iit, 
■ajit, Mil, oof) Cabi'dil-) P. 'ii+- 
na' Ciinft, 'ayftt, ajift, 'HI, W) 
fabi'dool-) R. anash-nah ('a- 
ndnft, aneit, 'an jit, aneiil, 'a- 
nat) (anabi'dil-) O. oosh-neeh 
Coot, ayot, 'ajot, 'ool, 'oot) (a- 
bi'dol-) to 'adeeshnah, I'll 
swallow the water. 

2. to choke (as in swallowing 
a large chunk of meat). 

F. admeesh-nah Cadtnnl, adi- 
nool, 'azhdfnoof, adinfil, adf- 
noof) P. 'an^sh-na* Canfnrl, 'a- 
nees, 'azhnees, 'aneel, 'anooi) 
0. 'anosh-neeh Can66I, 'anool, 
'azhnool, 'anool, , anool') 

3. to hiccough. 

This is the iterative of no. 2 



R. nd'nfsh-nah (nd'ninil, nd'nil, 
ndzh'nil, nd'nirl, nd'noD 

4. to choke on it (as on a swal- 
low of water, food, etc*)* 

F. dineesh-nah (diniil, yidinool, 
jidinool, diniil, dinoof) P, nesh- 
na' (nt'nfl, yinees, jinees, nee, 
noo) R. nanish-nah (ndnN, nei- 
nil, ndzhnii, ndniil, ndnot) O. 
nosh-neeh (nool, yinol, jindl, 
nool, noot). to neshna', I choked 
on the water. 
nahachagii, grasshopper. 
nahaghd, profession; religior 
nahak'izii, cricket. 
nahasdzddn, world. 
ndhdsdzo haydzhi, acre. 
nahashch'id, badger. 
nahashch'idi, Naschiti, N, M. 
nahashkdd', close to the ground 
chidf naat'a'f nahashkdd* yit f ah 
the airplane is flying close to the 

nahashtVii, kangaroo rat. 
nahoshtVii 'dtts'iisiigii, kanga- 
roo mouse. 

nahateet, slippery (area). 
nahat'd, plan (binahat'a*). 
nahatT, jest. 

ndhdzbqs, circular (area); circle. 
nahgod, to one side; aside, nah- 
god ni* ninf q, I set it to one side. 
nahji*, to one side; aside, nah- 
ji* 'ahf+han, throw it aside! 
ndhidizidigii, month. 

nahodits'g'/ bog hole; boggy 
(area or place). 

nahookes, north; Big Dipper. 


nahddyei, sweet potato. 
na*, here (in handing something 
to a person). 
na'ahinitaah, wrestling. 
na'aldoni, oil drum. 
na'alkaah, trial (at law). 
nd'dlkadgo ha la' bqqh naaz'd- 
nigii, thimble. 

na'alkid, temperature; time (by 
the clock). 
nd'dt'ahi, butcher. 
na'ai'eeii, sailor. 
na'altVi, aviator. 
na'atIV, cat's cradle. 
na'ashje'ii, spider. 
na'ashje'ii bitt'ddl, spider web. 
na'ashje'ii bijddd danineezi, 
grandaddy longlegs (spider). 
na 'ashje'ii dithiti, black widow. 
na'ashje'ii nahacha'igii, jump- 
ing spider. 

na'ashje'iitsoh, wolf spider. 
na'ashg'ii, lizard; reptile (a term 
often used to designate any ani- 
mal or reptile that creeps, but re- 
fers more specifically to lizards). 
na'ashg'ii dootTizhi, green li- 

na*ashg*iitbdhi, gray lizard. 
na'ashg'ii dich'izhii, horned 
toad (also na ashp'ii dishch'izhii) 
na'ats'ggsi, mouse. 
na'dzhdiilghe, suicide. 
na'azheeh, hunting. 
na'azrsi, gopher. 
na'iidzeet (or na'iigeet), dream. 
na'iigeet (or na*lidzeel), dream. 
na'fini*, trading; trade; sale. 



na'nitin, advice; teaching (bi- 


na'nizhoozhi, Gallup, N. M. 

ndk'ee; ndk'eed, area of the eye; 

eye socket. 

ndk'eedzP tizhinigii, argyrol. 

ndk'eeshchqq 1 , "sleepers" (the 

matter that usually collects in 

the corners of the eyes during 


nak'eeshto', tear. 

ndk'eesinili, eye glasses. 

not, naad, nddd, na', naad, to 


1. to lick it. 
F. deesh-nat (dift, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-L yish- 
naad (nit, yit, jit, yijl, ghol) (bi'- 
dil-) P. yit-nddd (yinit, yiyfit, 
jilt, yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. 
nash-na* (nan ft, neit, njit, neiil, 
not) (ndbi'dil-) O. ghosh-naad 
(ghoot, yot, jar, ghool, ghoot) 
(bi'dol-) teets'aa* yftnddd, I 
licked the plate, sizdbqqh yft- 
nddd, I licked my "chops'" (the 
area around the mouth). 

2, to pass (a long time) 
F. nd ahodoonat I. nd'ahanaad 
P. nd'ahoonddd R. nfnd'ahana* 
0. nd'ahonaad. binddadaat- 
rs'ozf bit da ahiigqqgo nd ahoo- 
nddd, we fought the Japanese 
for a long time. Columbus bit 
oo'otgo nd'ahodndadgo 'indc 
keyah nihit dah si'anfgff yaa'nit- 
'eel, Columbus sailed for a long 
time to reach our land. 


3. to do better than one ex- 

F. ni-'deesh-nat ('dffl, dool, zh'- 
dool, 'diil, 'doot) C-L nd'dsh- 
naad (nd'il, nd'dl, ni*j fl, nd'iil, 
nd'ot) P* nd'aash-nddd (nd'fi 
nil, nd'ool, ni'jool, na'iil, nd'oot) 
R. ni-nd'dsh-na' (nd'il, ndal. 
nd'jil, nd'iil, nd*6t) O. nd*6sh- 
naad (nd'ool, nd'dl, ni'jdl, nd'ool 
nd'oot). shil[[* nd'oolnddd, my 
horse did better than I thought 
he would do. Cei t[[' ndnihi'iyfit- 
nddd, that horse had us worried.) 
nanise\ plant; vegetation (also 
dist. pi ndanise'). 
nanise' bich'iyq', fertilizer. 
naneeshtf'iizh, serpentine; zig- 
zag; crooked; tortuous, 
naneeskaadi, griddle bread; tor- 

nanoolzhee', warp (in weaving). 
ndshdoi, wildcat. 
ndshdoitbdi, wildcat. 
ndshdoitsoh, mountain lion, 
ndshdoitsoh bitsiijP daditt'ooigii 
(African) lion. 

ndshdoitsoh danood^zigii, tiger. 
ndshdoitsoh tikizhi, leopard; ja- 

ndshgozh, sausage. 
ndstfee', wet. 
ndhdstf'ah, corner. 
nastf'ah, corner (bindstt ah). 
nafqq\ back (returning), na'- 
nizhoozhfgoo ndt'qq' ndSsdzd, I 
am going back to Gallup. 
ndt'oh, tobacco; cigaret. 
ndt'oh bit da'asdisigii, cigaret. 



ndt'oh ntt'ixi, (plug) chewing to- 

ndt'ostse', (smoking) pipe. 
nazbqs, circular. 
ndzhah, bent (horseshoe- 1 ike). 
nazhahi, pendant (of silver, used 
on jewelry). 
nda, no. 

ndi, but. ch'iyddn t'66 'ahayof 
ndi to 'ddin, there is lots of food, 
but no water. 
ndighilii, sunflower. 
ndostdzii, top (toy). 
needzjf, game corral. 
h'deeshchid, thick (as in bidaa* 
rVdeeshchid, he has thick lips; is 

neei, neeh, nd, neeh, neet, to 
move with the household goods. 
This stem inserts the d-classifi- 
er in some forms, and omits it in 
others. In the 1st person dpi, d 
unites with the stem initial to 
give O. 

!♦ to start moving. 

F. hdideesh-'nee* (hdidii, hdidoo 
nizhdtdoo, hdidii, ndidooh) I. 
hdiish-'neeh (hdii, hdii, nizhdii, 
hdii, hdooh) P. hdish-'na (hdini, 
hdii, nfzhdii, hdii, hdoo) R. ni- 
nd-diish-'neeh (dii, dii, zhdii, dii, 
dooh) O. hdoosh-'neet (hdoo, 
hdoo, nizhdoo, hdoo, hdooh) 

2. to be going to move; to be 
on one's way moving. 

S-P. de-nd (dim, deez, jideez, 
dee', disoo) 

3. to be going along (moving). 


Prog, yish-neef (yi, yi, joo, yiT, 

4. to move; arrive moving. 

F. deesh-nee+ (dii, doo, jidoo, dii* 
dooh) I. nish-neeh {ni, yi, nii 1 , 
noh) P. ni-nd (yini, ni, jini, nii', 
noo) R. ndsh-'neeh (nani, nd, 
hji, neii, ndh) O. ghosh-neet 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

na'nizhoozhigoo deeshneef, I'll 
move to Gallup. 

5. to move as far as a point; to 
terminate (the act of) moving. 
F. ndeesh-neet (ndn, ndoo, nizh- 
doo, ndtV, ndooh) I. ninish-neeh 
(nini, nii, nji, ninii', ninoh) P. ni- 
nf-nd (nifnf, nini, nfzhni, nini'\\ 
ninoo) R. ni-ndsh-*neeh (nani, 
nd, ndji, neii, ndh) O. noosh- 
neel (noo, noo, njo, noo\ nooh) 
neet, neel, nd, 'neeh, neet, to 
lose. (Cp. dpi stem of tsaat). 

1 . to lose (in any kind of com- 
petition, as in gambling, races, 
games, war, etc.). 
F. baa hodmooneel C-l. baa ho- 
neeneei P. baa honeeznd R. 
baa ndhoni'neeh O. baa hono- 

It is given herewith for the 3rd 
person; and is altered for the 
other persons by changing the 
pronominal prefix on -aa, to or 
about him. 

nee*, ne, ne\ 'neeh, ne\ to play, 
1 . to play. 

F. ndeesh-neet (ndn, ndoo, nizh, 
doo, ndif, ndooh) C-l, naash- 
ne (nani, naa, nji, neii", naah) 



P. nise-ne' (nisini, naaz, njiz, ni- 
sii*, nisoo) R. ni-nash-'neeh (nd- 
ni, r\6, naji, neii*, nah) O. na- 
oosh-ne T (66, oo, jo, oo', ooh) 

2. to play it (a musical instru- 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding bee, with it, to the 
forms given under no. 1 . Thus, 
dilni bee naashne, I am playing 
a trumpet, 

3. to harm, hurt, him; to make 
him cry. 

This meaning is also rendered 
by prepounding bee, with him, to 
the forms given under no, 1. As 
in, bee ndeeshneel, I'll hurt him; 
I'll make him cry. shee nisinfne', 
you have hurt me. t'aadoo shee 
naninehf, don't hurt me! 
neesdog, jelly cake (made of 
yucca fruit). 

neeshcrTiits'iil, pine cone, 
neeshch'iT, pinon nut. 
neez, long. 

Also as a verb stem (neez, ne6z) 
to be tall or long, 

1 . to be long or tall. 

N. nis-neez (ni, ni, jf, nil*, noh) 

2. to be comparatively long or 

N. 'anfs-neez ( anfntt, 'anil, '6- 
zhntt, \5nirl, \5n6») 
neeznad yddl, ten bits ($1.25). 
ne'edii, blood (from the nose). 

(shine'edityistat, I have a nose- 

ne'eshjaa*, owl. 
ne'eshjaayddzh, owlet. 


ne'eshjaa' yilkee'e, rubber plant. 
ne'eshtit, snot. 

ne'eshto', water/ mucus from 
the nose. shine'eshto* haal[, 
my nose is watering. 
ne'etsah, pimple. 
ni, to be highly susceptible to it 
(as a disease). 

N. shi-hodeelni (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 
nihi) naabeeho jef'aduh 'ayoo 
bidadeeini, the Navaho are very 
susceptible to tuberculosis, 'ei 
doo shideefnii da, that has no ef- 
fect on me (as a scolding), bee- 
'ach'iishi tsenif doo bideetnfi da, 
the (dull) file has no effect on 
the ax. 
'ni, to love. 

1. to have him always in mind; 
ro love him. 

. ayoi oosh- ni ( nni, ayo, a- 
jo, linn, unoh). ayoi anosh- 
*ni, I love you. 'ayoi 'ashiini'nf, 
you love me. 'ayoi 'ado'ni, she 
loves herself (is "stuck up"). 'a- 
yof 'adefnfPnf, we (dist. pi) love 
him. 'ayoi 'adaniinifni, we (dist 
ol) love you. 

2. to be very friendly with 
him; to be his intimate friend. 

N. 'oyoigo k'e ghosh'nf (yfnf, yo, 
jo, yinfi, yinoh) *ayoigo k'e 
nosh'ni, I am very friendly with 
you. 'ayoigo k'e shiini'nf, you're 
very friendly with me. 'ayoigo 
k'e 'ahffniVnf, we're very friend- 
lv with each other. 

nibaal, canvas; tarpaulin; tent. 
nibaal biP dahooghanigii, tent. 



niboal sinil, tent camp. 
nibaol yadiits'ozigii, tipi. 
nichx99*i # filthy; ugly; no good. 
nitch'i, breeze; air; spirit, 
nidda', squaw dance. 
nidaaz, heavy, 
nida'diftsj', sprinkle (rain). 
nideeshgiizh, gapped; having a 
gap (as in a mountain). 
nidighilii, sunflower. 
nidik'q', cotton. 
nidik'q' bik'99', cottonseed. 
nidishchii', pine. 
nidoochii', pinedrop. 
nidishchii' biya*, pine tick, 
nighiz, round and slender. 
nih, ne*, ne', nih, ne\ to tell. 

1. to tell him about it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bee bit, with it with 
him, to the following forms (bee 
bit becoming yee yit in 3o.). nee 
shit hoolne', he told me about 
you. bee nit hodeeshnih, I'll tell 
you about it. 

F. ho-deesh-nih (dffl, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) C-l. hash-ne' 
(hoi, hal, hojil, hwiil, hot) P. 
hweesh-ne' (hwifnfl, hool, hojool, 
hwiil, hoot) R. na-hash-nih (hoi, 
hal, hojil, hwiil, hot) O. hosh- 
ne 1 (hool, hoi, hojol, hool, hoot) 

2. to interpret. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'ata\ between (or 
bita\ etc, between them, etc.) to 
the verb forms given under no. 1 . 
Thus 'ata' hodeeshnih, I'll inter- 
pret, nihita' hodeeshnih, I'll in- 


"WWWW^" — ■ ■ III ^^^^^■■■ ■ 111 ■ mum 

terpret for you two (or niha *ato 
hodeeshnih, I'll interpret for you 

3. to outline it; to bring out 
the high points (of a subject). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'aghaadi *adaat'6 
nahalinfgfi bee bit, those things 
that appear to be most important 
with (about) them with (to) him, 
to the forms given under no. 1 
the prepounded bee bit being the 
same as described under no. 1). 
Thus 'aghaadi 'adaafe nahali- 
nfgif bee nit hodeeshnih, I'll out- 
line it for you; bring out the high 
points of it for you. 

4. to explain it; elucidate it. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding hazho'6 baa, to the 
verb forms given under no. 1 
(baa becoming yaa in 3o.). Thus, 
hazho'6 baa hweeshne', I ex- 
plained it (I carefully told about 

5. to reassure him; to give 
him confidence. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t'ad hats'fidgo bit, 
everything is all right with (to) 
him, to the forms given under 
no. 1. Thus, taa hats'fidgo bit 
hweeshne', I reassured him; t'aa 
hats'fidgo shit hoone', I was re- 
assured (os in being told com- 
fort inq news). 

nlh f niih, ne\ nih, niih, to speak. 
1. to speak out of turn; to 
moke a speech blunder. 




F. ch*ihodi-dineesh-nih (dfnfil, 
dinool, zhdinool, dfniil, dmoot) 
I. ch'fhodi-nish-nnh (nil, nil, zh- 
nil, niil, not) P. ch'iho-dineesh- 
ne' (difnfl, dinool, dizhnool, di- 
niil, dinoot) R. ch'fnahodi-nish- 
nih (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, not) O. 
ch'ihodi-nosh-nifh (nool, nol, zh- 
nol, nool, noot) 'adqqdqq 1 'ii- 
t'i[d^ baa hwiilne' rit*§e* she'es- 
dzaan bit ch'ihodineeshne', In 
telling about what we did yester- 
day I made a blunder in speech 
to my wife (i.e. said something I 
shouldn't have said). 

2. to take up one's time (by in- 
sistently talking to him; to keep 
one by talking to him; to talk 
prolongedly (without cessation). 
F. *bit haho-dmeesh-nih (dfniil, 
dinool, zhdinool, dfniil, dinoot} 
I. bit haho-dinish-niih (dinil, di- 
nil, zhdinil, dfniil, dinot) P. bit 
haho-dinesh-ne' (dinil, dinees, 
zhdmees, dfneel, dinoot) R 
bit hanaho-dinfsh-nih (dinil, di- 
nil, zhdinil, diniil, dinot) O, bit 
hahodf- nosh-nifh (nool, nol, zh- 
nol, nool, noot) sikMs kingoo 
bit de'aazh biniighe shfka nfya- 
hgq ndi shicheii shit hahodfnees- 
ne\ my friend came for me to go 
to tov/n with him, but my grand- 
father kept me by continuing to 
talk to me. *ahrt hahodfneelne', 
we took up each other's time (by 

3. to hove authority over it; to 
be in charge of it; to be boss. 

N. bee shi-holniih (ni, bf, ho, ni- 
hi, nihi) nee shiholniih, I am in 
charge of you (am your boss), 
shee niholniih, you're in charge 
of me. 

nih, nih, nih, 'nih, nih, squeeze 
(with the hand). 

1. to squeeze it; to milk her. 
F. deesh-nih (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii', dooh) (bidi'doo'-) I. yiish- 
nih (yii, yiyii, jii, yiP, ghooh) (bP- 
dii'-) S-P. se-nih (sini, yiz, jiz, 
siP, soo) (bPdis'-) R. neish-'nih 
(neii, neii, njii, neiP, naooh) (no- 
bPdii-) O. ghoosh-nih (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo', ghooh) (bPdo 1 -) 

2. to wring it out (clothing). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding bqqh (yqqh in 3o.), 
beside it, to the forms given in 
no. 1. Thus, 'ee* bqqh senih, I 
wrung out the clothing. 

3. to squeeze it together. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'atch'i', toward 
each other (together), to the 
forms given under no. 1. Thus, 
'a+ch'P senih, I squeezed them 

4. to milk (intr,). 

F. a-deesh-nih (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
diP, dooh) I. 'iish-nih (Mi, 'ii, *a- 
jii, Mi', *ooh) P. ase-nih Casini, 
'az, 'ajiz, 'asiP, 'asoo) R. na- 
'iish-nih (na'ii, naMi, rVjii, na'iP, 
naooh) O. *oosh-nih ('oo, oo, 
*ajo, 'oo', *ooh) 

nih, nih, niP, *nih, nih, probably 
related to the preceding stems. 



1. to mix it (as mortar, dough) 

F. tai-deesh-nih (dii, idoo, zhdcx) 
dii', dooh) (doo'- or tabidi'doo'-) 
I. ta-osh-nih (oo, yoo, joo, oo', 
oh) (oo'- or bi'doo 1 -) P. taise- 
nii' (taisinf, tayooz, tajooz, tai- 
sii', taisoo) (taos'- or tabi'doos*-) 
R. ta-naosh-'nih (naoo, nayoo, 
najoo, naoo, naoh) (naoo- or na- 
bi*doo-) O. ta-oosh-nih (66, yo, 
jo, oo', ooh) (oo'- or bi'doo'-) 

hashtt'ish taoshnih, I'm mixing 

nih, niih, ni!', 'nih, niih # to learn 
by ear. 

1. to hear about it; to learn of 
it (by ear)* 

F. deesh-nih (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii', dooh) (doo*-) I. yish-niih 
(">> yl J'/ Y'i\ ghoh) (yi'-) P. yf- 
nii* (yfnf, yiyff, jff, yii', ghoo) 
(yi'-) R. nash-'nih (nani, nef, ri- 
jf, neii', nah) (na-) O. ghosh- 
nih (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo', ghooh) 
(gho*-) na'akaigo yfnif, 1 

heard that there is a Yei Bichei 

2. to recall it; remember it. 

F. *bee-deesh-nih (difl, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) C-l. benash- 
niih (beenfl, yenal, beejfl, benfil, 
benat) P. benaash-nii' (beenil 
yinaal, beejool, beneiil, benaat) 
R. beni-nash-nih (nanfl, nal, n<5- 
jfl, neiil, nat) O. benaoosh-nffh 
(benaool, yenaool, beejol, bena- 
ool, benaoot) 
* b£(e)- becomes ye(e)- in 3o. 


nih, niih (niih), nii\ nih, niih 
(niih, nih), to act with the hand. 

1. to wove with the hand* 

F. dah ndideesh-nih (ndidiil, n- 
didool, nizhdidool, ndidiil, ndi- 
doot) I. dah ndish-nifh (ndil, n- 
dil, nizhdil, ndiil, ndot) C-l. dah 
ndish-niih (ndil, ndil, nizhdil, «v 
diil, ndot) P. dah ndesh-nif (n- 
dfni l 7 ndees, nizhdees, ndeel, n~ 
doot) R. dah nina-dfsh-nih (dii, 
dfl, zhdfl, dill, dot) O. dah n- 
dosh-niih (ndool, ndol, nizhd6l, 
ndool, ndoot) nfzaadgoo de- 
yaago shich'f dah ndeesnii', he 
waved at me as I went away. 

2. to touch it. 

F. *bi-dideesh-nih (didifl, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. bi- 
dinish-niih (dinfl, deel, zhdeel, 
diniil, dinot) P. bi-dinish-nii* 
(dffnfl, deel, zhdeel diniil, dinoot) 
R. binf-dfsh-nih (dfl, nidfl, zhdfl, 
diil, dot) O. bi-dosh-nffh (dool, 
dol, zhdol, dool, doot) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

3. to feel it; to examine it by 

F. *bf-dideesh-nih (didifl, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) C-l. bf- 
dish-nih (dfl, dfl, zhdfl, diil, dot) 
P. bf-desh-nii' (dfnfl, dees, zh- 
dees, deel, disoot) R. bfnf-dfsh- 
nih (dfl, dfl, zhdfl, diil, dot) O. 
bf-dosh-nih (dool, dol, zhdol, 
dool, doot) 
*bf- becomes yf- in 3o. 

4. to place one's hands on it. 
F. *bik'i-dideesh-nih (didffl, di- 



dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
bik'i-diish-nffh (diil, diil, zhdiil 
diil, doot) P. bik'i-diish-nii' (di- 
nil, diil, zhdiil, diil, doof) R. bi- 
k'ini'-diish-nih (diil, diil, zhdiil, 
diil, doot) O. bik'i-doosh-nnh 
(dool, dool, zhdool, dool, dool) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

5. to shake hands with him. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bflak'e, the area 
of his hand, to the following: 
F. dideesh-nih (didiil, didool, zh- 
didool, didiil, didoaD I. dish- 
nifh (dil, dil, zhdil, diil, dot) P. 
deesh-nif (dimfl, dool, zhdool, 
diil, dool) R. ndfsh-nih (ndii, n- 
dil, nizhdfl, ndiil, ndor) O. dosh- 
nifh (dool, dol, zhdol, dool, doot) 
bflak'e deeshnii', I shook 
hands with him. shilak'e dool- 
nif, he shook hands with me. 
'ahflak'e diilnif, we shook 
hands with each other. 

6. to choke him; throttle him. 
(bizak'f, on his mouth or throat) 

F. *bizak'i-dideesh-nih (didii, i- 
didoo, zhdidoo, didii', didooh) 
(didoo'-) I. bizak'f-diish-niih 
(dii, idii, zhdii, dii', dooh) (dii'-) 
P. bizak'i-dii-mV (dini, idii, zh- 
dii, dii\ doo) (dii 1 -) R. bizak , f- 
ndiish-'nih ndii, neidii, nizhdii, 
ndii, ndooh) (ndii-) O. bizak'i- 
doosh-niih (doo, idoo, zhdoo, 
doo', dooh) (doo'-) 
bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

7. to have the hand on it; to 
hold it down with the hand. 


N, bik'i-dfnfsh-nif (diinii, dees, 
zhdees, diniil, dfnoi) yeigo bi- 
k'idinishnii', I'm pressing on it 

8. to coil his attention (to a 
fact or circumstance). 

F. bi*deesh-nih (bi'diit, yi'door, 
bizh'dooi, bi'diil, bi'doot) I. 
bimsh-niih (bi'nit, yi'ft, bi'jft, 
bi'niil, bi'nol) P. bi'nit-nii' (bi'- 
'iinft, yi'nit, bizh'nit, bi'niil, bi'- 
noo!) R. bee ash-nih (bee it, yee- 
a*, bee 1 jit, bee'iil, bee'ot) O. bi- 
osh-mih (bi'oot, yi'ot, bi'jot, bi'- 
ool, bi oo+) bilif daaztsanfgff 
bee bi'deeshnih, I'll call his at- 
tention to the fact that his horse 
is dead. 

9. to distribute them. 

F, ndeesh-nih (ndii, neidoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii', ndooh) (nabidi'doo'-) 
C-L naash-niih (nani, nei, nji 
neii", naah) (nabi'di*-) P. nise- 
nif (nisi'ni, neiz, njiz, nisii', ni- 
soo) (nabi'dis'-) R. ni-nash-'nih 
(nam, nei, najf, neii, nah) (na- 
bi'di'-) O. na-osh-niih (66, yo, 
jo, oo', ooh) (bi'do'-) naabee- 
ho bikeyah bikaa'gi dibe nisenii* 
I distributed sheep on the Nav- 
aho Reservation. 

10. to distribute them among 

F. *bitaa-deesh-nih (dii, idoo, 
zhdoo, dii\ dooh) (bidfdoo'-) 
C-l. bi-taash-niih (taani, taai, 
taaji, taaii, taaoh) (taabi'di*-) 
P. bitaa-se-niP (sfnf, iz, jiz, sii, 
soo) (bi'dis'-) R. bitaa-nash- 



*nih (nam', net, rijf, neii, nah) 
(ndbi'di-) O. bitaa-osh-niih (66, 
yo, jo, oo', ooh) (bi'do*-) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

11. to suffer; to have many 
difficulties; to have a hard time. 
F. ti'hwii-deesh-nih (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii', dooh) *(doo'-) C-l. 
ti'-hoosh-nnh (hoo, hoo, hojoo, 
hwii*, hooh) (hoo*-) P. ti'-hwiise- 
nif (hwiisinf, hooz, hojooz, hwii- 
sii', hwiisoo) (hoos'-) R. ti'na- 
hoosh-'nih (hoo, hoo, hojoo, hwii 
hooh) (hoo-) O. ti'-hoosh-nfih 
(hoo, hoo ; hojoo, hoo', hooh) 
(hoo 1 -) 

*The parenthetic forms have 
an indefinite subject (3i.) Thus 
ti'hoos'nif, there was suffering. 

12. to trade it; to buy or sell it. 
The meaning "to buy" is ren- 
dered by prepounding -crTf, to- 
ward, to; and "to sell" by pre- 
pounding -aa, to, to the follow- 
ing verb forms. Thus, shil£[' shaa 
nayiisnii', he bought my horse 
from me; shil[f bich'f nahalnif, 
I sold my horse to him. 

F. nahideesh-nih (nahidiit, nei- 
diyoof, nizhdiyoot, nahidiil, na- 
hidoot) (nahidoo-) I. nahash- 
niih (nahit, nayiil, njiit, nahiil, 
nahoQ (naha-) P. nahat-nii* 
(nahfnft, nayiis, njiis, naheel, 
nahoot) (nahaaz-) R. ni-nd- 
hash-nih (nahfl, nayiit, najiil, 
nahiil, nahot) (n6ha-) O. na- 
hosh-niih (nahoof, nayof, njiyot 
nahool, nahoot) (nah6-) 


13. to pass among them (an 
epidemic or pestilence). 
F. bitaadadootnih C-l. bitaa- 
daatniih P. bitaadaasnii* R. bi- 
raandaa+nih O. bitaadaotniih. 
nih, niih, nih, *nih f niih, to hurt. 

1. to get hurt; to be injured. 
F. 'ada-dideesh-nih (didii, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii', didooh) I. ada- 
dish-nifh (di, di, zhdi, dii*, doh) 
P. 'ada-de-nih (dini, deez, zh- 
deez > dee', doo) R. ada-ndfsh- 
'nih (ridi, ndi, nfzhdf, ridii, ridoh) 
0. ada-dosh-niih (doo, do, zhdo, 
doo', dooh) 

2. to hurt; to be sore. 

N. dinish-niih (dinf, di, jidi, dinii, 
dinoh) shila' diniih, my hand is 

3. to be peeved at him. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding bik ee, on account 
of him, to the forms given in no. 
2. Thus, bikee dinishniih, I am 
peeved at him (i.e. I am sore on 
account of him). 

4. to accuse him of flirting 
with one's spouse. 

N. biinfsh-nifh (biinil, y 66l, bi- 
jol, biniil, bunof) 

5. to blink or close the eyes to 
show dislike for one (equivalent 
to making a face at one, or stick- 
ing one's tongue out among the 

F. dideesh-'nih (didif, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
'niih (df, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) P. 
d6sh-Yiih (dfnf, yidees, jidees, 



dee, disoo) R. ridfsh-'nih (ridi, 
neidi, nizhdi, ridii, ridoh) O. 
dosh-'niih (doo, yido, jido, doo, 
dooh) 'at'eed shidees'nih, the 
girl blinked at me. 
6. fro coddle him. 
N. biyaa ndish-niih (ndil, ndil, 
nizhdil, ndiil, ndof) 'awee* bi- 
yaa ndishniih, I'm coddling the 
baby (i.e. taking good care of it, 
as covering it up, wiping off dirt, 

nihookda', on earth. 
nV, earth; ground. 
nV bPneePqqh, surveying. 
nPdidzih, respiration. 
nPdilkaii, shinny (game). 
nPdilt'oh, archery. 
ni goo, on the ground; on the 
floor, teechqq'f nfgoo sit[, the 
dog is lying on the floor. 
nP hadldad, ground lichen. 
nPiijihi, saw mill. 
nPiijihi, Saw Mill, Arizona. 
nV\V, on the ground; on the floor 
nTji' naatne', I dropped it on the 
ground (or floor). 
nP nidaha'nanigii, earthquake. 
niih, to taste (V. I[h), 
N. halniih, it tastes. \5shiih 
halniih, it tastes like salt. 
nii\ niih, nip, nih, nip, to be- 
come the middle. 

1 . fro be(come) midnight. 

F. tfe'adootnfP I. ti e'fftniih P. 
tf'S'FftnfP R. tPena'dtnih O. 
tf e'ofnif N. tf e'aJnif 

2. fro become mid-summer or 
; id-winter. 


These meanings are rendered 
by prepounding sh[, summer, or 
hai, winter, to the following: 
F. 'adootnu" I. 'fftniih P. , fttniP 
R. na atnih O. 'ofrifP N. 'atnfP 
mPiidzP, nose drops. 
niPii'nit, snuff 

nii'oh, out of the way; hidden or 
removed place; out of sight. t*aa 
doo dasifttsehe niPoh yishghod 
I ran out of sight before they saw 
niil, ni, niid, niih, niih,, 

1 . fro wish one had ifr; fro have a 
strong desire fro possess ifr. 

F. *bida-dfneesh-niit (dinfil, df- 
nool, zhdfnool, dfnfil, dfnoot) C- 
I. bida-neesh-nf (ninil, nool, zh- 
nool, niil, noot) P. bida-nesh- 
niid (nfnfl, nool, zhnool, niil, 
noot) R. bidana-nfsh-niih (nil, 
nil, zhnil, niil, not) O. bida-nosh- 
niih (nool, nol, zhnol, nool, noot) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

2. fro be addicted fro ifr; fro like 
ifr very much; fro be unable fro 
deny ifr fro oneself. 

N. *bichq yideesh-nih (yfdfnil, 
yfdeel, yfzhdeef, yidfnfil, yfdf- 
not) todtfhft bichq yideeshnih, 
I am addicted to whiskey; I am 
"crazy about" whiskey. 
* bi becomes yi in 3o. 
niil, neeh, yaa, *jfh # ne\ (the 1st 
person dpi and passive stem of 
If ft, to make). 

1 . to moke oneself. 

F. 'fdi-'deesh-nfft fdffl, 'dool, zh- 
'dool, 'diil, *doot) I. Vdfsh-ne6h 



(Tdil, Tdtl, 'izh'dil, Tdoot) P. 
Tdiish-yaa (Vdiinil, Tdiil, 'izh- 
'diil, Tdiil, Tdooi) R. 'hYdiish- 
'iih Cfrt'diil, 'irVdiil, 'inizh'diil, 
'iiVdiil, m'doot) O. Tdosh-ne* 
(Tdool, Td6l, 'izh'dol, Tdool, 
Tdoot) naat'aanli Tdiishyaa, 
1 made myself the leader. 

2. to hurt oneself. 

F. trddi-deesh-niil (diil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) I. tf'-idish-'i (f- 
dfl, idfl, azhdil, fdiil, idot) P. tf- 
adiish-yaa (adinil, adiil, azhdiil, 
adiil, adoot) R. tfa-ndiish-'jih 
(hdiil, ndiil, nizhdiil, ndiil, n- 
doot) O. tu-dosh-ne' (dool, 
dool, zhdool, dool, doot) t'aa- 
doo fi'idil'ini, don't hurt your- 

3, to be wounded. 

F. tidi-deesh-nffl (diil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) P. tt-diish-yaa 
(dinil, diil, zhdiil,.diil, doot) R. 
tf-ndiish-t'iih (ndii, ndii, mzhdii, 
ndii, ndooh) O. ti-dosh-ne' (dool 
dool, zhdool, dool, doot) anaa' 
go tfdideeshnnt sha'shin nisin, I 
think I'll be wounded in the war, 
mit, neeh (t'|), dzaa (t'ijd), t'jih, 
ne\ to act; to do. (V. also "(it and 
t f ii*.) 

1 . to act; to do. 
F. •d-deesh-nift (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii', dooh) I. 'dsh-n<§eh ( anf, a- 
ajf, "<V, 'oh) C-l. ash-fi Cani, 
a, aji, 'ii, 'oh) P. as-dzaa (*fi- 
ni, a, 'djii, 'ii, ooh) R. 'd-ndsh- 
t'}[h (ndni, nd, rijf, n£ii, ndh) O. 
'oosh-ne' ('66, *6o, 'ajo, oo* 


'ooh) Prog. 'adsh-ni'H" ('da, 'da. 
ajoo, ii, aah) t aa ashidini- 
nigfi 'adeeshnnt, I'll do whatever 
you say. ha'dt'iish bik'ee 'fini- 
dzaa, how did you get that way?! 
haald 'anfneeh, what are you 
trying to do?! haala 'finidzaa, 
what happened?! what did you 
do?! haishq* amt'[, who are 
you? shi doo 'asht'y da, I didn't 
do it. t'66 'ashtX I'm merely 
fooling around. 

2. to raise one's head; to look 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding (or prefixing) dei, 
up, to the forms given under no. 
1 . Thus, dei'asdzaa, I looked up. 
'asdzqq dei'adzaa doo shineet*[[* 
the woman raised her head and 
looked at me. 

3. to change (in appearance, 
or characteristics). 

This meaning is rendered by 
Drepounding tango, otherwise, 
changed, to the forms given in 
no. 1 . Thus, tango 'adzaa t he 

4* to get worse (as a person 
who is ill). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yeigo, strongly, to 
the forms given under no. 1 . As, 
yeigo *dsdzaa, I got worse; yeigo 
'aashnift, I'm getting worse. 

5. to misbehave; to sin; to 
commit crime. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bqqhagi, wrong.. 



misdeed, sin, crime, to the forms 
given under no. 1. Thus, bqqha- 
gi 'asdzaa, I committed a crime 
or sin. 

6. to open (of its own accord, 
as a door). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding *qq, open, to the 3 
rd person forms of the verbs gi- 
ven under no. 1 . Thus, 'qq *a- 
dzaa, it opened. The neuter, it is 
open, is rendered with the verb 
'at'e (so 'qq at'e, it is open). 

7. to change (the weather, or 
impersonal it, they, things). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding iahgo (V. no. 3) to 
the following forms: 
F. ahodoonift I. 'ahaneeh Prog. 
"ahoonftt P. 'ahoodzaa R. ana- 
hoot'jih O. ahoneeh (or -ne') 

tioo'di +ahgo 'anahodoo'nit^, 
I wish the weather would change 
(back to its former state). 

8. to bend down with me (as a 


This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding shtf yaa, down with 
me, to the 3rd persons of the 
forms gWen under no. 1. Thus, 
shil yaa 'adzaa, it bent down 
with me; nit yaa 'adzaa, it bent 
down with you, etc. 

9. to happen to one. 

F. deesh-nift (dff, doo, jidoo, dii', 
dooh) I. yish-neeh (ni, yi, ji, y\V 
ghoh) C-l. yish-t'f (ni, yi, ji, yii, 
ghoh) P. yis-dzaa (yini, yi, ji, 
yii, ghooh) R. nash-t'ijh (nam, 


na, nji, neii, nah) O. ghosh-ne' 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo', ghooh) 

haadashq* deeshnfit, I wonder 
what will happen to me? haada- 
shq' yit*[, I wonder how he is do- 
ing, haala yineeh, what is hap- 
pening to him? (what is he do- 
ing?) haala yinidzaa, what 
happened to you? haada ghosh- 
ne' laanaa, I wish something 
would happen to me. 

10a. to happen; to occur. 
F. 'ahodoonfit C-l. 'ahat'i P. a- 
hoot'jjd R. *anahoot*[ih O. 'a- 
hone' Prog 'ahooniM'. 

10b. to happen; to occur. 
F. hodoonift C-l. hat f | P. hoo- 
t*[[d R. nahoot'iih O. hone' 

nfleidishq' haa hat'i, what is 
going on over there? 

haada hat'i, what is happen- 
ing? haada hone* laanaa, I wish 
something would happen! haa 
h66t'i[d, what happened? haala 
'ahoodzaa (or 'ahaneeh), what 
happened?! (as on expression of 
surprise) haala 'ahaneeh, why 
did it have to happen (as said by 
a bereaved person)! kintahdi 
naashaago 'ahoot'jjd, I was in 
town when it happened. 

10c. to happen this way. 
F. kohodoonfft C-L kohat'i P. 
kohoot'iid R. konahoot'jjh O 

kohone' laanaa nisin nt'ee', I 
was hoping that this would hap- 
oen! jo kohoot'iid, this is what 



lOd. to happen that way. 
F. akohodoonff* C-l. akohat'; 

P. akohoot'ud R. akonahoot'ijh 
O. akohone' 

t'da ninahahaah bik'eh *ako- 
nahoot'ijh, it happens that way 
every year. 

11. to imagine it. 

This is herewith given in the 3 
rd person (bit); it is altered for 
person by changing the pronoun 
prefixed to the postposition -it, 

F. t'66 bit adoonift C-l. t'66 bit 
'at'[ P. t'66 bit 'adzaa R. t'66 bit 
anatuh O. 1 06 bit '6one\ 

mq'ii yiittsq nisin nt'ee* — t'66 
shit adzaa la, I thought I saw a 
coyote — but I just imagined it. 

12. to be accomplished. 

F. ta' dooniit I. ia yineeh P. ta* 
yidzaa R. ta' nat'iih O. ta' gho- 

13. to increase in size; to ex- 
pand; spread the legs open. 

F. 'qq ko-deesh-nfi't (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, dii*, dooh) Prog, "qq 
kwaash-niit (kwaa, kwaa, kojoo, 
kwff kwaah) P. 'qq kos-dzaa 
(kwiini, ko, kojii, kwfi, kooh) R. 
ko-nash-t'iih (neii or nanf, na, 
rijii, neii, ndh) O. koosh-ne* 
(koo, koo, kojo, koo', kooh) 

14. to duck, dodge. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yaa, down, to the 
forms given under no. 13. Thus, 
tse yee shffniitne'go yaa kos- 


dzaa, I ducked when he threw a 
stone at me. 

15. to get even with him; to 
take vengeance on him. (This 
word is used either with respect 
to an evil deed or to a good one.) 
F. *bi+ k'ee-dideesh-'nni (didfi, 
didoo, dizhdoo, didii, didooh) I. 
bit k'Se-dfsh-'neeh (df, df, zhdi, 
dii, doh) P. k ee-diis-dzaa (dini, 
dii, zhdii, dii, dooh) R. bit k'e-h- 
diisht'ijh (ridii, hdii, nizhdii, ridii 
ridoh) O. k'ee-dosh-'ne' (doo, 
do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 

* bit becomes yit in 3o. 

16. to get ready. 

F. hashfedi-deesh-'niit (dii, doo, 
dizhdoo, dii, dooh) I. hasht'e- 
dish-'neeh (df, di, zhdi, dii, doh) 
P. hasht'e-diisdzaa (dini, dii, zh- 
dii, dii, dooh) R. hashtVa-n- 
diish-*i[h (ridiii, ridiii, nizhdiil, 
ridiii, ridoot) O. hasht'e'a-dosh- 
ne* (dool, dol, zhdol, dool, doot) 

17. to dress. 

F. haa-dideesh-'niit (didfi, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. haa- 
dish-'neeh (df, di, zhdi, dii, doh) 
P. haa-diis-dzaa (dini, dii, zhdii, 
dii, dooh) R. hanina-diish-t'iih 
(dii, dii, zhdii, dii, dooh) O. haa- 
dosh-'ne' (doo, do, zhdo, doo, 

18. to put forth violent effort 
for it; to suffer for it. 

F. ba ati-deesh-nirt (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, dii', dooh) C-l. ba 'atfsh- 
t'i ('atfnf, 'ate, 'atijf, *atfi, *ati- 
6h) P. ba 'atfi-t'ud fatffni, 'a- 



tee, 'ati j if, 'atii, *atfoo) R. ba 
'atf-nash-t'jih (nani, na, nji, ne- 
*i, nah) O. ba 'atf-oosh-ne' (66, 
oo, jo, oo', ooh) nihisilaago bi- 
keyah ya 'atfdaat'ugo ta' 'adaa- 
din silff, some of our soldiers 
have died striving for their land. 
niit, ne\ ne\ niih, ne\ to toss a 
bulky roundish object. 

1 . to pound it (with repeated 

F. ridfneesh-niit (ndinfit, neidi- 
noot, nizhdfnoot,, ndf- 
noot) (ndbidf nool-) C-l. na- 
nish-ne' (nanit, neinit, nazhnft, 
naniil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) P. 
nanet-ne' (nanfnit, neinees, na- 
nees, naneel, nanoot) (nabidi'- 
nees-) R. ni-nanfsh-niih (nanft, 
neinit, nazhnft, naniil, nanof) 
{nabidi'nil-) 0. nanosh-ne' (na- 
noot, neinot, nazhnot, nanool, 
nanoot) (nabidi'nol-) 

2. to cut it in two (pounding it 
with an ax). 

F. k'f-deesh-niii (dift, idoot, zh- 
doot, diii, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
k'l-nfsh-ne* (nit, it, jit, niil, not) 
(bi'deel-) P. k'f-nft-ne' (fnft, i- 
nit, zhnit, niil, noot) (bi*deel-) 
R. k'f-nash-niih (na n ft, neit, njit, 
neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. k'f-osh- 
ne* (66t, yot, jot, ool, oot) (bV- 

3. to pound it off; to chip it 
off by pounding it. 

F. bideesh-niit (bfdfft, yfidoot, bf- 
zhdoot, bfdiil, bidoot) I. besh- 
ne' (bfnit, yift, bfjft, bfil, boot) 


P. beet-ne' (bfmft, yfyfit, bijfit, 
bfij, boot) R. bfnqsh-niih (bfna- 
nft, yfneft, binjit, bfneiil, binat) 
0. boosh-ne* (boot, yfyot, bfjot, 
boo I, boot) 

4. to throw it at him (a stone). 
F. yfdfneesh-niit (yidinfft, yfdf- 
noot, yizhdfnoot, yfdfniil, yidi- 
noot) P. yinfft-ne* (yifnfnit, yff- 
nfft, yfzhnfft, yfniil, yfnoot) R. 
nefniish-niih (nefnfft, neinift, ne- 
fzhnfft, nefnfil, neinoot) O. yf- 
noosh-ne* (ymoot, yffnoot, yfzh- 
noot, ymool, yfnoot'). tse bee nff- 
dmeeshniit, I'll throw a stone at 
you. (Passives could also be 
formed as follows: F, yfdfnool- 
niit I. yfnfflne* P. ymfilne' R. 
nefnniniih O. yfnoolne\) 

5. to drop it (a bulky or round- 
ish object, as a bottle). 

F. ndeesh-niit (ndfft, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi'- 
dool-) I. naash-ne' (nan it, neit, 
njit, neiil, naat) (nabi'dil-) P. 
naat-ne* (nefnft, nayift, njfft neiil 
naoot) (nabi'dool-) R. ni-nash- 
niih (nanit, neft, najft, neiil, nat) 
(nabi'dil-) O. naosh-ne* (naoot, 
nayot, njot, naool, naoot) (nabP- 
dol-) shinaaltsoos naatne*, I 
dropped my book. 

6- to lose it (a bulky or round- 
ish object, as a book, hat, coin, 
ball, box, etc.). 

F. yoo' 'adeesh-niit ( adfft, 'ii- 
doot, azhdoot, adiil, r adoot) (*a- 
bidrdool-) I. y66 f , iish-ne , (V 
nit, 'iit, 'ajit, Mil, 'oof) (^abrdif^) 



P. yoo' 'iit-ne* Ciinit, 'ayfit, ajiit, 
'ill, *oot) ('abi'dool-) R. y66' 
'anash-niih Cananft, 'aneft, 'on- 
jft, 'aneiil, 'anat) Canabi'dil-) 

0. yoo* 'oosh-ne' Coot, *ay6t, *a- 
jot, 'ool, oot) Cabi'dol-) 

7. to knock it over. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prefixing naa-, over to one side / 
to the verb forms given under 
no. 6 (excluding the y66' pro- 
pounded to no. 6). Thus naa'a- 
deeshniit, I'll knock it over; bik'i 
dah'asdahf naa'fftne', I knocked 
the chair over. 

8. to look up; to turn one's 
head quickly; to jerk one's heod 
up quickly (upon being startled). 
F. ha-dfneesh-niit (dfnfil, dfnool, 
zhdfnool, dfnfil, dfnoot) I. ha- 
nish-ne* (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, not) 
P. ha-neesh-ne* (nffnfl, nool, zh- 
nool, niil, noot) R. hana-nfsh- 
niih (nil, nil, zhnfl, niil, not) O. 
ha-nosh-ne' (nool, nol, zhnol, 
nool, noot) dlpg* 'a qqd#f ha- 
noolne* doo naneesne*, the 
prairie dog stuck its head out of 
the hole and looked quickly 

9. to look about one quickly 
(jerking the head about in all 

F. ndfneesh-niit (ndfnffl, ndfnool 
nizhdfnool, ndfnfil, ndinoot) C- 

1. na-nish-ne' (nfl, nil, zhnil, niil, 
not) P. na-nesh-ne* (nfnfl, nees, 
zhnees, nee I, noot) R. nina-nfsh- 
niih (nil, nil, zhnil, niil, not) O. 


na-nosh-ne' (nool, nol, zhnol, 
nool, noot) 

10. to stick one's head out 
and draw it back quickly (as 
from a window or door). 

F. ch^-dfneesh-niit (dfnffl, df- 
nool, zhdfnool, dfnfil, dfnoot) I. 
ch'i-ninish-ne* (ninfl, neel, zh- 
neel, niniil ninot) P. ch'f-ninish* 
ne' (nffnfl, neel, zhneel, niniil, 
ninoot) R. ch'ina-nfsh-niih (nil, 
nfl, zhnfl, niil, not) O. ch'f-nosh- 
ne' (nool, nol, zhnol, nool, noot) 

11. to stick one's head in 
quickly, and withdraw it (as in 
looking in through a door). 

F. yah 'a-dfneesh-niit (dfnfil, df- 
nool, zhdfnool, dfnfil, dfnoot) 
I. yah 'a-nish-ne* (nfl, nil, zhnil, 
niil, not) P. yah 'a-neesh-ne* 
(nffnfl, nool, zhnool, niil, noot) 
R. yah 'ana-nfsh-niih (nfl, nil, 
zhnfl, niil, noi) O. yah 'a-nosh- 
ne* (nool, nol, zhnol, nool, noot) 

daadflkat *qq *ayiilaa d66 yah 
'anoolne', he opened the door 
and quickly looked in. 

12. to drop a bomb on it. 

To bomb it, in the sense of let- 
ting many bombs fall on it sim- 
ultaneously, is rendered by use 
of the following stems and the 
omission of the t-c!assifier: nit, 
nfft, nil, nit, nfft). Thus, bik'iji' 
hadah YiiYiil, we bombed it (let 
many bombs fall at once); but 
bik'iji' hadah Viilne\ we drop- 
ped a bomb on it. 



F. *bik'iji' hadah Ydeesh-niit 
(Vdiit, Tdoot, 'izh'doot, Tdiil, 
Ydoot) Cidool-) I. bik'iji* ha- 
dah Vesh-ne 1 (Vit, Vet, Tjit, 
Tiil, Vert) (Vel-) P. bik'iji* ha- 
dah Viit-ne' (Yimit, Tift, Tjfit, 
Tiil, Yoot) (Vool-) R. bik'iji' 
hadah 'ana'ash-niih Cancut, *a- 
ndat, an'jft, 'and'iil, and'ot) 
('and'dl-) O. bik'iji' hadah V- 
osh-ne' ( V66t, o'ot, Tjot, Vool, 
Voot) (Vol-) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
'niif, *niih Pni), *nih, *nih, *nih, to 

F. 'adidoo'niit I. 'adi'niih C-l a- 
di'ni P. 'adees'nih R. n'dii'nih 
O. 'adoo'nih 

•niit, *nih, 'ni*, 'nih, *nih, to 
strike (lightning). 

1. to strike if* (lightning), 
F. bPiidoo'niit I. bi'oo'nih P. bf- 
'oos'ni' R* bind'oo'nih O. bf'oo*- 
nih. tsin bfoos'ni*, lightning 
struck the tree. *ii*ni* biisxf, he 
was killed by lightning (light 
nirg killed him). 
niif, ni, niid, 'niih, niih. 

1 . to enjoy myself; fro have fun 
with or at it. 

This verb is herewith given for 
rhe 1st person singular. It is al- 
tered for person by changing the 
pronoun prefix on the postposi- 
tion -it, with. 

F. baa shit hodfnooniit C-L baa 
shit honeeni, P. baa shit hon&§- 
niid R. baa shit ndhonee'niih O. 
baa shit hononiih. 'ffnfshta'go 


baa shit honeeni, I have fun 
reading; I like to read, nizhoni- 
go na'akaigo baa shit honeeniid, 

enjoyed a good Yei Bichei. 
niit, niih (ni), niid, 'niih, ne', to 

1 * to soy it. 
F. dideesh-niit (didn, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) (hodi'doo 1 -) 
I. dish-niih (df, di, ji, dif, doh) 
(hodP-) C-l. dish-ni (df, — *, ji, 
dii', doh) (ha'-) P. dfi-niid (dii- 
ni, dif, jidii, dii', doo) (ho'doo*-) 
R. ridish-'niih (ndf, ndf, nfzhdf, 
ndii\ ndoh) (ndhodi'-) O. dosh- 
ne* (doo, do, jido, doo', dooh) 

*The 3rd person is expressed 
by the stem without prefixes, so 
ni, he says (it). 

2. to say; to say thus. 

The forms given under no. 1 
ore direct and definite in force, 
but with prefixation of *d-, ref- 
erence is made to one's whole 
speech or statement, rather than 
to the definite individual words. 
Thus, mq'ii "doo shit beehozin 
da," nf, coyote "I do not know," 
he says (it); but mq'ii anf "doo 
shit beehozin da," coyote says 
(thus) "I do not know." 

3. to call him (to get his atten- 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding bfkd, for him, to 
rhe forms described under no. 2 
(i.e. the forms of number 1 plus 
Drefixed 'a-). Thus, bfka 'adish- 



ni, I am calling him; yfka 'ani, 
he is calling him. 

4. to say it to him; to call him 
or name him; to tell it to him; to 
ask him. 
F. bidideesh-niil (bididi'i, yididoo 
bizhdidoo, bididii', bididooh) 
(bidi'doo*-) C-l (N) bidish-ni 
(bi'di; yi+, biji, bidii', bidoh) (bf- 
di'-) P. bidn-niid (bidnni, yidff, 
bizhdff, bidii', bidoo) (bi'doo*-) 
R. ndbidish-'niih (nabidi, neidi, 
nabizhdi, nabidii', nabidoh) (na- 
bi'di'-) 0. bidosh-ne' (bidoo, yi- 
do, bizhdo, bidoo*, bidooh) (bi 1 - 

5. to say thus to him; to ask 
him (permission); to mean by it. 

These meanings are rendered 
by prefixing 'a- to the forms gi- 
ven under no. 4, The only irreg- 
ularity is in the 3o. person of the 
C-l (or N) form, where *a- prefix- 
ed to yMnf, gives *fitnf, not 'ayit- 
nf. These forms ore given in the 
1st person singular. 
F. abidideeshniit C-l (N). abi- 
dishnf P. 'abidnniid R. \5nabi- 
dish'niih O. *abidoshne* 

John bilff sha'doo+teel binii- 
ghe 'abidishni, I'm asking John 
to lend me his horse, ni dooda, 
John 'abidishnf, not you, I mean 

* *a- can be replaced by 'oaf, 
without change in the meaning. 
Thus hafshq* 'aa+bidinf, whom 
do you mean? 


6. to imitate (the sound of) it* 

C-L bidish-nf (bidtt, yidit, bizh- 
dit, bidiil, bidot) tsfdii bidishnf, 
I am imitating the sound of the 
bird. ne'eshjaa* mosf yiditnf, 
the owl is imitating a cat. 
niittsQpz, flat; deflated (tire); ru- 

niinahnizaad Fruitland, N. M. 
nikihodii'd, steep. 
mldiil, large; big. 
nilo, hail. 
nilo yazhi, sleet. 

nit, niit (jaah), nil, 'nit, niit, to 
handle plural objects, animate 
or inanimate, This stem refers 
to a smaller number of objects 
than the stem jih, as two or three 
shot, puppies, babies, books, etc. 
rather than to a large group or 
armful (Cp. jih) V. aat for the 
derivational prefixes relating to 
the handling of objects. 
1 . to castrate it. 
This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bicho*, his testicles 
to the following verb forms, (sig- 
nifying literally to take them out 
one after the other). 
F. ha-hideesh-nit (hidn, idiyoo, 
hizhdiyoo, hidii', hidooh) (hi- 
doo'-) I. ha-hash-nfft (hi, yii, jii, 
hii\ hoh) (ha'-) P. ha-ha-nil 
(hfinf, yiiz, jiiz, hee\ hoo) 
(haas 1 -) R. hana-hash-'nit (hf r 
yii; jii, hii', hoh) (ha'-) O. ha- 
hosh-nift (hoo, iyo, jiyo, hoo', 
hooh) (ho'-) 



2. to replace them vith them; 
to put them back in place of 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bich'qqhji', in 
their place, to the following: 
F. 'a-rideesh-'ni+ (ndff, neidoo, 
ndzhdoo, ridii, ndooh) (ndbidi*- 
doo-) I. , a-ndsh-*nn+ (ndnf, n6f, 
njf, neii, ndh) (nabi'di-) P. 'a- 
nddsh-'nil (nemf, ndyoo, njoo, 
neii, ndooh) (ndbi'doo-) R. *a- 
nf-nash-'nit (ndnf, nef, ndjf, neii, 
ndh) (ndbi'di-) O. 'a-ndosh- 
*nff+ (naoo, ndyo, njo, naoo, nd- 
ooh) (ndbi'do-j 

3. to knock them over (one 
after another). 

F. naa-'ahideesh-ntt ('ahidii, *ii- 
diyoo, 'ahizhdiyoo, 'ahidii', 'ahi- 
dooh) I. naa-'ahish-nftt ('ahi, 
'ayii, *ajii, 'ahii', 'ahoh) P. naa- 
'ahe-nil (ahfni, 'ayiiz, 'ajiiz, 
ahee', 'ahoo) R. naa-'andhdsh- 
*ni+ ('andhf, 'andyii, 'anjii, *and- 
hii, 'andhdh) O. naa-'ahosh- 
nff+ Cahoo, 'iiyo, 'ajiyo, 'ahoo*, 

4. to subjugate them. 

This meaning is rendered by 
Drepounding 'dyaa, under self, 
to the following verb forms: 
F. 'adeesh-'ntf ('adii, 'iidoo, 'a- 
zhdoo, adii, 'adooh) I. *iish- 

nn+ ( am, n, aji, n, ooh) P. 
'eesh-'nil Cifni, 'ayoo, 'ajoo, 'ii, 

oo) R, 'andsh-'nit ('anfinf, *a- 
nef, 'arijf, 'aneii, *andh) O. 


'oosh~'nu+ Coo, 'ayd, *aj6, *oo, 

5. to subjugate them one af- 
ter the other (as when a conque- 
ror overcomes nations one after 
another in succession). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'dyaa, under self, 
to the following verb forms: (as 
in no. 4, except that the insert- 
ion of -hi- indicates that they are 
placed one after another, rather 
than all in one act). 
F. 'ahideesh-'ni+ ('ahidfi, 'iidi- 
yoo, ahizhdoo, 'ahidii, 'ahidooh) 
(abi'diyoo-) I. 'ahish-'niit Ca- 
hi, 'ayii, 'ajii, 'ahii, 'ahoh) ('abi'- 
dii-) P. 'ahesh-nil ('ahini, 'a- 
yiis, 'aji is, 'ahee, 'ahooh) ('abi'- 
diis-) R. 'andhdsh-'nit Candhi, 
andyii, 'anjii, 'andhii, andhoh) 
Candbi'dii-) O. 'ahdsh-'nnl ('a- 
hod, 'iiyd, ahi jo, 'ahoo, 'ahooh) 

6. to reassemble it; to put it 
back together. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'ahiih, into each 
other, to the following verbs: 
(the meaning being literally to 
put them (the parts) back into 
each other), 

F. 'ahiih ndeesh-'ntf (ndff, nei- 
doo, nfzhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (nd- 
bidi'doo-) I. ndsh-'nftt (ndnf, 
nef ; njf, neii, ndh) (ndbi'di-) P. 
nddsh-'nil (nefnf, ndyoo, njoo, 
neii, ndooh) (ndbPdoo-) R. ni- 
ndsh-'nit (ndnf, net, ndjf, neii, 



nah) (nabi'di-) O. naosh-'niit 
(naoo, nayo, njo, naoo, naooh) 

7. to release them; to set them 
free (lit. to take them back out). 
F. ch'eedeesh-'nit (ch'eedfi, ch'f- 
neidoo, ch'eezhdoo, ch'eedii, 
-h'eedooh) (ch'eebidi'doo-) I. 
ch'f-ndsh-'nnt (nanf, nei, nfjf, 
neii, nah) (nabi'di-) P. ch'ee- 
nish-'nil (ch'eemi, ch'eeyoo 
ch'eejoo, ch'fneii, ch'maooh) 
(ch'eebi'doo-) R. ch'mf-nash-'ni-l 
(nanf, nef, najf, neii, nah) (nabi'- 
di-) 0. ch'i-naosh-'nfft (na66 ( 
nayo, njo, naoo, naooh) (nabi'- 

8. to smoke them (pieces of 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding tid, smoke, to the 
following verbs: (to smoke it is 
rendered by substituting the 
stem *qq\, with the same prefix- 
es as those which follow). 
F. beedeesh-ntf (beedff, yeeyi- 
doo, beezh, beedii', beedooh) 
(beedoo'-) I. benash-nit (beenf, 
yenef, beejf, beneii', benah) (be- 
na'-) P. beese-nil (beesfnf, ye- 
nefz, beejfz, beesii*, beesoo) (be- 
nds'-) R. benfnash-'nit (benfna- 
nf, yenfn^f, benfnajf, benfneii, 
benfnah) (benfna-) O. benaosh- 
nit (benaoo, yeeyo, beejo, bena- 
oo', benaooh) (benaoo*-) 

9. to sprinkle water. 

This meaning is rendered by 


prepounding to, water, to the 
following verb forms: 
F. ndeesh-ni+ (ndii, neidoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii', ndooh) (ndoo'-) C-K 
naash-nil (nani, nei, nji, neii', 
naah) (naa'-) P. nise-nil (nisi- 
nf, neiz, njiz, nisii', nisoo) 
(naas'-) R. ni-nash-'ni-l' (nanf f 
nef, najf, neii, nah) (na*-) O. 
naosh-nil (naoo, nayo, njo, na- 
oo', naooh) naoo'-) shida'a- 
k'ehgi to nisenil, I sprinkled (in) 
my field. 

10. to lose them (plural ani- 
mate or inanimate objects). 

F. yoo' 'adeesh-ni+ ('adff, 'iidoo, 
azhdoo, adii', 'adooh) ('abidi'- 
doo'-) I. yoo* 'iish-nfft (*ani, 'ii, 
'aji, 'ii', 'ooh) ('abi'di'-) P. yoo 
u-nil ( nni, ayn, ajn, n , oo> 
Cabi'doo'-) R. yoo' 'anash-'nii 
Oananf, *anef, 'anjf, aneii, 'a- 
nah) Canabi'di-) O. yoo' 'oosh- 
nnf ( oo, ayo, ajo, oo , ooh) 

11. to drop them (a few ani- 
mate or inanimate objects). 

F. ndeesh-nit (ndff, neidoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii', ndooh) (nabidi'doo*-) 
I. naash-nfft (nani, nei, nji, neii', 
naah) (nabi'di'-) P. naa-nil (ne- 
inf, nayfi, njff, neii', naoo) (na- 
bi'doo'-) R. ni-nash-'nit (nanf, 
nei. najf, neii*, nah) (nabi'di-) 
O. naosh-nfff (naoo, nayo, njo r 
naoo', naooh) (nabi'do*-) 

12. to burrow; to dig or bore a 

F. Vdeesh-ni+ (Vdff, Vdoo, *izh*- 



doo, 'i'dii', Tdooh) I. Vesh- 
nftt Ci'f, e'e, i'ji, Tii\ Yoh) 
Prog, 'eesh-ntt ('if, 'oo, 'ajoo, 'ii', 
'ooh) P. Tff-nil (Vi'inf, Vif, Vjfi, 
Tii\ Too) R. 'a-na'ash-'nit (na- 

i, na a, n ji, na ii, na oh) O. 

oosh-niif (ooo, oo, i jo, o- 
oo, Vooh) d\gg Tiinil, the 
prairie dog dug a hole. 

16. to bore or dig through it. 
F. *binaka-'deesh-nii Cdif, *doo, 
zh'doo, 'dii*, 'dooh) I. binaka- 

nish-niif ( ni, i, ji, nit , noh) 
P. binaka-'nf-nil ('iini, 'ni, zh'nf, 
*nii\ *noo) R. binakdna-'ash- 

nil ( i, a, ji, ii , oh) O. bina- 
<a- osh-niif ( oo, o, jo, oo , 
*ooh) tsin binaka'deeshnit, 1 
will bore a hole in the wood. 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

17. to saddle it (a horse). 

F. *bik'i dah a-deesh-ntt (dii 
doo, zhdoo, dii*, dooh) I. bik'i 
dah 'ash-nfit O, 'a, *ajl / Mi*, *oh) 
P. bik'i dah ase-nil Tasini, az 
*ajiz, 'asii', *asoo) R. bik'i dah 
na'ash-'nit (na'f, na'a, ni'jf, na 
ii\ na'oh) O. bik'i dah 'osh-nfit 
oo, o, ajo, oo , ooh) 
*bik'i becomes yik'i in 3o. 
V\\ bik'i dah Jashnfil, I am sad- 
dling the horse. hitch them (horses) to it 

(a wagon). 

To hitch one horse is rendered 
by substituting the stems tteef 
iteeh, it[, +teeh, tteet in the foll- 
F. *bighqqh dideesh-nit (didff 


yididoo, jididoo, didii', didooh) 
I. bighqqh dish-nift (di, yidi, jidi, 
dii*, doh) P. bighqqh de-nil( df- 
ni, deez, jideez, dee', doo) R. 
bighqqh hdish-'nit (ridi, neidi 
ndii', ridoh) O. bighqqh dosh- 
niil (doo, yido, jido, doo', dooh) 

* bighqqh becomes yighqqh \r 

nitdzil, solid; firm. 
nitchxon, stinking. 
nitch'i, air; spirit. 
nitch'i diilidigii, carbon dioxide 
nitch'itsoh, December. 
nitch'its'osi, November. 
nitch'i yd'at'eehii, oxygen. 
nithin, oily brown (like the brown 
stain on sheep's wool). 
nittoli, transparent; clear; crys- 
talline (as water). 
niftsq, rain. 
niftsq bi'aad, shower. 
nittsq bikq\ violent storm. 
nittsqgo', brown prion id beetle. 
nihVili, crystalline; clear (water) 
nimasiitsoh, potato, 
nimaz, spherical; round. 
nineez, long. 

nish, niish, nish, nish, niish, to 


1. to start working. 

F. dideesh-nish (didffl, didool, ji- 
didool, didiil, didoot) I. dish- 
nffsh (dil, dil, jidil, diil, dot) P. 
desh-nish (dinil, deesh, jideesh, 
deel, dishoot) R. ndish-nish (n- 
dil, ndil, nizhdfl, ndiil, ndot) O. 
dosh-nffsh (dool, dol, jidol, dool, 




2. to work. 

F. ndeesh-nish (ndul, ndool, ni- 
zhdool, ndiil, ndoot) C-l. naash- 
nish (nanil, naal, njil, neiil, 
naat) P. nishi'sh-nish (nishinil, 
naash, njish, nishiil, nishoot) R. 
ninash-nish (ninanN, ninal, ni- 
najil, nineiil, ninat) O. naoosh- 
nish (naool, naool, njol, naool, 

It will be noted that this verb 
uses a single stem throughout. 
It is also used in the sense of to 
function, probably by analogy 
with the English usage of work 
as in chidf doo naalnish da, the 
car doesn't work. 

3. to work on it* 

F. bindeesh-nish (bindnl, yindool 
binizhdool, bindiil, bindoot) (bi- 
n'doo-) C-l. binaash-nish (bina- 
nil, yinaal, binjil, bineiil, bi- 
naat) (bina'a-) P. binishish- 
nish (binishfnfl, yinaash, binjish, 
binishiil, binishoot) (bina'azh-) 
R. bininash-nish (bininanfl, yi- 
ninal, bininajH, binineiil, bini- 
nat) (binina'a-) O. binaoosh- 
(binaool, yinaool, binjol, bina- 
ool, binaoot) (bina'6-) 

4. to stop working; to finish 

F. ndeesh-nish (ndfil, ndool, ni- 
zhdool, ndiil, ndoot) I. ninish- 
niish (ninfl 7 nlil, njrl, niniil, ni- 
not) P. ninish-nish (nifnfl, nil I, 
njil, niniil, ninoof) R. ni-nash- 
nish (nanil, nal, najfl, neiil, nal) 

0* noosh-niish (nool, nool, njol, 

nool, noot) 

nish/ nizh, nizh, *nish, nizh, to 

break a slender flexible object. 

1. to pluck or pick it (herb, 

F. deesh-nish (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii\ dooh) (bidi'doo'-) I. yish- 
nizh (ni, yi, ji, yii', ghoh) (bi'di'-) 
P. yf-nizh (ymi, yiyn, jii, yii', 
ghoo) (bi'doo 1 -) R. nash-'nish 
(nani, nei, nji, neii*, nah) (nabf- 
di-) O. ghosh-nizh (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo 1 , ghooh) (bi'do 1 -) 

2. to break it in two (slender 
flexible object as string; also re- 
fers to the breaking of a treaty). 
F. k'f-deesh-nish (dff # idoo/ zh- 
doo, dii', dooh) (bidi'doo 1 -) I. 
k'f-nfsh-niish (ni, i, ji, niP, noh) 
(bfdee*-) P. k'f-nf-nizh (mi, ini, 
zhnf, nii*, noo) (bPdee*-) R. k'f- 
nash-'nish (nani, nef, rijf, neii, 
nah) (nabPdi'-) 0, k'i-osh-niish 
(66, yo, jo, oo', ooh) (bPdo'-) 
nisihwiinideel, emergency. 
nireel, wide; broad; flat, 
nitl'iz, hard; tough. 

nitsaa, large; big. shikin nitsaa, 
my house is large. 
nitsxaaz, large; big (anything 
that grows, as a plant or animal) 
deenasts'aa* +a' nitsxaaz, one of 
the rams is large. 

nizaadgoo, afar, nfzaadgoo ni- 
seya, I've gone a long way. 
nizhoni, pretty; good; beautiful- 
clean; nice; fine. 

niyol, wind. 



niyol to hoyiileehi, windmill. 

hldohdi, over there, hlaahdi 

tsin t*66 'ahayoi yiTa, there's a 

lot of timber over there. 

rilei, that; that one. rilef tsin bi- 

yaadi *a+hosh, he is sleeping over 

there under that tree. 

rileidi, over there; yonder, nlei- 

di 'athosh, he's sleeping over 


not, nood, nood, no*, nood, to 

move quickly; dart. 

1 . to dive. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ta+t-T aah, the bot- 
tom of the water; the interior of 
the water, to the following: 
F, deesh-no+ (dfil, dool, jidool, 
diil, doot) I. yish-nood (nil, yil, 
jil, yiil, gho+) P. yish-nood (yf- 
ml, yil, jool, yiil, ghoot) R. nash- 
no* (nanfl, nal, njil, n<§iil, na+) 
O. ghosh-nood (ghool, ghol, jol, 
ghool, ghooJ) 

2. to dart about (as a lizard), 
F. ndoolnot C-l naalnood Prog. 
naanaalnot P. naasnood R. ni- 
nalno" O. naoolnood 
nooda'i, Ute. 

noodpgz, striped. 

noo*, storage pit. 

nooji, corrugated; rugged. 

noot'ish, pleat. 

noweh£di, farther on. t'ah no- 

wehedi nidibe nanftkaad, herd 

/our sheep farther on! 


The d-classifier becomes t'- be- 
fore stem initial 


ohoneedzq, possibility (boho- 
needzq or bihoneedzq, it is pos- 

*6lta\ school. 

'olta' hotsaaigii, boarding school 
ot, W, eel, 'ot, 'eet, to float 

1. to float about on the sur- 

F. dah ndeesh-'ot (ndii, ndoo, ni- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) C-l. dah 
naash- eet (nani, naa, nji, neii, 
naah) P. dah nise-*eel (nisini, 
naaz, njiz, nisi i, nisoo) R. dah 
ninash-'ot (ninanf, ninaji, nineii, 
ninah) O. dah naoosh-'eet (na- 
66, naoo, njo, naoo, naooh) 

2. to be floating along. 

Prog, yish-'at" (yi, yi, joo, yii 7 

3. to become snagged (as an 
object caught on a limb lying in 
the water). 

F. dah ndeesh-'ot (hdn, ndoo, ni- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) I. dah nash- 

eet (nani, na, nji, neii, naoh) P. 
dah nise-'eel (nisfni, naz, njiz, 
nfsii, ni'soo) R. dah nmash-'oi 
(ninanf, nina, ninajf, nfneii, ni- 
nah) O. dah naoosh-'eet (naoo, 
naoo, njo, naoo, naooh) 

tsinaa'eet dah naz'eel, the ship 
was snagged (ran aground). 

4. to run aground (and remain 
stuck, as a ship). 

F. dzWts adidfnoo'ot I. dzftts'a- 
dini'eet P. dzMts'adineez'eel R. 
dzi+ts'andini'ot O. dzttts'adino- 



5. to start off sailing it (lit. to 
start off causing it to float a- 

F. dah dideesh-'ot (didn't, yidi- 
doot, shdidoot, didiil, didoot) 1. 
dah diish-'eet (diit, yidiit, shdiit, 
diil, doot) P. dah diit-'eel (dinit, 
yidiit, shdiit, diil, doot) R. dah 
ridiish-'ot (ndiit, neidiit, nizhdiit, 
rtdiil, ndoot) O. dah doosh-'eet 
(doot, yidoat, jidoot, dool, doot) 

6. to start sailing it along (i.e. 
start making it float along). 

F, dideesh-'ot (didiit, yididoot, ji- 
didoot, didiil, didoot) I. dish- 
'eet (dit, yidit, jidit, diil, dot) P 
det-'eel (di'nft, yideez, jideez, 
deel, disoot) R. ndish-'ot (ndit, 
neidit, nizhdit, ndiil, ndat) O. 
dosh-'eet (doot, yidot, jidot, dool, 

7. to be sailing it along (lit. to 
be causing it to float along). 
Prog, yish-'ot (yit, yoot, joot, yiil, 

8. to be sailing along (lit. to be 
causing something to float 

Prog. eesh-'otCfft, 'oot, 'ajoot, 
Mil, *oot) 

9. to sail it; to arrive sailing it 
(lit. to cause it to arrive floating) 

F. deesh-'ot (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) I. nish-'eet (nft, yft, 
jit, niil, not) P. nit-'Sel (yinft, yi- 
nit, jinft, niil, noot) R. nash-ot 
(nanft, neit, njft, neiil, not) O 
ghosh-'eet (ghoot, yot, j6t, ghool 


10. to arrive sailing (lit. to ar- 
rive causing something to float). 

F. 'adeesh-'ot Caditt, 'adoot, 'a- 
zhdoot 'ad iil, 'adoot) I. 'anish- 
'eet ('anit, 'ft, 'ajit, 'aniil, T anot) 
P. 'anit-'eel ('if nit, 'anft, 'azhnit, 
aniil, 'anoot) R. na'ash-'ot (na- 
ft, na at, n'jit, na'iil, naot) O. 
osh- eet (oot, '6t, 'ajot, 'ool, 

1 1. to sail it as far as a point; 
sail it to (a place) and stop (lit. 
to cause it to float to a point). 

F. ndeesh-'ot (ndift, niidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) I. ninish- 
'eet (ninft, niyit, njft, niniil, ni- 
noot) P. ninit-'eel (nfinft, niinit, 
nizhnft, niniil, ninoot) R. ni- 
nash-*ot (ninanft, nineit, nina- 
jit, nineiil, ninat) O. noosh-'eet 
(noot, niyot, njot, nool, noot) 

12. to sail as far as a point; to 
sail up to (a place) and stop (lit. 
to cause something to float up to 
a point and stop). 

F. n'deesh-'ot (n'dfit, n'doot, ni- 
zh'doot, n'diil, n'doot) I. ni'- 
nish-'eet (ni'nft, ni'it, n'jit, ni'- 
niil, ni'not) P. ni f nit-'66l (ni'fi- 
nit, nizh'nft, ni'niil, ni'noot) R. 
nina'ash-'ot (nina'ft, nina'at, ni- 
na'jft, nina'iil, nina'ot) O. nf- 
osh-'eet (ni'oot, ni'ot, n'jot, ni*- 
3ol, ni'oot) 

13. to turn it around (fit. to 
cause it to turn around floating). 

F. naa-nfdeesh-'ot (nfdfft, nfi- 
doot, nfzhdoot, nfdiil, nfdoot) I. 
naa-na'ash-'eet (na'ft, r\tfa\, fV- 



jit, naiil, na'6t) P, naa-nise-*eel 
(nfsfnit, neis, njis, nisiil, nfsoot) 
R. naa-nfnash-'ot (ninanit, ni- 
neit, nfnajit, nineiil, nfnat) 0. 
naa-naosh-'eet (naoot, nayot, n- 
jot, naool, naoot) 

14. to turn around (lit. to 
cause something to turn around 

F. naa-nrdeesh-'ot (nVdiit, ni'- 
doot, nizh'doot, nfdiil, nPdoot) 
P. noa-m'set- e6l (ni'sinit, na as, 
n^ls, nf'siil, nf'soot) R. naanf- 
naash-ot (na'it, na'at, na'jtt, 
na'iil, na'ot) 0. naa-na'osh-'eet 
(na'oot, na'oat, na'joot, na'ool, 

15a. to start on a voyage (lit. 
lomething starts floating along 
with one). 

This verb is herewith given in 
the 1st person sgl. It is altered 
for person by changing the pro- 
noun prefixed to the postposit- 
ion -'it, with. 

F. shit 'adidoo'ot I. shit adiee* 
P. shit adeez'eel R. shit rVdi'ot 
O. shit 'ado'eet 

15b. to start oft on a voyage 
(lit. something starts off floating 
with me). 

F. shit dah 'adidoo'ot I. shit dah 
adii'eet P, shit dah adii'eel R. 
shit dah n'difot O. shit dah a- 

16. to go by boat; to voyage 
(lit. something arrived floating 
with one). 


F. shit adoo'ot Prog, shit Wot 
P. shit anf'eel R. shit na a'ot O. 
shit Vo'eet 

17. to sail as far as a point; to 
make a voyage to (a place) (lit. 
something floats as far as a 
point with one). 

F. shit n'doo'ot I. shit niTeet 
P. shit ni'nTeel R. shit nina'a- 
ot O. shitnio'eet 

18. to produce an abortion (lit 
to cause something to float out 
of one's belly). 

The noun -tsq, belly, is pro- 
pounded to the verb forms which 
follow. A pronoun, correspond- 
ing in person and number to the 
subject of the verb, is prefixed 
to -tsq. Thus, sitsq ha'nt'eel, I 
aborted; nitsq ha'finit'eel, you 
aborted, etc. 

The prefix a-, self, can replace 
the other personal pronouns pre- 
fixed to -tsq, in which case the 
noun remains 'atsq, one's own 
belly, throughout the conjuga- 
tion. Thus, atsq ha'fft'eel, I a- 
borted; atsq ha'iinit 'eel, you a- 
borted, etc. 

F. ha*deesh-'ot (ha'diit, ha'doot 
hazh'doot, ha'diil, ha'doot) I. 
haash-'eet (ha'it, ha'at, ha* jit, 
ha'HI, ha'ot) P. ha'fft-'eel (ha'- 
finft, ha'fit, ha'jfit, ha'iil, ha'oot) 
R. ha-na'ash-'ot (na'ft, na at, 
na'jft, na'iil, na'ot) O. ha osh- 
'eet (ha'odt, ha'ot, ha'jot, ha'ool, 



19. to have a miscarriage; to 
have an abortion (lit. something 
floats out of one's belly). 

This verb is conjugated for per- 
son by altering the pronoun pre- 
fix on the noun -tsq, belly. It is 
herewith given for the 1st per- 
son singular. 

F. sitsq ha'doool I. sitsq ha'a- 
'eet P. sitsq ha'fi'eel R. sitsq 
hand'd'ot O. sitsq ha'o'eet 
o'oolkqqh, advertisement. 
'ood, eagle trap. 
'oola, gold. 

"oola, hour; o'clock, t'ddtdhddi 
'oola 'azlu', it is 1:00. t'ddtq- 
hddi 'oola 'azlif doo 'ashdla'da- 
dah dah 'alzhingoo ndd'oolki+ 
it is 1:15. (or) t'ddtdhddi doc 
1 ashdla'dadahg66 'oolkii, it is 
1:15. d[[di 'oola *azl[[' doo naa- 
dii'ashdla* dah 'alzhingoo ndd- 
oolki-r, it is 4:25. (or) dfidi doo 
naadifashdla'goo 'oolkit, it is 
4:25. hastqqdi 'doles 'azlffgc 
'adeesh[[t (or hastqqdigo 'a 
deeshut), I will eat at 6:00. nd- 
hdst'eidi 'oola 'azlif doo neez- 
ndd dah 'alzhingoo ndd'oolki-r 
go (or ndhdst'eidi doo neezndd- 
goo 'ooikitgo) baa nryd, I met 
him at 9:10. kg' na'a+bqqsii 
d[jdi 'oola doo naadjfashdla' 
dah "alzhingoo 'oolkitgo ndlgho* 
teh, the train usually arrives at 
4:25. dfkwifgoo "oolkitgoshq' 
nd'id[[h +eh, at what time do you 
usually eat? (or dfkwudigoshq' 
nd'fdnh teh, at what time do you 

usually eat?). d[[di 'oola *azl[[' 
doo tddiin dah alzhingoo ndd- 
'oolkit or d[[di doo 'atnu'go 'az- 
l[[ or dydi doo ainu goo naa- 
'oolkii, it is 4:30. 'ashdladi 'oo- 
la 'adoolee+ji' neezndd dah 'al- 
zhin yidziihgo shighandi nam's- 
dzd, I arrived home at ten min- 
utes to five. 
'ooljee', moon. 

'ooljee" bee "adinidinigii, moon- 

"ooljee" daaztsq, eclipse of the 
moon (i.e. the moon is dead). 
"ooljee* "ainii' beetheel, half 
moon (1st quarter). 
"ooljee" dah yiitq, crescent moon 
"ooljee" chahalheet naadza, the 
last quarter (of the moon). 
"ooljee" haniibqqz, full moon. 
"ooljee" tahgo anaaniit, the 
phases of the moon. 
'ooljee' bina"astfee', ring around 
the moon. 

'ooshg^zh, gristle; cartilage 

"ooshg^zh bee ts'in aheshjee* 
gonaa k"e'elto', epiphyseal frac- 

ooshk'iizh nitYi, traces (of the 

"ootsq, pregnancy. 
'ouu", yes. 


Many s- initio I stems insert I be- 
fore the stem and change the in- 
itial s to z in the 1 st person dpi, 
and in the passive, thus avoid- 
ing confusion with the d-classifi 



er, which gives dz in conjunction 
with s. This inserted I is includ- 
ed in the paradigms wherever it 
occurs; otherwise the stem be- 
comes dz-initial in the 1st per- 
son dpi and in the passive. 

sh-initial stems also require I 
in the 1st person dpi, and in the 
passive, but become zh after I. 
saad, word; language (bizaad). 
saad nddndiahd$§* saad bee *d- 
ndaalne 1 , translation. 
sdanii, womenfolk, 
iah, sddh, sa', sah, sddh. 

1. to miss it (in the sense of 
finding it gone or absent)* 
F. *bfho-dees-sah (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, diil, dooh) (doolyah) I. bf- 
has-sddh (ho, ha, hoji, hwiil, 
hoh) (hdiyddh) P. bf-hose-sa' 
(hosinf, hoo, hojoo, hosiil, hosoo) 
(hoohya') R. bfna-hos-sah (ho, 
ho, hojoo, hwiil, hoh) (hoolyah) 
0. bf-hos-sddh (hoo, ho, hojo, 
hool, hooh) (holyadh) shidibe 
\o]V bihosesa', I missed part of 
my sheep. 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
sahdii, upright support; tent pole 
sahdiibisi, Petrified Forest, Ariz. 
sat, sddt, saal, sat, sddt, to waft. 

1. to sail or race through the 
air (as a cloud or piece of paper). 
F. yoo' adoosat I. yoo 'iisdal P. 
yoo* 'ifsaal R. yoo* *andsa+ O. 
yoo* 'oosdd-t 

2* to be wafting or racing a- 
long either horizontally or verti- 
cally (as a cloud, smoke, etc.). 


Prog, yisat 
sdni, old; decrepit. 
sas, sdds, sas, sas, sdds, to drib- 

1 . to dribble it along in a line 
(as when one lets sand dribble 
through the fingers). 

F. didees-sas (didif, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didiil, didooh) I. dis-sdds 
(di, yidi, jidi, diil, doh) P. d6- 
sas (dfni, yidee, jidee, deel, doo) 
R. ridis-sas (ndf, neidi, nfzhdf, n- 
diil, ridoh) 0. dos-sdds (doo, yi- 
do, jido, dool, dooh) 

2. to be dribbling it along. 
Prog, yis-sas (yf, yoo, joo, yiil, 

$q, old age; decrepitude. 

seet, seen (se), sq, seeh, see*, to 


1. to grow up; to mature. 
F. dinees-seet (dfnii, dfnoo, jidi- 
noo, dfnfil, dinooh) Prog, nees- 
seel (nil, noo, jinoo, niil, noh) P. 
ni-nini-sq (mini, nirti, zhnini, ni- 
niil, ninoo) R. nind-nis-s6eh (nf, 
nf, zhni, niil, noh) O. dmos-seet 
(dfnoo, dfno, dfzhno, dfnool, di- 

A neuter form, nanise', occurs 
meaning it grows about; and al- 
so being used nominally with the? 
meaning of vegetation. 

To stop growing is rendered by 
the forms: F. ndfneesseet P. ni- 
nfsq O. nin6ss6e+, which can be 
conjugated by analogy with the 
forms given above. 



2* to raise it; to cause it to ma- 
ture; to rear him). 

This verb refers only to anim- 
ate objects. 
F. bidfnees-seel (bidinfi, yidfnoo, 
bizhdinoo, bidiniil, bidinooh) 
(btdidi'nool-) C-l. binis-se (bini, 
yini, bizhni, biniil, binoh) (bidf- 
nil-) P. bine-sq (binmf, yinee, 
bizhnee, biniil, binoh) (bidi*- 
nees-) R. nabinis-se6h (ndbinf, 
neini, nabizhni, nabiniil, nabi- 
noh) (nabidi'nil-) O. binos-seet 
(binoo, yino, bizhno, binool, bi- 
nooh) (bidi'nol-) 

'ashkii brk'ef *adingo binesq, I 
brought up the orphaned boy. 

3. to tan it (hide). 
F. dees-seel (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
diil, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yis- 
seeh (ni, yi, ji, yiil, ghoh) (bi'dil-) 
P. yi-sq (yini, yiyif, jii, yiil, ghoo) 
(bi'dis-) R. nos-seeh (nam, n6f, 
hji, neiil, nah) (nabi'dil-) O. 
ghos-seet (ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, 
ghooh) (bi'dol-) 

4. to tan (intr.K 
F. 'adees-seet Cadii, adoo, azh- 
doo, adiil, adooh) C-l. 'as- 
s66h Ci t a, *aji, Mil, 'oh) P. 'ff-s<i 
{ nni, ii f aj pi, ill, oo) R. na as- 
seeh (na i, na a, n ji, na nl, na - 
oh) O. os-seeh C66, '6, *ajd, 
ool, ooh) 

sfes, wart (biz£§s). 
sei, sei, sii, sei, sei, to crumble. 

1. to crumble it. 
F. didees-sef (didff, yididoo, jidi- 
doo, didiil, didooh) (bidi'dool-) 


I. dis-sei (di, yidi, jidi, diil, doh) 
(bi'dil-) P. dii-sei (dimi, yidi, ji- 
di, diil, dooh) R. ndis-sei (ndf # 
netdi, nizhdi, ridiil, ndoh) (nabi'- 
dil-) O. dos-sef (doo, yido, jido, 
dool, dooh) (bi'dol-) 
sei, sand. 

seibidaagai, Seba Dalkai, Ariz. 
seigo', scorpion. 
shaazh, knot; callous. 
shqq\ remember, shqq', bee nit 
hweeshne, remember, I told you 
about it. shqq\ t aadoo ydnMti'i 
ndishni, remember, I told you 
not to talk! 

shqq, sunshine; sunny side (as 
of a slope), 

shqq ji\ in the sunshine, shqq'jf 
seda, I'm sitting in the sun. 
shqq'tohi, Shonto, Ariz. 
shqq', remember! 
sha, sun. 

sha bittajiitchii', halo around 
the sun. 

sha biti'661, sunbeam; sunray. 
shddTaah, south. 
shddi'aahji, south side; on the 
south; to the south. 

shadi'aahjigo, to the south, shi- 
ghanidoo shadi'aahjigo shicheii 
bighan, my grandfather's home 
is to the south of mine. 
shadi'aahjigo, southward, sha- 
di'aahjigo k'os deflzhood, the 
clouds are drifting southward. 
shadi'aah biyaadi, \r\ the far or 
extreme south. 

sha'shin, possibly; maybe. na- 
hodootti(+ sha'shin nisin, I think 



maybe it will rain, shf 'ashtaa 

yfe 'at ee sha'shin, maybe it is 

the one I made. 

shanah, health, shanah naasha, 

I am healthy. 

shdndiin, sunlight. 

shash, bear. 

shash bitoo, Fort Wingate, N. M. 

shash tigai, polar bear. 

shashtsoh, grizzly bear. 

shash yaazh, bear cub. 

sheii, a stem used with ko-, thus, 

to render the meaning "that 


1. to be that small; to be so 

N. ko-nfsh-sheff (nf, nf, zhni 
nfil, noh) 

shibeexh, boiled; cooked (by 

shih, shioh, shee*, shih, sheeh, 
to mow, 

1 . to mow it (grass, etc); to cut 
it (hair). 

F. deesh-shih (dn, yidoo, jidoo, 
diil, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yish- 
sheeh (ni, yi, ji, yiil, ghoh) (bi*- 
dil-) P. yi-shee' (yfni, yiyff, jii, 
/iil, ghoo) (bPdool-) R. nash- 
shih (ndnf, nef, njf, neiil, ndh) 
(ndbi'dil-) O. ghosh-sheeh 

(ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, ghooh) (bi*- 

nitsiigha na deeshshih, I'll cut 
your hair for you. 

shijaa', they are (in position) (pi 
separable objects, as grain, shot 
houses). (When they are scatter- 
ed about, rather than In a group 


naazhjaa* is used), kin dah shi- 
jaa', a group of houses; town. 
shijee', they are (in position); 
they lie (plural animate objects). 
(When they lie scattered about 
rather than as a group the form 
naazhjee* is used). *aadi dibe 
shijee', there lie the sheep (in a 
group), dibe naazhjee*, the 
sheep are lying scattered about. 
shijfzhgo k'e*eltg\ compression 

shijooi, it is (in position) (pi 
naazhjool) (non-compact matter 
as wool, brush), 'aadi 'aghaa' 
shijooi, there lies the wool. 
shizhoozh, they are (in position) 
(slender stiff objects as sticks, 
planks, lying parallel side by 
side; or animals lying side by 

shiniinii, claimant (at law; i.e. 
the one who says "it's mine"). 
shish, shish, shish, shish, shish, 
to poke with a slender object. 

1. to poke it; to stick it; to 
sting him. 

F. deesh-shish (dn, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii!, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
shish (yii, yii, jii, yiil, ghooh) (bi 1 - 
diil-) S-P. she-shish (shinf, yish, 
jish, shiil, shooh) (bPdish-) R, 
neish-shish (neii, nayii, njii, ne- 
iil, naooh) (nabPdiil-) O. 

ghoosh-shish (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghool, ghooh) (bPdol-) 
tsfs'na shishish, the bee stung 



■ i ' ■ ■■ — " ■■ ' i -■■ M i n i m i .i i i 

2. to poke or sting him one 
time after another in rapid suc- 

C-l. nanish-shish (nam, neini, 
njii, naniil, nanoh) 
shjj, probably; maybe (often in- 
jects the idea of doubt or uncer- 
tainty). haash[f neelqq*, an in- 
definitely large quantity or num- 
ber (lit. how probably much), 
nahodoottfft sh[f, it will probab- 
ly rain, t'aadoo sh[[ dininf, don't 
say maybe! 

shjjt, shjih, shu, shjfh, shjih, to 

1 . to make it black; to black- 
en it; dye it black. 

F. yi-deesh-sh[R (dfi, idoo, zhdoo 
diil, dooh) *(bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
shijh (yii, yiyii, jii, yiil, ghooh) 
(bi'diil-) P. yi-shif (yini, yiyii, 
jii, yiil, ghoo) (bi'diil-) R. ne- 
ish-shf[h (neii, nayii, njii, neiil, 
naooh) (nabi'diil-) O. ghoosh- 
sh[ih (ghoo, yoo, joo, ghool, 
ghooh) (bPdool-) 

*bf- replaces yi- in the passive. 
shjjt, shjfh, shf, sh||h shjjh, to 

1. to start to be summer; to 
begin (summer) 

F. ch'fdooshii* I. ch'esh([h P. 
ch^enishi R. ch'minashifh O. 

2. to start to be summer back; 
to revert to summer; to become 
summer again. 

F. ch'mdooshiR I. ch'mashfih P. dool-) I. nash-shoh (nanf, nei, 



clV»nanishj R. dVfninashuh 0* 

t'aadoo hodina'f ch'fridooshiii, 
before long summer will be back 
(it will be summer again). 

3. to start to be summer a- 
gain; to start another summer. 
F. ch'fnaddooshiil I. ch'fnaana- 
sh[[h P. ch'fnaanash[ 0. ch'f- 

4. to start to be summer; to be 
on the verge of beginning (sum- 
mer) (inchoative forms). 

F. 'idf'nooshiit P. Tniish[. k'ad 
nihee Tniishf, now summer has 
begun (with us). 

5. to "summer"; to pass by (a 

F. dooshut I. yishuh P. yfsh{ R. 
nashjih O. ghosh{[h 

6. to pass by (another sum- 
mer); to "summer" again. 

F. naadooshift I. naanash[[h P. 
naandsh[ O. nadnaoshffh 

7 . to spend the summer. 

F. shi-dooshi[t (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 
nihi) I. shee-sh[[h (nee, bee, 
hwee, nihee, nihee) P. shee-shf 
(nee, bee, hwee, nihee, nihee) R. 
na-shee-sh[[h (nee, bee, hwee, 
nihee, nihee) O. she-ooshffr (ne, 
be, hwe, nihe, nihe) 
shoh, frost. 

shoh, shoh, shoh, shoh, shoh, to 


1 • to moisten it, 

F. ndeesh-shoh (ridif, neidoo, m- 
zhdoo, ndiil, ndooh) (nabidi'- 


nji, n&il, nah) (nabi'dil-) P. 
nishe-shoh (nfshinf, neish, njish, 
nfshiil, nfshoo) (nabi'dish-) R 
m'-nash-shoh (nani, nef, naji, ne- 
iil, nah) (nabi'dil-) O. naosh- 
shoh (naoo, nayo, njo, naool, na- 
ooh) (nabi'dol-) 

shoh, shooh, shoo', shoh, shooh, 
to sweep. 

1. to sweep or brush (about 
over an area). 

F. naho-deesh-shoh (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, diil, dooh) C-l. na-hash- 
shooh (ho, ha, hojf, hwiil, hoh) 
S-P. na-hoshe-shoo* (hoshinf, 
hash, hojish, hoshiil, hoshoo) R. 
nina-hash-shoh (ho, ha, hoji, 
hwiil, hoh) O. na-hoosh-shooh 
(hoo, ho, hojo, hool, hooh) 
shot, shood, shood, sho\ shood, 
to drag. 

1. to start dragging it along. 
F. dideesh-sho+ (didfi, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didiil, didooh) (bidi'dool-) 
I. dish-shood (df, yidi, jidi, diil, 
doh) (bfdil-) P. de-shood (dfnf, 
yideesh, jideesh, deel, dishoo) 
(bi'deesh-) R. ndfsh-sho* (ndi, 
neidi, nizhdf, ndiil, ndoh) (nabi'- 
dil-) O. dosh-shood (doo, yido, 
jido, dool, dooh) (bi'dol-) 

2. to arrive dragging it; to 
bring it (by dragging it). 

F. deesh-shot (di'f, yidoo, jidoo, 
diil, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. nish- 
shood (ni, yf, jf, niil, noh) (bi*- 
deel-) P. ni-shood (yinf, yinf, ji- 
nf, niil, noo) (bi'deel-) R. nash- 
sho' (nanf, nei, nji, neiil, nah) 


(nabrdil-) O. ghosh-shood 

(ghoo y yo, jo, ghool, ghooh) (bi'- 

3. to be dragging it along. 
Prog, yish-shot (yf, yoo, joo, yiil, 
ghoh) (bi'doo!-) 

4. to be dragging it about. 
Prog, naa-naash-shot (naa, na- 
yoo, nfjoo, neiil, nah) 

5. to drag it about. 

C-l. naash-shood (nani, nei, nji, 
neiil, naah) 

6. to drag the road. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'atiingoo, along the 
road, to the following: 
F. n'deesh-shot (n'dfi, n'doo, ni- 
zh'doo, n'diil, n'dooh) (n'dool-) 
C-l. na'ash-shood (na'i, na'a, n'~ 
ji, na'iil, na'oh) (na'al-) P. n'- 
sh£-sh66d (n'shini, na'ash, n'jish 
n'shiil, n'shooh) (naash-) R. 
ni-na ash-sho' (na'f, naa, n'jf, 
na'iil, na'oh) (na'al-) O. na'- 
6sh-shood (na'66, na'6, n'jo, na'- 
ool, na'ooh) (na'ol-) 

'atiingoo n'sheshood, I dragged 
the road. 

shoo, (an exclamation which 
-alls another's attention) look! 
see! shoo di7 nfnif'f, hey, look at 
this! shoo Iq'qq, uh huh, I see. 
shosh, shoosh, shoozh, shosh, 
shoosh, refers to slender ob- 
jects lying parallel side by side. 

1. to lay slender objects (as 
planks) side by side across; to 
make a bridge across. 

F. ha'naa ni'deesh-shosh (ni'dif, 



ni'doo, nizh'doo, ni'diil, ni'dooh) 
I. ha'naa nfnish-shoosh (ni'nf, 
nVi, ni'ji, ni'niil, ni'noh) P. 
ha'naa ni'nf-shoozh (ni'nnf, nf- 
ni, nizh'nf, ni'niil, ni'noo) R. 
ha'naa nina'-dsh-shosh (i, a, ji, 
HI, 6h) O. ha'naa nfosh-shoosh 
(ni'66, ni'6, n'jo, ni'ool, ni'ooh) 

2. to lean them (side by side as 
planks, poles, etc.). 

F. kf-dfneesh-shosh (dinii, idf- 
noo, zhdfnoo, dmiil, dfnooh) I. 
kf-niish-shoosh (nil, inii, zhnii, 
niil, nooh) P. kf-nii-shoozh (nini, 
inii, zhnii, niil, noo) R. kf-na- 
niish-shosh (nanii, n&nii, nazh- 
nii, naniil, nanooh) O. kf-noosh- 
shoosh (noo, inoo, zhnoo, nool, 

tsin neheshjfP kmiishoosh, lean 
the boards against (something)! 

3. to lean them side by side a- 
gainst it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
replacing the prefix kf- in no. 2 
with bf-, (yi- in 3o.), against it, 
rsin neheshjff kin biniishoozh, I 
leaned the lumber against the 

sh9, a stem always used in the 
negative sense of to be no good. 
Probably related to shQ^t, and to 

1 . to be no good, worthless, 05 

N. doo ya'anfsh-shpQ da (yaanf, 
y6 a, ya'aji, ya'anii, ya anoh) 
(also doo ya'ahooshgg da, it (re- 
ferring to place) is no good, dine 


doo ya'ashoonii, wicked men; 


shqQt, shfeh, sh^d, shg^h, 

sh^h, to tame. 

1 . to tame or break it (horse). 
F. deesh-shggf (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
diil, dooh) (bidPdool-) I. yish- 
sh9Qh (ni, yi, ji, yiil, ghoh) (bf- 
dil-) P. yi-sh<?<?d (yinf, yiyn, jfi, 
yiil, ghooh) (bi'dool-) R. nash- 
shQgh (nam, nef, njf, neiil, nah) 
(nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-shggh 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, ghooh) (bi*- 

sid, scar (bizid). 

sido, hot; warm (an object), to si- 
do, hot water. 

sigan, dried; dessicated; wither- 

— sigan, infantile paralysis (the 
body part which is "dried up" 
must be mentioned, as bijaad si- 
gan, his leg is withered). 
sighaala, cigar. 

sigh*, it is (in position) (referring 
to a load, pack, or a body of wa- 
ter) (pi naazghf, they lie scat- 
tered about). 
sighola, Socorro, N. M. 
sVq, it is (in position) (referring 
to a single round or bulky object 
as a house, book, mountain, hat, 
etc.) (pi. naaz'q, they set scat- 
tered about). 

sih, siih, siih, siih, siih, to miss. 

1. to miss it (a mark in shoot- 
ing); to make a mistake at it, 

F. dees-sih (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, diil, 
dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yiis-siih 



(y>«/ yiyii, jii/ yil, ghooh) (bi'diil-) 
S-P. se-siih (sfnf, yis, jis, siil, soo) 
(bi'dis-) R. neis-siih (neii, ndyii, 
rijii, neiil, nah) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ghos-siih (ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, 
ghooh) (bi'dol-) 

2. to make a mistake; to err; 
to be wrong; to miss. 
F. 'adees-sih ('odu, 'adoo, azh- 
doo, 'adiil, 'adooh) Cadoodzih) 
I. iis-siih ('ii, 'ii, 'ajii, 'ill, 'ooh) 
Cadziih) P. 'ase-siih Casing 'as, 
'a jis, 'asiil, asooh) ('oodzff') R. 
na*iis-sih (ni'ii, na'ii, nf'jii, na*- 
iil, na'ooh) (na'iidzih) O. *6s- 
siih ('66, o, ajo, 'ool, *ooh) C6- 

sih, siih, si\ sih, siih, to practice 

1. to shoot (with on arrow); to 
practice archery. 
F. Vdees-sih (Vdff, Tdoo, 'izh*- 
doo, Vdiil, Tdooh) I. Ves-sfih 
(Vf, Ve, Yji, Till, Toh) P. 
Tfi-si* (Tifni, Vff, Tiff, Viil, 
i oo) R. ana as-sih ( ana i, a- 
na'a, arVjf, 'ana'iil, *an6'6h) O. 
f o os-siih (V66, V6, Vj6, Vool, 
sih, siih, sii* r sih, siih. 

1 . to go to sleep (one's limb); 
to sour (milk, potatoes, etc.); to 
be piquant (in the si-pcrfective 
form only). 

F. yidoosih I. yiisiih P. yiisiP S- 
P. sisff R. neiisih O. ghoosiih 
shijaad yiisff, my leg has gone 
to sleep. 
siil, vapor; steam (biziil). 


s#t, sfih (sin), sjid, sft\ to know. 

1. to get acquainted with him; 
to know him. 

F. *beeho-dees-sU+ (dn, doo, zh- 
doo, diil, dooh) I. bee-honis-sijh 
(honi, ho, hojo, honiil, honoh) P. 
bee-hose-s[[d (hosmi, hoos, ho- 
joos, hosiil, hosoo) O. be6hoos- 
sii* (hoo, hoo, hojoo, hool, hooh) 

*bee- becomes yee- in 3o. 

beehosesjid,! got acquainted 
with him. 'aheehosiilzijd, we got 
acquainted with each other. 

2. to know him; be acquainted 
with him; to know how. 

N. bee-honi- (or bee-ha-) sin (ho- 
nf, hojf, honiil, honoh) John 
beehasin, I know John, na'ash- 
kgg beehasin, I know how to 

3. to know about it; to possess 
knowledge about it; to find out 
about it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding -it, with, to verb 
forms containing impersonal it 
as pronominal subject (i.e. ho-). 
Thus the meaning is literally, 
there is knowledge about it with 
(one). These forms are conjugat- 
ed for person by merely altering 
the pronoun prefix on the post- 
position -it. The forms are here- 
with given for the 1st person sgl. 
F. shit beehodooziit I. shit b6e- 
hoozjlh P. shit b££hoozin N. 
shit beeh6zin O. shit b66hooz(f 

shit beehodooziit, I'll find out; 
nit b66hozin, you know (about it) 



4. to keep it; maintain it, take 
care of it. 

. imi-sin ( nni, ayo, ajo, n- 
niil, 'ffnoh) shichidf nizhonigo 
diits'a'go 'iini'sin, 1 keep my car 
running nicely (but not "keep" 
in the sense of shibee'eldggh 
shighan gone* se+tq, I keep my 
gun in the house). 

If the object of the verb is a 
place, space or area the object- 
ho- is inserted. Thus: 
N. 'ahwnnfs-sin fahwiini, 'aho, 
'ahojo, 'ahwiinfil, 'ahwnnoh) 

shighan gone* hozhonfgo *a- 
hwfmfsin, ! keep my home clean 

5. to hold one's breath. 
This meaning is rendered by 

by prepounding -yol t'qq', the 
breath back, to the forms under 


no. 4. Thus, shiyol t'qq' 'nnisin, 
I am holding my breath. 

6. to hold it down; to keep it 
down (by pressing on it). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yaa, down, to the 
forms given under no. 4. Thus, 
yaa 'ffnfsin, I am holding it down 
(pressing down on it). 
$lft, sijh, sj\ sijh, sjih, to stand. 

1. to make it stand; to put it 
on its feet. 

F. birdees-si[t (biidff, yiidoo, bii- 
zhdoo, biidiil, biidooh) I. biis- 
siih (bii, yiyii, bijii, bii!, booh) P. 
bii-sf (biini, yiyii, bijii, bill, 
booh) R. nabiis-stih (nabii, n6- 
yii, n6bijii, nabiit, nabooh) O. 

boos-siih (bioo, yiyoo, bijoo, bool 
booh) *eii dibe biisjih, put that 
sheep on its feet! nichidf na na- 
biisj/, I turned your car back o- 
ver for you. (to right it, as an o- 
verturned car, is rendered by 
prefixing na-, back, to the forms 
given above). 
sj \\, %q, sqq, s§|h, sqq\ to eat. 

1. to make him eat; to feed 

(Compare the stem gh[[+, to eat.) 
F. bidfyees-sjjt (bldVyii, yidfyw 
bizhdiyoo, bidi'yii'/ bidi'yooh) 
(bidi'yool-) C-l. bi'iis-sq (bi'iyi, 
yi'ii, bi'jii, bPiil, bi'iyoh) (bi'iil-) 
P, bi'iyif-sQ^' (bi'iymf, yPiyH, bP- 
jiyu, bPiyiil, bPiyooh) (bPiyool-) 
R. binaMis-s[[h (bina'iyf, yina'ii; 
bina'jii, bina'iyiil, bina'iyoh) 
(bina'iil-). O. bPiyos-sqq* (bPi- 
yoo, yi'iyo, bPjiyo, bi'iyool, bPi- 
yooh) (bi'iyol-) 'awee* bPiyi- 
sq, feed the baby! 
sikaad, it is (in position) (a 
clump of bushes, or a branchy 
tree) (pi naazkaad, they set a- 

sikq, it is (in position); it sets (in 
a vessel or container) (pi naaz- 
kq, they set scattered around). 
aadi to sikq, there sets the wat- 
er (in a container). 

sik'az, cold (an object), to sik'az, 

cold water. 

sik'dzi, cool (an object). 

sit, sit, sit, si*, sit, to grab. 

1. to grab it; to catch it (as a 
sheep, horse, etc.). 



F. dees-sit (du, yidoo, jidoo, diil, 
dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yiis-si* (yii, 
yiyii, jii, yiil, ghooh) (bi'diil-) P. 
se-sit (sini, yis, jis, siil, soo) (bi*- 
dis-) R. neis-sit (neii, nayii, njii, 
neiil, naooh) (nabfdiil-) O. 
ghos-sft (ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, 
ghooh) (bi'dol-) 
sil, slid, sid, si', siid, to examine. 

1. to examine it; inspect it. 

F. ha-dees-sit (dif, idoo, zhdoo, 
diil, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. haas- 
snd (hani, hai, haji, haiil, haoh) 
(habi'dil-) P. haa-sid (hainf, ha- 
yii, hajff, haiil, haoo) (habP- 
dool-) R. ha-nas-sf (nani, nei, 
njf, neiil, ndh) (nabi'dil-) O, 
ha-os-siid (66, yo, jo, oo, ooh) 

2. to patrol; to inspect; to go 
on reconnaissance. 

F. ha'dees-stf (ha'dfi, ha'doo, ha- 
zh'doo, ha'diil, ha'dooh) I. ha'- 
as-siid (ha'i, ha'a, ha'ji, ha'iil, 
ha oh) P. ha'ff-sid (ha'iini, ha f - 
ii, ha'jff, ha'iil, ha ooh) R. ha- 
no as-si (na i, nao, n ji, n<5 HI, 
na oh) O. ha'os-sffd (ha oo, ha>- 
6, ha'jo, ha'ool, ha'ooh) 

3. to reawaken him; to wake 
him (back) up. 

F. ch'ee-dees-sit (dif, idoo, zh- 
doo, diil, dooh) (bidi'dool-) I, 
ch'eenfs-siid (ch'eeni, ch'fnei 
cheejf, ch'eeniil, ch'Senoh 
(cheebi'deel-) P. ch'ee-nf-sid 
(ini, yinf, Jim, niif, noo) (bi'dool-) 
R. ch'enf-nas-si* (nam, nef, najf, 
neii, nah) (nabi'dil-) O. ch'fna- 


os-snd (ch'iriaoo, ch*eey6, ch ee- 

jo, ch'enaool, ch'enaooh) (ch'e- 

nabfdol-) dVeenideessit, I'll 

wake you up. 

sila, it is (in position) (a slender 

flexible object, or an object of 

unknown or indefinite form, as 

that which might be referred to 

as something or anything) (pi 

naazla, they set scattered a- 


sittsooz, it is (in position) (a flat 

flexible object, as paper) (pi 

naastsooz, they lie scattered a- 


sindao, cent; penny. 

sinil, they are (in position) (pi 

animate or inanimate objects) 

(naaznil, they lie or set scattered 


sis, belt (biziiz). 

sis bighdntTi, belt loop. 

sisiP (V. sih), to be piquant, or to 

produce a sensation of coolness 

as, the mint plant. 

sis fichi'i, sash (native, woven 


sitq, it is (in position) (a slender 
stiff object, as a stick) (pi. naaz- 
tq, they lie scattered about). 
sitj, it, he is (m a lying position) 
(p! naaztf, they are lying scatter- 
ed about; i.e. an individual here 
and there). 

sit*e, roasted; cooked; done. 
sittee', it is (in position) (mushy 
matter) (pi naazttee', thev lie a- 
round here and there). 
shVH, shattered; broken. 



sizili, lukewarm; tepid. 
sodizin, prayer. 
sodizin bd hooghan # church. 
sol, sot, sot, sot, sot, to blow. 

1 . to blow it; to blow on it. 

F. dees-sot (du, yidoo, jidoo, diil, 
dooh) (bidi'dool-) I. yiis-sot 
(y\\ f yiyii, jii, yiil, ghooh) (bi'diil-) 
S-P. se-sot (sinf, yis, jis, siil, soo) 
(bi'dis-) R. neis-sot (neii, nayii, 
rijii, neiil, naooh) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ghoos-sot (ghoo, yo, jo, ghool, 
ghooh) (bi'dool-) 

2. to be blowing it. 

C-l yis-sot (ni, yi, ji, yiil, ghoh) 


sot, soot, sol, sot, soot, to blow. 

1 . to whistle. 

F. Tdidees-sot (Tdidff, Tdidoo 
'izh'didoo, Tdidiil, Tdidooh) C- 
I. Tdis-soot (Tdf, Tdf, 'fzh'df, 
Tdiil, Tdoh) P. Vdff-sol (Tdff- 
nf, Tdfi, 'izh'dn, Tdiil, Tdooh) 
R. 'irVdfs-sot CfrVdf, m'df, 'fnf- 
zfVdi, 'mdiil, 'frVdoh) O. Tdos- 
soot (Td66, Tdo, 'fzh'do, Tdooi, 

2. to pump air into it {a tire); 
to pump it up; to inflate it. 

F. *bii-'dees-sot Cdfi, 'doo, zh*- 
*doo, 'diil, 'dooh) I. bii'-as-soot 
(1,9, ji, HI, oh) P. biP-n-sol (finf, 
ii, jii, ill, ooh) R. bii'-na'as-sof 
(na'f, naa, ni'jf, na'iil, na'oh) O 
bii'-os-soot (66, 6, jo, ool, ooh) 

*biP becomes y\V in 3o. 
s?, star. 

s9*tsoh, evening and morning 
star (Venus); planet. 


5x9s, glitter (a stem which is pro* 
bably related to sq\ star). 
N. disx<?s (it glitters). 

The d-classifier becomes t- be* 
fore the glottal stop ('), so many 
otherwise vowel-initial stems 
(i.e. stems which begin with (') 
followed by a vowel) are to be 
found under t. (Thus, 'aat and 
t*aat are actually the same stem, 
taat, ta, tqq', taah, tqq\ 

1. to search for it. 

F. ha-dineesh-taat (dinif, idinoo, 
zhdfnoo, di'nfi, dinooh) (bidr- 
noo-) C-L ha-nish-ta (n\ f ini, 
zhni, nii, noh) (bidi'ni-) P. ha- 
ne-tqq (nfnf, ineez, zhneez, nee, 
noo) (bidi'nees-) R. haa-nish- 
taah (nf, i, zhnf, nil, noh) (bi- 
di'ni-) O. ha-nosh-tqq' (noo, i- 
no, zhno, noo, nooh) (bidi'no-) 

2. to be going in search of it; 
to be going to search for it. 

S-P. ha-dine-tqq' (dinini, idf- 
neez, zhdineez, dfnee, dfsfnoo) 
raaskaal, oatmeal. 
tqqdee, slowly; gradually. 
tabqqh, shore; water's edge. 
tabqqh ma 1 !!, muskrat. 
tabqqsdisi, snipe. 
tabqqstiin, otter. 
tdchech, sweathouse. 

tadidtin, pollen (especially of 

tadidiin doott'izh, wild purple 

tdgi, third (from taa'i, td'T). 

1 84 


tdgi j| nda'anish, Wednesday. 
rah, taah, tqq, tah, tddh, to try. 

1 . to try it; to make a stab ot 
it; to make an attempt. 

F. bidmeesh-tah (bfdinii, yidf- 
noo, bfzhdinoo, bidfnii, bidi- 
nooh) I. nabmfsh-taah (nabinf, 
nayi'nf, nabfzhm, nabi'ni'i, nabf- 
noh) *P. (na)bme-tqq' (bmini, 
yineez, bfzhneez, bmee, binoo) 
R. bfnanish-tah (bfnanf, ymdnf, 
bfnazhnf, binanii, bfnanoh) O. 
bmosh-taah (bmoo, yino, bfzh- 
no, bmoo, bfnooh) 

2. to wrestle with him. 

F. bit no ahf-dfneesh-tah (dinfi, 
dinoo, zhdfnoo, dinii, dmooh) I. 
bit na'ahi'-nfsh-taah (nf, nf, zhnf, 
nii, noh) P. bit na ahi-ne-tqq' 
(nfnf, nees, zhnees, nee, noo) R. 
bit nina'ahi-nish-tah (nf, nf, zh- 
nf, nii, noh) O. bit na'ahi-nosh- 
tqq' (noo, no, zhno, noo, nooh) 

*bit becomes yit in 3o. 
tah, ta\ ta\ tah, ta\ to count. 

1. to count them; to read it. 

F. yideesh-tah (yidiit, yidoot, yr- 
zhdoot, yidfil, yidoot) (bidfdool-) 
C-l. yfnfsh-ta' (yinft, yot, jot, yf- 
nii!, yfnot) (bi'dol-) P. yft-ta' 
(yinft yiyfft, jfit, yfil, ghoot) (bi*- 
deel-) R. nefnfsh-tah (nefnit, na- 
yot, njot, nefnfil, nefnot) (ndbi- 
'dol-) O. yfnosh-ta* (yinoot, yot, 
jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dool-) 

2. to count; to read; to go to 

F. Tf-d£esh-tah (dfit, doot, zh-| 
doot, dill, doot) C-l. 'ffnfsh-tal 


('linit, 'ot, ajot, 'iiniil, 'iinot) P. 

'iit-ta' Ciinit, 'fit, 'ajift, 'HI, 'oot) 

R. na'-ffnfsh-tah (ifnft, at, jot, 

iinfil, iinot) O. *6osh~ta' Coot, 

'6t, ajot, ool, 'oot) 

tah, tddh, taa*, tah, taah, to 


1. to break; shatter; fall to 
pieces; disintegrate. 

F. didootah I. diitaah P. diitaa' 
R. hdiitah O. dootaah 

2. to break it; shatter it. 

F. dideesh-tah (didift, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiil, didoot) I. diish- 
taah (diit, yidiit, jidiit, diil, doot) 
P. diit-toa' (dinit, yidiit, jidiit, 
diil, doot) R. ndiish-tah (ridiit, 
neidiit, nfzhdiit, ridiil, ridoot) 0. 
doosh-taah (doot, yidoot, jidoot, 
dool, doot) 
tdhdnii', alkali. 

rahoniigddh tichii'go naatniihi- 
gii, scarlet fever; scarlatina. 
tahoniigaah ntsaaigii, influenzc 
ra'neesk'dni, muskmelon. 
ra'neesk'dni 'dtts'dozigii, cu- 

ra'neets'ehii, cockle bur. 
tdldghosh, yucca suds; soap. 
tal, tddd, tah, ra\ tddd, to 

1, to spring up (from a sitting 
or reclining position. 
F. nahi-dideesh-tat (didff, didoo, 
zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. n<5hi- 
diish-taad (dii, dii, zhdii, dii, 
dooh) P. nahi-dish-tah (dini, 
dii, zhdii, dii, doo) R. nfnahi- 
diish-ta' (dfi, dii, zhdii, dii, 



dooh) O. nahi-doosh-taad (doo 
doo, zhdoo, doo, dooh) 

2. to beat or pulsate (heart). 
C-l. dah naaltal 

3. to unroll it (as a blanket); 
to unravel it (as cloth). 

F. neideesh-tal (neidftt, neidoot, 
neizhdoot, neidiil, neidoot) (na- 
bidPdooi-) I. ndosh-tdad (na- 
oot, nayoot, njool', naool, naoal') 
(nabfdool-) P. neiset-tah (nei- 
smtt, nayoos, njoos, n^isiil, nei- 
soo+) (nabi'doos-) R. ni-naosh- 
ta' (naoot, nayool, najoot, ndool, 
naoot) (nabi'dool-) O. naosh- 
taad (naool', nayoof, njoot, na- 
ool) (nabfdool-) shibeeldlef 
neise+tah doo 'ii+haazh, I unroll- 
ed my blanket and went to sleep. 
tat, taat (tat), taal, tat, taat, to 

1 . to kick it (once)* 

This verb uses only one stem, 

F. deesh-tat (dff, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. yiish-tat (yii, yiyii, jii, 
yii, ghooh) P. se-tat (sfnf, yiz, 
jiz, sii, soo) R. neish-tat (neii, 
nayii, njii, neii, naooh) O. 
ghosh-tat (ghoo, yo, j6, ghoo, 

2. to kick him (repeatedly). 

F. ndfneesh-tat (ridinif, neidinoo, 
nfzhdinoo, ndmfi, ndfnooh) C- 
I. nanish-tat (nam, neini, nazh- 
n\, nanfi, nanoh) P. nanee-taal 
(nanfnf, neineez, nazhneez, na- 
nee, nanoo) R. m-nanfsh-taf 
(nam, neini, ndzhnf, nanii, na- 


noh) O, nanosh-tal (nanoo, nei- 
no, nazhno, nanoo, ndnooh) 

3. to kick (into space); to let 
fly a kick. 

F, 'azhdeesh-tat ('azdn, 'azdoo, 
'iizhdoo, 'azdii, 'azdooh) I. 'a- 
jish-taat ('adzi, 'adzi, 'iiji, 'a- 
dzii, 'adzoh) P. adzff-tdal (*a- 
dznni, adzn, njti, adzu, a- 
dzoo) R. 'anjfsh-tat Candzf, *a- 
ndzf, 'iineiji, *andzii, 'andzoh) 
O. 'aj6sh-taa+ ( adzoo, 'adzo, Mi- 
jo, *adzoo, 'adzooh) 

4. to trip him (with one's foot). 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding bijddtah, between 
his legs, to the following verbs: 
F. dideesh-taf (didffl, didool, di- 
zhdool, didiil, didoot) I. dinish- 
taat (dinfl, deel, jideel, diniil, di- 
not) P. dinish-tddl (dffnfl, deel, 
jideel, diniil, dinoot) R. ndfsh- 
tot (ndfl, rtdil, nrzhdfl, ndiil, rt- 
dot) O, dosh-taat (dool, dol, ji- 
dol, dool, doo+) 

5. to glance from it; to rico- 
chet from it. 

F. bits'dnidooltal I. bitsandl- 

taat P. bits ana Itaal R. bits a- 

nfnaltat O. bits'anaooltaai 

6. to spit out, or pop out one 
after the other (as coals from the 

F. hahidooltaf C-l. hahaltaat 
P. hahaastddl R. handhdltat 
O. haholtaai 

tsffd hahaltaat, the coals are 
spitting out. 



7. to spit out, or pop out one 
after another on him (as coals 
from the fire). 
F. bik'ihidooltai I. bik'ihaltaat 
P. bik'iheestdal R. bikmahai- 
tat O. bik'iholtaat. tsfid shi- 
k'idahaltaat, the coals are spit- 
ting out on me. 

8. to step on it; to tread on it. 
F. *bik'i-dideesh-tat (didi'N, di- 
dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. 
bik'i-diish-taat (diil, diil, zhdiil, 
diil, doot) P. bik'i-diish-taal (di- 
nii / aiil, zhdiil, diil, doot) R. bi- 
k'i-ridiish-tat (ndiil, ndiil, nizh- 
diil, ndiil, ndoot) O. bik'i-doosh- 
taat (dool, dool, zhdooi, dool, 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

9. to dash off; to start off run- 
ning rapidly. 

F. yei-deesh-tat (diil, dool, zh- 
dooi, dii!, doot) I. yaash-taat 
(yaal, yaal, yajiil, yeiil, yaot) P. 
yaash-taal (yeinil, yaal, yajiil, 
yeiil, yaoot) R. ya-naash-tat 
(naal, naal, njiil, neiil, naat) O. 
ya-oosh-taa+ (661, ool, jool, ool, 

10. to dash after it (as a dog 
offer a rabbit)* 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bikee 1 , after, or be- 
hind him, to the verbs given un- 
der no. 9. Thus, teechqq'f gah 
yikee* yaaltaal, the dog dashed 
after the rabbit. 

11. to sing. 

F. ho-deesh-tat (dif, doo, zhdoo, 


dii, dooh) C-l. hash-taaf (ho, 
ha, hoji, hwii, hoh) P. hoo-taal 
(hwiini, hoo, hojfi, hwii, hoo) R. 
na-hash-tat (ho, ha, hoji, hwii, 
hoh) O. hosh-taai (hoo, ho, ho- 
jo, hoo, hooh) 

To sing it (a song), is rendered 
by prepounding bee, with it, to 
the above forms. Thus, sin bee 
hashtaat, I am singing a song, 

12. to stomp the feet. 
F. nikf-dideesh-tai (didiil, didoo 1 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) C-l. ni- 
ki-dish-tat (dii, dil, zhdrl, diil 
dot) P. niki-desh-tat (dinil 
dees, zhdees, deel, disoot) R 
niki-nidiish-tat (nidiil, nfdiil, nf- 
zhdiil, nidiil, nidoot). shikee 1 
yas bqqh nidinoodah nisingc 
nikfdishtat, I am stomping my 
feet because I want the snow tc 
fall off 

tat, ta*, tah, to', tadd, to dart. 

1. to dart at it; to spring at it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bich'j', toward it, 
to the following: 
F. 'ahi-deesh-tat (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. 'ana-hash-ta* 
(hf, ha, jii, hii, hoh) P, 'aheesh- 
tah Cahffni, 'ahoo, 'ahijoo, 'ahii, 
*ahooh) O. 'ahosh-taad fahoo, 
*aho, 'ahijo, *ahoo, *ahooh) 

tsfdii bich*[' 'anahita'go niittsq, 
I saw you springing at the bird, 
beesh 'atts'oozi k'infdlaadgc 
shik'iji* 'ahootah, when the wire 
broke it sprang at me. 

2. to flash (lightning). 



F. 'ahidootat R. andhata* P. 'a- 

hoptah O, ahotdad 

tdtchaa', June bug. 

tdtkdd' dijddii, water-strider. 

tdttt'ddh 'aleeh, blue heron. 

tdniiTdii, dragon fly. 

taos'nii', dough. 

las, tads, taaz, tas, tods, to bend 

1 . to bend. 
F. yidootas I* yiitaas P. yiitaaz 
R. neiitas O. ghootdas (shi- 
zhah, it is bent) 

2. to bend it. 

F. yidees-tas (yidiM', yiidooi, yi- 
zhdoot, yidiil, yidoot) (bidi'dool-) 
I. yiis-tdds (yii+, ^yiyiit, jii+, yiil 
ghoot) (bi'diil-) P. yiit-taaz (yi- 
nit, yiyiit, jii+, yiil, ghoot) (bi 1 - 
diil-) R. n£is-tas (neiit, nayiit, 
rijiit, neiil, ndoot) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ghoos-tdds (ghoot, yoot, joot, 
ghool, ghoot) (bi'dool-) 

3. to run (lit. bend) after it (a 
term often used to a child; simi- 
lar to English "run and get"). 

The postposition bfkd, after it, 
is prepounded to the following: 
F. dees-tas (dfi, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. yiis-tas (yii, yii, jii, yii, 
ghooh) S-P. se-tas (smf, yiz, jiz, 
sii, soo) R. neis-tas (neii, ndii, 
njri, neii, ndooh) O. ghos-tas 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

beesh bikd yiitas, run after the 

rdshchozhii, swallow (bird). 
tdtt'id, water moss; scum. 
tq\ to have it in the grasp; to 
have ahold of it; to hold it. 


N. yinish-tq' (yini, yd, jd, yinii, 
yindh) (gho- or bi'dd-) 

2. to hug him; to hold him to 
one's breast. 

N. -jeii bitnish-tq* (bfinit, yiiyot, 
bijof,. biiniil, bifnot) shijeii bii- 
nfshtq', I am hugging him (-jen, 
heart or bosom). 

tqsh, tqsh, tqsh, tqsh, tqsh, to 
peck (a bird). 

1. to peck it (a bird); to throw 
it by means of a sling; to flip or 
shoot it (a marble)* 

F. deesh-tqsh (dnt, yidoot, jidoot 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
tqsh (viit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) P. shet-tqsh (shinft, 
yish, jish, shiil, shoot) (bi'dish-) 
R. neish-tqsh (neiit, nayiit, njiit, 
neiil, ndoot) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ghosh-tqsh (ghoot, yot, jot, 
ghool, ghoot) (bi*d6l-) 

2. to be repeatedly pecking it. 
C-L ndnfsh-tqsh (ndnft, neinit, 
ndzhnit, ndniil, ndnot) (ndbidi*- 

tqzhii, turkey. 

teeh, valley; deep water. 

teeh t'tf, zebra 

teelhalchi'i, robin. 

teet, teeh (te), fy, teeh, teel, to 

handle one animate object (as a 
baby, sheep, bug, man, etc.). 

For the derivational prefixes 
relating to "handle verbs" see 
the stem *ddt. 

1. to inter him; bury him. 

This meaning is rendered by 



propounding teeh, into the soil, 
to the following: 

F. deesh-teet (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, dool) (bidi'dool-) I. yish- 
teeh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'- 
dii-) P. yit-t[ (yfnit, yiyiit, jilt, 
yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. ndsh- 
teeh (nanit, neft, rijit, neiil, nat) 
(nabidi'dil-) O. ghosh-teet 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

2. to take his picture. 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding naaltsoos bik'i, on 
paper, to the verbs that follow. 
(Literally, to place him down on 

F. ndeesh-teet (ndift, niidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nibidi'- 
dool-) I. ninish-teeh (ninit, ni- 
yit, nijit, niniil, ninot) (nibi'- 
deel-) P. ninft-t[ (nfinft, niinit, 
nizhnit, niniil, ninoot) (nibi'- 
deel-) R. ni-nash-teeh (nanft, 
neft, na jit, neiil, ndt) (nabidi'- 
dil-) O. noosh-teet (noot, niyot, 
njot, nool, noot) (nibi'dol-) 
feet, teeh, tf, teeh, feet, sgl stem 
to lie down. 

fish, teesh, teezh, tish, teesh, 
dual stem, to lie down 
jah, jeeh, jee*, jah, jeeh, plural 
stem, to lie down. 
1. to lie down. 

As it will be noted, this verb 
employs distinct stems in the 
singular, dual, and plural num- 
ber. The three numbers are gi- 
ven consecutively as follows: 


F. dfneesh-teet (dinii, dinoo, ji- 
dinoo) dinii-tish (dinooh, dinoo, 
jidinoo) dinii-jah (dinooh, di- 
noo, jidinoo) I. nish-teeh (ni, ni, 
jini) nii-teesh (noh, ni, jini) nii- 
jeeh (noh, ni, jini) P. ne-t( (nini, 
neez, jineez) nee-teezh (noo, 
neezh, jineezh) nee- (or shinii-)- 
jee' (noo (or shinoo-), neezh, ji- 
neezh) *S-P (neuter) se-t[ (sini, 
si, jiz) shii-teezh (shoo, shi, jizh) 
shii-jee* (shoo, shi, jizh) U. nish- 
teeh (ni, ni, jini) nii-tish (noh, 
ni, jini) nii-jah (noh, ni, jini) O. 
nosh-teet (noo, no, jino) noo- 
teesh (nooh, no, jino) noo-jeeh 
(nooh, no, jino) 

*set[, renders I am lying down; 
I am in a reclining position. 

2. to lie with her; to have sex- 
ual relations with her; to sleep 
with her, him. 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding bit, in company 
with her, to the forms of no. 1 , 
with exception that the dual 
stem form must be used with the 
prefixes of the singular, since 
the verb refers, in total, to two 
persons. Thus, bit dineeshtish, 
I'll lie with her; bit nishteesh, I 
am about to lie with her; bit she- 
teezh, I am lying with her. 

3. to lay him down; to cause 
him to lie down. 

F. bidfneesh-teet (bidmfit, yidi 
noot, bizhdindot, bidfniil, bidf- 
n6ot) I. binish-teeh (binft, yinit, 
bizhnit, biniil, binoot) P. binet- 



ti (bininit, yinees, bizhnees, bi- 
neel, binoot) R. ndbinish-teeh 
(ndbinit, ndyinit, ndbizhnit, nd- 
biniil, ndbinot) O. binosh-teet 
(binoot, yindt, bizhnot, binool, 

If the object of the verb is two 
in number, the dual stem is used 
and if more than two the plural 
stem is used. Thus, bidfneesh- 
tish, I'll lay them (dual) down; 
bidmeeshjah, I'll lay them (more 
than two) down. 
feci, cat tail; rush. 
tffe'l, poverty. 
telii, burro; ass. 
telii yazhi, young burro. 
r'aa*, fq (fa), t'q, t'aah, t dot, 
to orate (probably refers to the 
movement of one's head from 
side to side as he orates). 

1. to orate; make a speech. 
F. ndi'neesh-t'aat (ndfnff, ndfndo, 
nizhdindo, ndinii, ndfnooh) I, 
ndmfish-t'q (ndfrini, ndfnfi, ndf- 
zhnfi, ndinii, hdfndh) C-l. no- 
nish-t'd (nanf, nani, nazhni, no- 
nil, nanoh) P. nanesh-t'q (nanf- 
nf, nanees, nazhnees, nanee, 
nanooh) R. nind-nfsht'aah (nf, 
ni, zhnf, nii, ndh) O. nanosh- 
t'ddt (nanod, nand, nazhnd, na- 
noo, nanooh) 

t'ddt, t'aah, tq, t'ddh, t'ddt, the 
stem *ddt, to handle one round 
or bulky object, in conjunction 
with the d-classifier (d plus (') 
becomes t'). 


1 . to subjugate it (as a coun- 
try) (lit. to put it under self). 

F. *dyaa 'adeesh-t'ddt ('adii, 'ii- 
doo, 'azhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) ('a- 
bidi'doo-) I. ayaa *iish-t*aah 
Cani, *ii, 'aji, 'ii, 'ooh) ('abfdi-) 
P. dyaa 'eesh-t'q ('finf, ayoo, 
ajoo, 'ii, *ooh) Cabi'doo-) R. 
'ayaa 'andsh-t'ddh Candni, 'a- 
nef, *anji / 'aneii, *andh) ('and- 
bi'di-) O. ayaa oosh-t'ddt (06, 
'ayd, 'a jo, 'oo, T ooh) Cabi'dc-) 

2. to commit a crime. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding 'ddqqh dan, up on 
oneself, to the following verbs 
(meaning to place impersonal it, 
things, the world, etc.). 
F. ho-deesh-t adt (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. hoosh-t'aah 
(ho, hoo, hoji, hwii, hooh) P. 
hosis-t'q (hosini, has, hojis, ho- 
sii, hosoo) R. ndhdsh-t'ddh (nd- 
hd, ndhd, ndhoji, ndhwii, ndhdh) 
O. hdsh-t'ddh (hod, ho, hojd, 
hoo, hooh) 

3. to moke an agreement with 
him; to make a treaty with him. 

F. bit 'aha-di'deesh-t adt (di'dfi, 
di'doo, zhdi'doo, di'dii, di'dooh) 
(di'doo-) I. bit aha-di'nisht'aah 
(di'nf, 'dee, zh'dee, dfnii, di'- 
noh) (*dee-) P. bit 'aha-di'nish- 
t'q (difrVnf, 'dee, zh'dee, di'nii, 
di'noo) Cdee-) R. bit 'nhanf- 
'dfsh-t'ddh (*di, *df, zh'df, 'dii, 
'ddh) Cdf-) O. bit 'aha-'ddsh- 
tadt ('ddd, 'do, zh'dd, 'doo, 
dooh) fdd-) 



*bU becomes yi+ in 3o. 

4. to place one's head against 

F. *bidi-dineesh-t , aat (dinii, df- 
noo, zhdinoo, dinii, dinooh) 1. 
bi-diniish-t'aah (dinii, dinii, zh- 
dinii, dinii, dinoh) P. bi-diniish- 
t'q (dinini, dinii, zhdinii, dinii, 
dinooh) R. bini-diniish-t'aab 
(dinii, dinii, zhdinii, dinii, dinoh) 
0. bi-di'noosh-taal (dfnoo, dfnoc 
zhdinoo, dfnoo, dinooh) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

5. to be holding one's head a- 
gainst it. 

N. bidfniish-'q (bidinfnil, yidf- 
niil, bizhdinfil, bidinfil, bidfnoof) 

6. to kiss her (lit. move one's 
head to her mouth). 

F. *biza-dineesh-t aat (dinii, di- 
noo, dizhnoo, dinii, dmooh) I 
biza-nisht'aah (nf, ni, zhni, nil, 
noh) P. biza-neesh-t'q (nfini, 
noo, zhnoo, nii, nooh) R. bizad- 
nish-t'aah (nf, nf, zhni, nii ; noh) 

0. biza-nosh-t'aat (noo, no, zh- 
no, noo, nooh) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

7. to give up to him (in fight). 
F. t'66 *baa a-dideesh-t aa+ (di- 
dii, didoo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) 

1. t'66 baa 'a-dinish-t'aah (dinf, 
dee, zhdee, dinii, dinoh) P. t'66 
baa 'a-dinish-t'q (dfinf, dee, zh- 
dee, dinii, dinooh) R. too baa 
'anf-dfsh-t'aah (di, di, zhdi, dii, 
doh) O. t'66 baa 'a-dosh-taat 
(doo, do, zhdo, doo, dooh) 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 


8. to look in (slowly and leis- 
urely, in contradistinction to the 
quick motion denoted by the 
stem -niit). 

F. yah a-dineesh-t ad+ (dinii, di- 
noo, zhdinoo, dinii, dinooh) I. 
yah 'a-nish-faah (ni, ni, zhni, 
nil, noh) P. yah 'a-neesh-t'q 
(niini, noo, zhnoo, nii, nooh) R. 
yah 'a-nanfsh-t'aah (nam, nani, 
nazhni, ndnii, nanoh) O. yah 
a-nosh-t'aa+ (noo, no, zhno, noo 
nooh) daadilkat 'qq 'ayiilaa 
doo yah 'anoot'q, he opened the 
door and looked in. 

9. to persuade him; to get him 
to give in (lit. to take something 
away from him by force). 

F. *bigha-drdeesh-taat (dfdfi, 
di'doo, dizh'doo, di'dii, di'dooh) 
I. bigha-di'nish-t'aah (di'ni, 'dee 
zh'dee, di'nii, di'noh) P. bigha- 
di'nish-t'q ('diini, 'dee, zh'dee, 
di'nii, di'nooh) R. bigham-'dfsh- 
Cdf, 'df, zh'df, 'dii, 'doh) O. bi- 
gha-'dosh-t'aat ('doo, 'do, zh'do, 
'doo, 'dooh) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

10. to shuffle them (cards). 
(lit. to put them back into one 

F. ahiih ndeesh-t aat (ndii, nei- 
doo, nizhdoo, ndii, ridooh) I. *a- 
hiih nash-t'aah (nanf, nei, rijf, 
n£ii, nah} P. 'ahiih naash-tq 
(neinf, nayoo, njoo, neii, naooh) 
R. ahiih ni-nash-t*aah (nanf, nef 
najf, neii, nah) O. 'ahiih na- 



oosh-t'dat (ndoo, ndyo, nijd, nd- 
oo, ndooh) 

1 1 . to risk one's life. 

F. nina'd-dideesh-t'daf {didfi, di- 
doo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. 
nind'd-dinish-t'aah (dini, dee, 
zhdee, dinii, dinoh) P. nind'd- 
dinish-t q (diini, dee, zhdee, di 
nii, dinoh) R. nind'd-dish-t'ddh 
(di,di\ zhdi,dii,doh) O. ninda- 
dosh-t'ddi (doo, do, zhdo, doo, 
dooh) 'awee' taah yfgo'go ni- 
nd'ddinisht'qqgo bich'f taah 
yishghod, when the baby fell in- 
to the water I went in after it at 
the risk of my life, 
r'dd, just. t'da 'dkoneeltV, 
there's just that many. 
fad 'aanii, really; truly; actual- 
ly, tad 'aanfi 'dsht't, I really 
did it. t'ddsh 'aanff 'ddfnf, are 
you telling the truth? 
r'dd 'aanii 'dr'dii, truth. 
r'dd 'ddzaagdd, just for fun; not 
seriously; aimlessly. 
r'dd 'dghidigi, (at) nearby, shi- 
ghandoo t'da 'aghfdfgi to holg, 
there is water near my home. 
t'da 'dhdnidef*, from nearby, 
t'da *dhdnide§* to nindhdshkaah 
I bring water from nearby. 
r'dd 'dhdnidi, (at) nearby, t'da 
'dhdnidi bikln si'q, his house is 

r'dd 'dhdnigi, (at) nearby, t ad 

'dhdnfgt holp, there is some near 


r ? dd 'ahqqdigo, close together. 

fad 'ahqqli, frequently, t'da 'a- 


hqqh naa ndshddah doolee^ I'll 
come to see you frequently, 
r'dd ahqqh, simultaneously; at 
the same time, t'da 'ahqqh kT- 
diilyd, we planted at the same 

r'dd 'dkd, that is all right; it is 

r'dd 'dkddi, that's all; no more. 
t ad 'dkodigo shee holg, that is 
all I have. 

r'dd 'dkwii, remaining equal in 
number; each, every (with refer- 
ence to day, night, and seasons), 
aa akwn j[, every day; t aa a- 
kwii zhini, every summer; t'da 
dkwn ghaaf, every winter, every 

r'dd *dta, both, t ad a+a tigai, 
both are white. 

r'dd 'dtaji', always, t'da 'dfajf 
kwii nindshzhah, I always hunt 

lad 'dtch'jidigo, just a little bit; 
few. tad a+ch'iidigo nidiq, 
drink a little bit of it! 

r'dd 'altso, all. t ad aftso heel 
'dnfleeh, pack all of them! t'da 
a+tso dabi'ddd, they are all fe- 

r'dd 'atrsogo, everywhere. t'da 
'a+tsogo dibe holp, there are 
sheep everywhere. 
r'dd 'aftsogdd, everywhere, t'da 
'attsogoo tddffyd, I went every- 

r'dd 'afrsoni, everything. tad 
'attsonf shee holg, I have every- 



t'dd beeso, cash; in cosh. 

t ad bf binf' bik'ehgo 'atah niyd- 

higii, volunteer. 
t'dd bihdlnihigii, onything t'aa 
bfholnfhfgif shaa nf'aah, give 
me anything! 

t'dd biich'ifdii, Aneth, Utah. 
t'dd biji, in his own way; in ac- 
cord with his own customs. 
t'dd bizddkd, at the risk of one's 
life; throwing caution to the 
winds; intrepidly, dine kin doc 
altso 'adidook'qqt da danizin 
go kin dook'qt£e t'aa bizaaka 
yaa tiih yfjee*, the men did not 
want the house to burn up so 
they tackled the burning house 
at the risk of their lives. 
t'dd bizhdni, only. gohweeh 
t'aa bfzhanf shaa yinfkq, he gave 
me coffee only. 

t'dd dikwii, just a few. k'ad chi- 
di t'aa dikwn ndaajeeh, now few 
cars run about, dibe t'aa dfkwff 
yidziih, a few sheep ore left. 
t'dadoo, don't; without, t'aadoo 
ydni'Jti'i, don't talk! 

t'dadoo bahat'aadi, evidently; 
obviously; apparently. t'aadoo 
bahat'aadf 'ajisiih, evidently he 
made a mistake. 

t'dadoo hodiina'i, soon; after a 
while. t'aadoo hodfina'f 'V\\~ 
haazh r I soon fell asleep. 
t'dadoo hodina'i, soon (in a fut- 
ure sense), t'aadoo hodina'i na- 
hodoottjft shif, it will probably 
rain soon. 

t'dadoo hooydni, suddenly; with- 


Dut warning, t'aadoo hooydni 
bqqh dahoo'a', he suddenly got 

t'dadoo kdt'e 'ilini, suddenly and 
without warning; unexpectedly, 
t'dadoo kot'e 'flint nihik'iijee', 
they suddenly attacked us. 
t'dadoo le'e, thing; things; any- 
thing; something, t'aadoo le'e 
hadesh'[[\ I am looking for some 
thing, t'aadoo le'e naa deesh- 
\ee\ f I'll give you something. 
t'dadoo le'e 'ddaal'figi, factory. 
t'dadoo le'e 'atch'j' be'astt'do- 
nii, bundle. 

t'dadoo le'e teeghi' dahdldnigii, 
mineral; mineral resources. 
t'dd geed, without, to t'aa geed 
doo 'iinaa da, life is impossible 
without water. 

t'dd hdiida, anyone; someone, 
t'aa haiida bit holne', tell it to 

t'dd hazhd'6, except, taa *at- 
tso ya'adaat'eeh t'aa hazhoo 
dfi t'eiya doo yd'at'eeh da f they 
are all good except this one. 
t'dd iidqq', already, taa 'ndqq' 
'ii'VQQ*, I already ate. 
t'dd 'fighisii, very; extremely, 
aa nghisif ya at eeh, it is very 

t'dd 'iishjdni, evidently; clearly. 
t'aa 'fishjani doo 'ei yi'dat da, 
evidently you are carrying the 
wrong one. 

t'ddtdhddi, once; one time, t'aa- 
J-ahadi shika 'anaadiilghot, help 
me just once more! 



Pda jiik'e, free; gratis, t'dd jii- 
k'e shaa yinfq, he gave it to me 

Pddtdhddi neeznddiin nindhd- 
hddh, a hundred years; century. 
Pddtdhdgi 'dPeego, constantly; 
invariably; in just one way, Pdd- 
tdhdgi at eego att'dogo Vff q, 
she wove constantly all day long, 
t'ddidhdgi 'dt'eego dibe nanisrv 
kaadgo neezndd nddhai, I con- 
stantly herded sheep for ten 

Pddta'aji, in a day; daily; per 

Pddta'att'ee', in one night. 
Pddtd'i beeso, one dollar. 
Pddtd'i doott'izh, one dime. 
Pddtd'i hooghanigii, family; fa- 
mily unit, or group. 

Pddtd'i ni'dnigo, individually, 
each one as an individual. 
Pddtd'i nizinigo, individually. 
Pddtd'i sizinigii, individual. 
Pad tdqgoo, in many ways; in 
many places; many things, t'dd 
tqqgod tddifyd, I went to many 
places, t'dd Iqqgdd bihoof'qq', 
I learned many things about it. 
dibe fad Iqqgoo bd 'atijit'Qgo 
Peiyd nilk'ah, sheep con be fat- 
tened in many ways. 

t'dd niik'e (ib. t'dd jffk'e), free; 

r'dd nindhdhddh bik'eh, annual- 
ly; each year. 

Pad sahdii, apart; alone; separ- 
ate, naal'eeti fa* 'akeedef t'dd 


sahdii yit'ah, one of the ducks is 

flying behind all by itself. 

Pad sdhi, alone, t'dd sdhf 'attso 

y'yQQ*/ I crte it all alone (all by 


Pod shiidqg'dii, for a long time. 

dfi tsin t'dd shiidqq'dii kwe'e 'ii- 

*d, this tree has been standing 

here for a long time, t'dd shii- 

dqq'dii kwe'e keehasht'f, I lived 

here for a long time. 

t'dd shj£ # probably, t'dd sh|[ *aa- 

nii 'dm, he is probably telling 

rhe truth. 

Pad t'eehgo, raw; uncooked. 

ch'il tigaai Pad t'eehgo daadq, 

cabbage is eaten raw. 

Pah, Pddh (Pa'), Pa', Pah, Pddh, 

to fly. 

1. to start flying along. 

F. dideesh-t'ah (didii, didoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I* dish- 
Paah (df, di, jidi, dii, doh) S-P. 
de-Pa* (dfnf, dees, jidees, dee, 
disoo) R. ridfsh-Pah (ndf, ridf, 
nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) O. dosh- 
Pddh (doo, do, jidd, doo, dooh) 

2. to start off flying. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding dah, off, to the fol- 
lowing forms. 

F. dideesh-t'ah (didii, didoo, 
shdidoo, didii, didooh) I. diish- 
Pddh (dii, dii, shdii, dii, dooh) 
P. dii-t'a' (dini, dii, shdii, dii, 
doo) R- ndiish-Pah (ndii, ndii, 
nfzhdii, ndii, ndooh) O. doosh- 
t adh (doo, doo, jidoo, doo, dooh) 

3. to fly; to arrive flying. 



F. deesh-t'ah (dii, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) I. nish-t'aah (ni, yi, jf 7 
nii, noh) P. nish-t'a' (ymi, yf, ji, 
nii, noo) R. nash-t'ah (nam, na, 
rijf, neii, ndh) O. ghosh-t'aah 
(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

4. to be flying along. 
Prog, yisht'ah (yf, yi, joo, yii, 

5- fro fly about. 
C-I. naash-t*a* (nani, naa, nji, 
neii, naah) 

6. to fly it; to make it fly; to 
arrive flying it, 

F. deesh-t ah (dift, yidoot, jidoot 
dill, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. nish- 
t'aah (nit, yit, jit, niil, not) (bi*- 
deel-) P. nit-t V (niinit, yinft, jf- 
nit, niil, noot) (bi'deel-) R. 
nash-t'ah (nanit, neft, rijit, neiil, 
not) (nabi'dil-) O. ghosh-faah 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

7. to be flying it along. 
Prog, yish-t'ah (yit, yoot, joot, 
yiil, ghot) (bi'dool-) 

8. to fly it about (as a plane). 
F. ndeesh-t'ah (ndift, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi'- 
dooi-) C-I. naash-ta' (nanit, 
neit, njit, neiil, naoi) (nabi'dil-) 
P. niset-t'a* (nisfnft, neis, njis, 
nisiil, nisoot) (nabi'dis-) R. nf- 
nash-t'ah (nanit, neit, najit, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. naosh- 
tV (naoot, nayot, njot, naool, 
naoot) (nabi'dol-) 

t'ah, yet; still, t'ah doo yiistseeh 
da, I still haven't seen him. 


t'ah kodqq', immediately; right 
now. nihe'ashiike silaagod§£ 
ninahaaskaigo bindaanish doo- 
leetigfi t'ah kodqq' ba baa hwii- 
nit'|[go ya'dt'eeh, it is well for us 
to plan immediately the work 
which our boys will do when they 
return from the army. 
Pah naasidi, further on. t'ah 
naasidi nimtbqqs, park it fur- 
ther on! 

t'ash, t'aash, t'aazh, t'ash, 
t'aash, the dual stem of to go, in 
conjunction with the d-classifier 

1. to run a race with him. 

To run a race with them, where- 
in more than two persons are in- 
volved, is rendered by replacing 
the dual stem by the plural stem, 
the stem forms of the plural be- 
ing: kah, kaah, kai, kah, kaah. 
F. *bit aha-dideesh-t'ash (didii, 
didoo, zhdidoo, didii, didooh) I. 
bit 'aha-dish-t'aash (df, di, zhdi, 
dii, doh) P. bit aha-desh-t'aazh 
(dm i, dee, zhdee, dee, dishoo) 
R. bit 'aha-ndish-t'ash (rtdf, ndi, 
nizhdi, ndii, ndoh) O. bit 'aha- 
dosh-t'aash (doo, do, zhdo, doo, 

*bi+ becomes yit in 3o. 
fqqchil, April. 

t'qq\ back. t*qq' naadaat, he 
is going back, 
t'qq'dnat'e, hem; cuff. 
t'qqjigo, backwards, chidf t'qq 
jigo bit naadoot, the car is going 
backwards with him. 



back; backwards. t'qqjV 
'iit+izh, he fell backwards. 
r'qQtsoh, May, 
1*9$, fas, t'gg*, *'*«* **W* *o cut 


1. to cut it spirally (as a melon 
in preparing it for drying). 

F. nahidinees-t'qs (nahidiniif 
neidinoot, ndhizhdinoat, nahi- 
dfnfil, ndhidmoot) (nahidfnool-) 
I. ndhinis-t'qs (ndhinft, nfiiniit 
ndhizhnit, ndhiniil, ndhinoot) 
(ndhinil-) P. ndhinet-tqqz (nd* 
hinfnft, n6inees, ndhizhnees, nd- 
hineel, ndhinoot) (ndhinees-) 
R. ni-ndhinis-t'qs (ndhinit, n6i- 
niit, ndhizhnit, ndhiniil, ndhi- 
noot) (ndhinil-) O, nahinos- 
t'qqs (ndhinoot, neinot, ndhizh- 
not, ndhinool, ndhinoot) (ndhi- 

feet, t'eeh (t'e, teeh), tV, feeh, 

1 . to be. 

N. 'dnfsh-fe ( ani, '6, aji, 'dnii, 
'dndh) tse 'dt'e, it is a stone. 

2. to be or look thus. 

N. konfsh-t'<§ (koni, ko, kojf, kd- 
nii, kdnoh) 

'atk'idq^' koni'shfee nt'££; k ad 
t'6iyd kdnisht'e, I used to look 
this way; now I look like this (as 
in comparing a former picture 
with a recent one of oneself). 

3. to be remarkable, outstand- 
ing, or "super/'. 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding 'ayoi, remarkable, 
to the forms given under no. 1 . 


Thus, 'ayoi 'dnisht'e, I am out- 

4. to be (in number). 

F. diil-t'eet N. niil-t'e (not, yii, 
jil) S-P. siil-tV (soot, yis, jis) 
R. neiil-t'eeh (ndt, ndl, njN) O. 
ghool-t'eeh (ghoot, ghdl, jdl) 

naabeehd t'66 'ahaydi yilt'£, 
the Navaho are numerous. 

5. to act alone. 

In this form the relatival encli- 
tic is added to the stem. 
N. t ad+ah dinisht'6h<§ (dinil, dil. 
diniil, dinot) t'ddtah dinisht'6- 
hego hooghan 'dshtaa, I built 
the hogan (working) by myself. 

6. to be good, well, suitable, 
desirable, convenient, etc. 

N. yd'dnfsh-t'e6h (yd ani, yd a, 
yo aji, ya ami, ya anoh) (ya a- 
hoot'eeh, the place, or imperson- 
al "it" is good.) 

7. to like it; be pleased by It. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding -it, with (one), tc 
the forms given in no. 1. Thus, 
*obe' bit yd'dt'^h, he likes milk. 

8. to be well; to be healthy. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding -tah, body, to the 
spatial (ho) form. Thus, shitah 
yd 1 dhoot*£eh, I am well; nitah 
yd'dhoot'£eh, you ore well, etc. 

Also, haa nisht'£, how am I? 
haa niYd, how ore you? haa yit'4, 
how is he? haa niit*6, how are 
we? haa noht'6, how are you? 
(dpi) haa daat'e, how are they? 
(dist. pi) 



9. fro acquire it; fro get it. 

F. shoideesh-t'eet (shoiditt, shoi- 
door, shoizhdoot, shoidiil, shoi- 
doot) (shobidi'dool-) I. shoosh- 
r'eeh (shoinit, shoyoat, shojoot, 
shool, shoot) (shobi'dool-) P. 
shofset-tV (shofsfni-t, shoyoos, 
shojoos, shoisiil, shoisoot) (sho- 
bfdooz-) R. shond-osh-t'eeh 
(shonaot, shonayoot, shonjoot, 
shonaool, shonaoot) (shonabf- 
dool-) O. shoosh-t'eeh (shoot, 
shoyooi, shojoot, shool, shoot) 
(shobi'dool-) t[f naakaii bi- 
ts'qqdee* shoisettV, I got (or ob- 
tained) a horse from a Mexican. 

10. to place it (animate or in- 
animate) into an enclosure (as in 
a corral, jail, etc.). 

F. yah adeesh-t'eet (adnt, 'ii- 
doot, 'azhdoat, 'adiil, 'adoot) 
Cabidi'dool-) I. yah 'iish-tV 
Canit, 'lit, ajit, Mil, 'oot) (abi- 
•dil-) P. yah 'ift-tV Cfintt, 'ayfit, 
'ajift, "ill, 'oot) Cabi'dool-) R 
yah 'anash-feeh CananR, *aneit 
anjit, aneiil, 'anat) Canabi'dil-) 
O. yah 'oosh-tV Coot, ayot, *a- 
jot, 'ool, *oot) Cabi'dol-) 

11. to lose it (an animate ob- 
ject, or a slender stiff object). 

This meaning is rendered by 
substituting yoo', away, for yah, 
into, in no. 10. Thus, yoo' 'fit- 
tV, I lost it. 

1 2. to drop it (an animate ob- 
ject, or a slender stiff object). 

F. hada-deesh-t'eet (ditf, idoot 
zhdoot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) 


L hadaash-tV (hadanit, hadeit, 
hadajit, hadeiil, hadaat) (hada- 
bi'dil-) P. hadaaMV (hademit, 
hadayiit, hadajirt, hadeiil, ha- 
daoot) (hadabi'dool) R. hada- 
nash-t'eeh (nanft, nef-t, najft, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. hada 
osh-tV {66k, yot, j6t, ool, oot) 

13. to release him; to set him 
Free (lit. to take him back out of 
an enclosure). 

F. ch'eedeesh-teet (crTeediit, 
ch'fneidoot, ch'e^zhdoot, ch'e6- 
diil, ch'66doot) (crT«bidi'dool-) 
I. ch'inash-tV (chmanit, ch'f- 
nett, ch'eejit, crTfn&il, ch'inat) 
(ch'inabi'dil-) P. ch'ttntt-t'e" 
(ch'eenit, ch'e^intt, ch'^ezh- 
m-t, ch'inaniil, ch'inanoot 
(crnnabi'dool-) R. ch'fnf-nash- 
feeh (nanft, n6tf, najft, n^irl, 
n<5+) (nabrdil-) O. ch'fnd-osh- 
tV (oot, yot, j6t, ool, oot) (bi'- 

14. to exhume U (lit. to take 
it back up out). 

F. haa-deesh-feet (dff+, idoot, 
zhdoot, diil, door) (bidi'dool-) 
I. ha-nash-tV (nanff neft, njft, 
n«iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) P. hanaat- 
tV (hanefnft, hanaynt, h66jfft, 
han^iil, hanaoot) (handbPdool-) 
R. hanf-nash-t'eeh (n<5nft, n£ft, 
najft, n£iil, nat) (n6bi'dil-) O. 
ha-naosh-tV (n666t, n<5y6t, n- 
jot, ndool, n6oot) (ru5bi'd6l-) 

15. to "fire "him; to discharge 
him (from a Job). 



In the following paradigms the 
prefix 'ats'a- is long Cats'aa-) 
only when it absorbs the follow- 
ing prefix na-, back, (the literal 
meaning being, to put him back 
in a separated state); whenever 
the prefix na- occurs as such the 
prefix 'ats'a- is short; otherwise 
'ats'a- absorbs na- to give *a- 

F. 'ats'aa-deesh-t'eet (dnt, idoot, 
zhdoot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) 
I. 'ats*aa-nish-tV (nit, neit, jit, 
niil, not) (bPdeel-) P. 'atsaa- 
nft-tV (yinit, in ft, zhnit, niil, 
noot) (bi'deel-) R. 'ats'anf- 
nash-t*eeh (nanit, neit, najit, 
neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. 'ats a- 
naosh-t'e' Cats'andoot, *ats*aa- 
yot, 'ats'ddjot, 'ats'dndool, 'a- 
tsanaoot) (Wdndbi'dol-) 

16. to drop it (an animate or a 
slender stiff object). 

F. ndeesh-t'eet (ndnt, neidoot, 
nizhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nabidi*- 
dool-) I. naash-tV (nanit, neit, 
njit, neiil, naat) (nabi'dil-) P. 
nddt-tV (nefnit, naynt, njfit, ne- 
iil, naoot) (nabi'dool-) R. ni- 
ndsh-t'eeh (nanft, neft, najit, n£- 
iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. naosh-tV 
(naoot, nayot, njot, naool, naoot) 

17. to knock it over (a slender 
stiff object, as a post). 

F. naa-adeesh-t'eet ('adift, Mi- 
doot, 'azhdoot, 'adiil, 'adoot) I. 
naa-'iish-tV Con it, 'fit, *ajit, Mi!, 
'oofl P. naa-'fft-tV ('ffnft, f a- 


yiit, 'a jii^ *iil, oot) R. naa-'a- 
nash-t'eeh (ndnft, neft, nijit, ne- 
iil, nat) O. naa-'oosh-tV (oot, 
'ayot ; 'ajot, 'ool, *oot) tsin naa- 
'ayifttV, he knocked the post 
over. ii ni in naa ay n+t e , 
lightning knocked the horse over 
(or struck the horse) {on animal 
is thought of as falling over in 
the manner of a post when light- 
ning strikes it). 

18. to hop about (as a bird, a 
kangaroo rat, or a person, on one 

F, nahi-deesh-t'eet (dif, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) C-l. nahash-t V 
(nahi, naha, njii, nahii, nahoh) 
P. nahisis-tV (nahisfnf, nahaas, 
njiis, nahisii, nahisoo) R. nina- 
hdsh-t'eeh (hi, hd, jti, hii, hoh) 
O. nahosh-t'e* (nahoo, nah6, n- 
jiyo / nahoo, nahooh) 
t'eesh, charcoal. 

t'eiya, only, taa bf t'eiyd yee- 
hosin, he is the only one who 
! -nows him. 

t'ih, t'eeh (t'ih), tT, t'ih, Feeh, 
(t'ih), to extend or stretch into 
the distance as a thin line (as a 

1 . to set them in the form of a 

F. ndeesh-t'ih (ndiit, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndii», ndoot) (ndbidi'- 
dool-) C-l. nash-t'ih (nanit, neft, 
njft, n6iil, ndt) (nabi'dil-) P. 
nfset-tY (nfsinit, nefs, njfs, nf- 
siil, nfsoot) (nabi'dis-) R. nf- 
nash-t'ih (ndnft, neit, najit, n£iil, 



na+) (nabi'dil-) O. naosh-t'ih 
(naoat, nayot, rijot, naool, naoot), 

2. to line up (as when people 
form a line). 

F. dideesh-t*ih (didii, didoo, jidi- 
doo, didii, didooh) L dish-t'eeh 
(df, di, jidi, dii, doh) P. de-tY 
(dmf, deez, jideez, dee, disoo) R. 
ndfsh-t'ih (ndf, ndi, nizhdf, ridii, 
ndoh) O. dosh-t eeh (doo, do, 
jido, doo, dooh) 'alkee' didii- 
t'ih, we'll line up one behind the 

3. to set them in a line; to ex- 
tend it along (as a wire). 

F. dideesh-t'ih (diditt, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiil, didoo!) I. dish- 
t eeh (dit, yidtf, jidit, diil, dot) 
P. det-tY (dmft, yideez, jideez, 
deel, disoot) R. ndish-t'ih (ndtt, 
neidii, nizhdit, ndiil, ndot) O. 
dosh-t'eeh (doot, yidot, jidot, 
dool, doo+) atkee' disht'eeh, I 
am setting them in a line. 

4. to be setting them along in 
a line; to be extending it in a 
line (as a wire, rail, etc.). 

Prog, yish-t'ih (yit, yoot, joo+, 
yiil, gho+) (bi'dool-) 

5. to make fence (lit. stretch 
or extend something slender as a 

F. adeesh-t'ih Cadift, adoo+, a- 
zhdool, 'adiil, 'adoot) I. adish- 
t'eeh ('adit, 'adit, 'azhdit, 'adiil, 
add) P. adet-tY Cadintf, f a- 
dees, 'azhdees, 'adeel, 'adisoot) 
R. rVdfsh-fih (rVdft, rVdft, nfzlV- 


dtt, ri'diil, h'dot) O. 'adosh- 
t'eeh Cadooi, adot, 'azhdot, *a- 
dool, 'adoot) Prog. 'eesh-t'ih 
('fit, 'oo+, 'ajoot, 'lil, oot) 

6. to concern one. 

N. bfdesh-tY (bfdffni, yidee, bi- 
zhdee, bfdee, bfdooh) nizee', 
dff doo nfdeetY da, shut up, this 
doesn't concern you! doo shf- 
dfinftY da, 'e( bqqh doo nika *a- 
deeshghol da, you do not con- 
cern me so I won't help you. 

7. to have something to do 
with each other; to concern each 
other; to be interrelated. 

F. 'ahfdidoot'ih I. , ahideet'eeh 
P. ahfdeetY R. ahfhdeet'ih 
0. 'ahfdoot'eeh. nahattin doc 
k'os 'ahideetY, the rain and the 
clouds have something to dc 
with each other. 

8. to have nothing to do with 
it; to be unconcerned in it. 

N- doo shf-deetY da (ni, bf, ho, 
nihf, nihf) 

9. to be a route to it (in the 
sense of a route coming to exist). 

F. bich'f 'ahodoot'ih I. bich'f 
ahateeh Prog, bich'i' hoot'ih 
P. bich'f 'ahootY O. bich'i' a- 
hot'eeh. t'aa 'dnfidfgo Alaska 
bichT 'ahootYgo 'ahoolyaa, just 
recently a route was made to A- 

10. to be available (means of 

F. bee hodoot'ih P. bee honftY 
R. bee ndhodit'ih O. bee hodo- 
t'eeh. na'nfzhoozhfgoo t'dadoo 



bee hodot'ehi da, there is no way 
of getting to Gallup (no trans- 
portation available). 

1 1 . to start it; to originate it 
(to cause it to stretch up out as a 
thin line). 

F. ha-deesh-t'ih (diit, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doo+) (bidi'dool-) I. 
haash-t'eeh (hanit, hai+, hajil, 
haiil, haafl (habi'dil-) P. haat- 
tT (hdfnft, hayiil, hajfft, haiil, 
haoo+) (habi'dool-) R. handsh- 
t'ih (handnit, haneit, handjit, 
han6iil, hand!) (handbi'dil-) 0. 
haosh-t'eeh (haoot, hayot, hajot, 
haool, haoot) (habi'dol-) 

12a. to begin; to start; to orig- 
inate (lit. to stretch up out as a 
thin line). 
F. hadoot'ih I. haat'eeh P. hdd- 
tY R. handt'ih O. haot'eeh 

nahasdzddn bikad 1 'iind had- 
tV, life began on earth, 

12b. to start again; to resume. 
F. handddoot'ih I. handdnd- 
t'eeh P. handdnddtY R. ha- 
ndt'ih O. handdndot'eeh 

13. to bring it to an end; to 
terminate it (lit. to terminate its 
extension as a thin line). 
F. ndeesh-t'ih (ndift, niidool, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoof) (nrbidi*- 
dool-) I. ninish-feSh (ninit, niyft 
njif, niil, nooJ) (nibi'deel-) P. 
ninit-tT (minit, niinff, nizhntt, 
niniil, ninool) (nibi'deel-) R. 
ni-ndsh-t'ih (ndntt, neit, nfjtt, 
neiil, not) (nabi'dll-) O. nodsh- 
f£eh (noot, niydt, njdt, nool 
noot) (nibfd6l-) 


14. to end; to terminate; stop. 

F. ndoot'ih I. niit'eeh P. nini- 
t'f R. nindt'ih O. noot'eeh 

15. to continue; to keep going 
(lit to stretch forward as a thin 

F. ndds doot'ih I. ndds dit'eeh 
Prog, ndds yit'ih P. ndds deez- 
tY R. ndds hdit'ih O. ndds do- 
t'eeh. 'anaa* ndds yit'ih, the 
war continues. 

16. to continue it. 

F. ndds deesh-t'ih (dill, yidoot, 
jidoot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
ndds dish-t'eeh (dfi, yidil, jidtt, 
diil, dot) (bi'dil-) Prog, ndds 
yish-t'ih (ytt, yoot, joo+, yiil, 
ghot) (bi'dool-) P. ndds det-fi' 
(dini+ r yideez, jideez, deel, di- 
sooi) (bi'dees-) R. ndds hdish- 
fih (ndft, neidtt, nizhdft, ndiil, 
ndol) (ndbi'dil-) O. ndds dosh- 
teen (doo+, yidat, jidot, dooi, 
dooi) (bi'dol-). 'anu[* ndds 
yoott'ih, he contiues to steal. 

17. to continue it; to keep it 
going on; to resume it* 

F. k'f-deesh-fih (ditt, idooi, zh- 
doo+, diil, doo+) (bidi'dool-) I. 
k'inish-t'eeh (k'fnft, k'ni, k'fjft, 
k'miil, k'fnot) (k'fbi'deel-) P. 
kmft-tV (k'fmit, k'linit, k'fzh- 
nit, k'fniil, k'inooi) (k'fbi'deel-) 
S-P. k*fse+-tY (k'fsmit, k'ffs, k'f- 
jfs, k'fsiil, k'isoot) (k'fbi'dis-) R. 
k'f-ndsh-t'ih (ndnft, neit, njft. 
neiil, ndt) (ndbi'dil-) O. k'fosh- 
(k'i66+, k'iyot, k'fjot, k'foof, k'f- 



ooi) (k'ibi'dol-). 'ayoo , oni , Uh- 
go biniinaa *awdalya sidaa rit f£* 
"6ko am, "Taa k'ideesht'ih," 
he was in jail for stealing, but he 
said, "I'm going to keep it up." 

18. to stagger about; wobble. 
F. ndf'neesh-t'ih (ndi'nii, ndi*- 
noo, nizhdf'noo, ndi'nii, ndi 
nooh) C-l. na'nish-t'ih (na'nf, 
na'ni, nazh'ni, na'nii, na'noh) 
P. na'ne-t'ih (na'nfni, na'neez, 
nazh'neez, na'nee, na'noo) R. 
ni-na nish-t ih (no ni, na m, no 
nii, na'noh) 0. na'nosh-t'ih 
{na'noo, na'no, nazh'no, na'noo, 
na'nooh). todi+hi+ la' yishdlqq'- 
go ndPneeshtMh, I'll stagger a- 
bout when I take a drink of whis- 
key, chidi bikee* na'nit'ih, the 
tire is wobbling. 

19. to have one's mind set on 


This verb is given for the 1st 
person sgl. It is conjugated for 
the other persons by altering the 
pronoun prefix on the noun -ni', 


F. shfni* bididoot'ih I. shfni* bi- 
diit'eeh P. shmi' bidiifP R. shf- 
ni' bindiit'ih O. shini' bidoot'eeh 
r'iis, Cottonwood. 
t'iisbai, aspen. 

t'iis 'ii*ahi, Pine Springs, Ariz. 
t*iis nazbqqs, Teesnospos, Ariz. 
t'iis ntsaa ch'eelf, Bluewater, N. 

t'iistsoh, Puertocito, N. M. 
t'iistsoh sikaad, Burnham, N. M. 


t'itsts'66z hdeeshgizh, Crown- 
point, N. M. 

t'iisyaakin, Holbrook, Ariz. 
t'j, the stem *[ plus d-classifier. 

1. to be visible. 
N. yish-t'[ (yini, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) 
(hoot*[ refers to area or space, 
doo hoot'Ij da, there is no visi- 

t'f[hdigo, a little bit. t' (indigo 
yishdlqq', I drank a little bit, 
t'jjhi ba'anigo, a little more; a 
few more. shil[[* t*|[hf ba*6nfgo 
nilff 1 'aneeltV, you have a few 
more horses than I have. 
tfi*, t'*, t'q, t'jfh, i*qq\ to mat- 

1. to ripen; to mature. 

F. dfn6ot'[[t I. nit'q P. neest'q 
R. naniffih O. ndt'ii* 

2. to raise it; to grew it; to ma- 
ture it (prefixed n- indicates that 
the act is done repeatedly, as in 
raising a crop; for it is assumed 
not to be the first such crop). 

F. ndfneesh-t'iit (ndfnfft, neidf- 
noo+, nfzhdinoot, ridiniil, ndf- 
noo-l') (nfbidPnoo!-) I. nish-t'q 
(nf+, yinit, jinit, niil, noot) (bidi*- 
nil-) P. nan&Nt q (naninft, nei- 
nees, nazhnees, naneel, ndnoot) 
(nabidi'nees-) R. ni-nanish-t'uh 
(nanR, neinit, nazhnfl, naniil, 
nanol) (nabidi'nil-) O. nanosh- 
rqq 1 (nanoot, neinot, nazhnot 
nanool, nanoot) (n6bidi'nol-) 
W, frlfh (fin), f ij\ ffjh, t'jit, to 

1. to hide. 



F. ndi-dineesh-t*iK (dinii, dmoo, 
zhdfnoo, dfnii, dfnooh) I. ridf- 
nish-t*[[h (ridfnf, ridfni, nizhdmf, 
ridfnii, ridfnoh) P. ridinesh-t'u' 
(ridfnfnf, ridfnees, nizhdinees, n- 
drnee, ndmoo) R. nina-dinfsh- 
t'fih (dfnf, dmi, zhdfnf, dfnii, df- 
noh) (X ridfnosh-t'ift (ridfnoo, 
ndfno, nfzhdino, ndfnoo, ndf- 

2. to be in hiding; be hidden. 
N. nanish-t'in (nanf, nani, na- 
zhni, nanii, nanoh) bits'qq 

nanisht'in, doo shiidoo+tseel da 
biniighe, I am hiding from him 
so he will not see me. 

vat, t iih (fi), t'iid, t iih, eir to 

act or do (V. ']$, niffl. 

1 . to take action on it; to re- 
port it; to discuss it. 

F. *baa rideesh-fjif (ndfi, ndoo, 
nizhdoo, ndfi, ndooh) (nahodoo-) 
C-l. baa yinish-t'[ (nam, na, njf, 
neii, nah) (naha-) P. baa nisfs- 
t'[id (nfsfnf, yinis, njfs, nfsii, nf- 
soo) (nahas-) R. baa nf-nash- 
t'iih (nanf, na, najf, neii, nah) 
(naha-) O. naoosh-t'if* (naoo, 
naoo. njoo, naoo, naooh) (naho-) 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o, 

2. to bother him; molest him. 
F. *baa ndeesh-tM|t (ndn, ndoo, 
nfzhdoO; ndii, ndooh) (nahodoo-) 
C-l. baa nash-t'f (nanf, na, njf, 
neii, nah) (naha-) P. baa nfsfs- 
t'jjd (nisfnf, nas, njfs, nfsii, nfsoo) 
(nahas-) R. nf-nash-t'ijh (nanf, 
na, najf, neii, nah) (naha-) O. 
naoosh-t'ff* (naoo, n6oo, njoo, 


naoo, naooh) (naho-) t'aadoc 
shaa nanft'fnf, don't bother me! 
shaa naoot'ii' lago, don't bother 
me (in the future)! 
*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

3. to quit; stop activity; back 
out; surrender. 

F. *aaho-deesh-t'ii+ (dff, doo, ztv 
doo, dii, dooh) I. 'aa-hosh-t'uh 
(honi, hoo, hojoo, hwii, hoh) P. 
aa-hosis-t'iid (hosfnf, hoos, ho- 
joos, hosii, hosoo) R. 'ana- 
hoosh-t'i[h (honf, hoo, hojoo, 
hwii, hoh) O. aa-hoosh-t'if 
(hoo, hoo, hojoo, hoo, hooh) 

naashnish nt'ee* 'aahosist'i[d, 
I was working but I quit, nihe*- 
ena'f ta' 'aadahoost'ijd, some of 
our enemies gave up (quit). bi+ 
de'aazh nt'ee' t*66 'aahosist'iid, 
I was going to go with him but I 
backed out. andahojoot'nhji' 
Voolkid, it is quitting time. 

4. to fail; to act in vain. 

This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding ch'eeh, vainly, fut- 

ilely, to the following verbs: 

F. adeesh-t'JH ('adff, adoo, a- 

zhdoo, 'adii, ? adooh) C-l. 'ash- 

[ ( ani, a, aji, n, ooh) P. n- 

[[d ( nni, it, ejn, w, ooh) R. a- 

nasn-t [jh ( anani, ana, anji, a- 

neii, "anah) O. 'oosh-t'fi' ('66, 

oo, ajo, oo, ooh) 

5. to live; to reside. 

N. kee-hash-t*f (ho, ha, ho. 
hwii, hoh) 

6. to be rich; wealthy. 

N. 'ash-t'[ f f, 'a, 'aji, Mi, 'oh) 



7. to be rich in it. 

H. yish-t'i (ni, yi, Ji, yii, ghoh) 

t[l yishtX I am rich in horses. 
f'is, t'ees, t'e, t'is, t'ees, to roast. 

1. to roast, broil or fry it. 

F. dees-t'is (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yis- 
t'ees (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi'- 
dil-) P. set-t*e (sinit, yis, jis, siil, 
soot) (bi'dfs-) R. nas-t'is (nanft, 
neft, rijft, neiil, nat) (nabi'di!-) 
O. ghos-t'ees (ghoot, yot, \6i f 
ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to cook; roost; broil; fry. 
P. doot* is I. yit'ees P. sit'e R 
nat'is O. ghot'ees 

t*is, t'ees, t'eez, t'is, t'ees, to step 

1. to put on one's shoes (lit. to 
step bock in the shoes). 

keeh, into shoes, is prepounded 
to the following verb forms: 
F. ridees-t'is (ndii, ndoo, nfzhdoo 
ridii, hdooh) I. nas-t'ees (nani, 
na, rijf, neii, nah) P. nas-t'eez 
(neinf, nda, rijoo, neii, naoo) R. 
ni-nas-t'is (nani, na, najf, neii, 
nah) O. naoos-t'ees (naoo, na- 
oo, njo, naoo, naooh) 

2. to hove one's shoes on. 
kee\ in the shoes, is prepound- 
ed to the following verb. 

5-P (N). se-*eez (sini, si, jiz, sii, 


t'ish, t'eesh, t'eezh, fish, t'eesh, 

to streak with charcoal. 

1. to black-streak it with char- 

F. deesh-t'ish (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dobh) (bidfdoo-) I. yish- 


t'eesh (ni, yi, ji, yii / ghoh) (bf- 
di-) P. she*teezh (shini, yizh, 
jizh, shii, shoo) (bi'dish-) R. 
nash-t'ish (nam, nei, riji, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. ghosh-t eesh 
(ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi*- 
t'oh, t*oh, t'oh, t'oh, t'oh. 

1 . to shoot it with an arrow. 

F. deesh-t'oh (diit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiish- 
t'oh (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bfdiil-) S. set-t'oh (sinit, yis, 
jis, siil, soot) (bi'dis-) R. neish- 
t'oh (neiit, nayiit, njiit, neiil, na- 
oot) (nabi'dil-) O. ghoosh-t'oh 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

2. to be shooting it with arrows 
(one after another). 

C-l. ymfsh-t'ooh (yinit, yot, jot, 
yi'niil, yfnot) (bi'dol-) 

3. to smoke it (cigaret, etc.). 
F. ndeesh-t'oh (ndfii, neidoot, 
nfzhdoot, ndii I, ndoot) (nabidi'- 
dool-) C-l. ndsh-t'oh (nanft, ne- 
it, njit, neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) P. 
nfset-t'oh (nfsfnft, nefs, rijis, ni- 
siil, nisoot) (ndbi'dis-) R. ni- 
ndsh-t'oh (ndnit, neit, ndjit, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'dil-) O. ndosh- 
t*oh (ndoot, ndyot, njot, ndool, 
ndoot) (ndbi'dol-) 

4. to smoke (cigaret, etc.). 

F. n deesh-t'oh (rVdfit, n'doot, 
nizh'doot, iVdiil, n'doot) C-l 
nd'dsh-toh (nd'it, naat, n'jit 
nd'iil, nd'ot) P. iVset-t'oh (n'sf- 
nit, na'as, n'jis, n*siil, n'soot) 



R. nf-ndash-t'oh (na'ft, na'at, 

na'jft, na'iil, na'ot) O. na'osh- 

t'oh (na'odt, na'ot, ri'jot, na'ool, 


»H food (tV), t'66d, tV, food, 

to suck. 

1 . to suck or pump it up out. 
F. ha-deesh-fot (dirt, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doof) (bidi'dool-) I. 
haash-t'ood (hanit, ha it, ha jit, 
haiil, haat) (habi'dil-) P. haat- 
food (hafnft, hayift, hajff+, haiil, 
haoot) (bi'dool-) R. ha-nash- 
tV (nanft, neft, rtjit, neiil, nat) 
(nabi'dil-) O. ha-osh-t'ood (66t, 
yot, jot, ool, 00+) (bi'dol-) 

2. to start sucking or pumping 
it along. 

F, dideesh-t'ot (didift, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiil, didoot) 1. dish- 
t'ood (dft, yidit, jidit, diil, dot) 
P. det-t'66d (din ft, yidees, jidees, 
dee!, disoot) R. ndfsh-t'o' (ndft, 
neidit, nfzhdft, ndii!, ndot) O. 
dosh-t'ood (doot, yidot, jidot, 
dool, doot) 

3. to be sucking it along (as 
through a tube). 

Prog, yish-t'ot (yft, yoot, joot, 
yiil, ghof) (bi'dool-) 

4. to suck it; to pump it into it 
(with propounded biih, into it). 
F. deesh-t'ot (dfft, yidoof, j idoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) CI. yish- 
t'o' (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bi*- 
dil-) P. yft-t'66d (yfnft, yiyfft, 
/fit, yiil, ghoor) (bi'dool-) R 
nash-tV (nanft, neft, Ajft, neiil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. gh6sh-t'o 


■— — — — i^i mm ■— — ^— — — ■!■ < ■■■■ ■ i i i 

(ghoot, yot, j6t, ghool, ghoot) 
(bi'dol-). 'asaa* t6 biih yftt'ood, 
I pumped water into the jar. 

5. to suck it os for as (a point); 
to stop sucking or pumping it. 

F. ndeesh-t'ot (ndfft, niidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoot) (nibidi** 
dool-) I. ninish-t'ood (ninft, ni- 
yft, njit, niniil, ninot) (nibi'deel-) 
P. ninft-t'ood (niinft, niinft, nizfv 
nit, niniil, ninoor) (nibi'deel-) R* 
ni-nash-t'o' (nanft, neft, najft, 
neiil, nat) (nabi'dil-) <)• noosh- 
t'ood (noot, niydt, njot, nool, 
noof) (nibi'dol-) 

6. to suck it in. 

F. yah 'adeesh-t'ot ('adfit, 'iidoot 
'azhdoot, 'adiil, 'adoot) fabidi'* 
dool-) I. yah 'iish-t'ood Canit, 
'iit, ajit, 'iil, oar) ('abi'dil-) P. 
yah 'fft-t*66d ('ffnft, 'ayfft, 'ajfft, 
Mil, oot) (abi'dool-) R. yah 'a- 
nash-t'o' (nanit, neft, fijft, neiil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. yah 'oosh- 
t'ood Coot, 'ayot, 'ajot, ool, oor) 

7. to suck, suckle or nurse; (re- 
fers to the baby's action only). 
F. 'adeesh-t'ot ('adfit, 'adoot, a- 
zhdoot, 'adiil, 'adoot) C-l. *ash- 
tV Cft, 'ok, 'ajit, 'iil, *ot) P. 'fit- 
food ('ifnit, 'fit, 'ajfft, 'iil, 'oot) 
R. na'ash-to' (na'ft, na'at, n'jft, 
na'iil, na'ot) O. osh-tV Coot, 
'6t, 'ajot, 'ool, 'oot) 

8. to suckle or nurse it (refer- 
ring to the action of the mother). 
F. bi'diyeesh-t'ar (bi'diyfft, yi'di- 
yoot, bizh'diyoot, brdiyiil, bi'di- 



yoot) C-I. buish-tV (biiiyR, 
yi*iit, bi'jiit, bi'iyiil, bPiyot) P. 
bi'iyiit-t'ood (bi'iyinit, yuyiit 
bi'jiynt, bi'iyiil, bi'iyoot) R. bi- 
na'iish-tV (bina'iyft, yina'iit, bi- 
na'jiit, bina'iyiil, bina'iyoot) O 
bi'iyosh-t V (bi'iyoot, yi'iyot, bi'- 
jiy6t, bi'iyiil, bi'iyoot) 

The above verb can be render- 
ed intransitive by altering pre- 
fixed objective bi-, to indefinite 
"i-. Thus, Ydiyeesht'ot, I'll 
suckle or nurse. 

9. to stop suckling; to wean 
(refers to the act of the boby in 
discontinuing to suckle). 
F. Mdidoot'ot I. 'idit'ood P. 'idu- 
t'ood R. 'inidit V O. 'idot ood 

To wean is thought of as an act 
of the baby, rather than the mo- 
ther; thus, only the third person 
forms are given. 

10. to wipe it (with a rag). 
F. deesh-t'ot (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
t'ood (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
P. yi-t*66d (yini, yiyif, jn, yii, 
ghooh) (bi'doo-) R. nash-tV 
(nanf, n6f, njf, neii, nah) (nabP- 
di-) O. ghosh-t'ood (ghoo, yo, 
jo, ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 

11. to get skinned (as one's 

F. tsiih doot'ot P. tsiih yft ood 
R. tsiih natV O. tsiih ghot'ood 

12. to become tattered. 
F. rididoot'ot I. ndit ood P. ndif- 
t ood R. ninadftV O. ndot'ood 
Too, merely; just, t'66 adishnf, 


I'm merely (just) saying it (i.e. I 

do not mean it). 

t'66 'ahayoi, much; many; a lot. 

shibeeso t'66 'ahayoi, I have a 

lot of money. 

t*66 'ahayoidi, many times. t'66 

'ahayoidi ndiitts'in, I hit him a 

lot of times. 

t'66 'atseed, temporary. 

t'66 baa hasti', risky; dangerous. 

tse naaniigo dinee'anfgff t'oc 

baa hasti \ the leaning rock is 

dangerous. *eii dine bits'iinf 

t'66 baa hasti'go naagha, it is 

risky for that skinny man to walk 


t'66 baa'ih, filthy; no good; ugly. 

t'66 biyo, rather; somewhat; kind 

of. t*66 bfyo niyol, it is rather 

windy, t'66 bfyo neesk'ah, he is 

kind of fat. 

t'66 bik'ijigoo/ giving lip service; 

assenting just because others 

did, but without serious intent 

ions, t'66 bik'ijigoo adazhdn 

niid, they added their assenl 

(without intending to keep then 


r'66 dzolniigoo, aimlessly, t'oc 

dzolnfigoo 'adzfftdon rtt'gf bit 

'adetdpgh, I fired aimlessly and 

hit him. 

too konighdniji*, for a little 

while, t'66 konfghanfji' atah 

hootaal, I sang in the chorus for 

a little while. 

Too nahodi'naahgo, every once 

in a while, t'66 nahodi'naahgo 



nind'dsht'oh, I smoke every once 

in a while. 

t'66 nichx$*i, filthy; ugly; no 


tidddlndanii, casualties. 

tih, tih, ti\ tih # tih, to spread. 

1 . to coyer if- (with o cloth or 

F. *bik'i-deesh-tih (dii+, idoot, 
zhdoot, diil, doo+) Cdool-) I. 
bik esh-tih (bik'init, yik'fft, bik^' 
ji+, bik'fil, bik'iot) (bik'e el-) P 
bik'fset-tf (bik'fsintt, yik'fis, bi- 
k'fjis, bik'isiil, bik'isool) (bik'e'- 
es-) R. bik'i-ndsh-tih (nanit, ne- 
\t, njit, neiil, na+) (na'al-) O. bi- 
k'i-osh-tih (66+, 6+, jot, ool, oot) 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
tih, tih, tih, — tih, to age. 

1. to become, be # old; worn; 
decrepit (a person or thing). 

F. ha-deesh-tih (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. haash-tih (hani, 
haa, haji, haii, haoh) P. hasis- 
tih (hasini, haas, hajis, hasii, ha- 
soo) O. haoosh-tih (haoo, haoo, 
hajo, haoo, haooh) dii 'eetsoh 
haastih, this coat is old and worn 

2. to start to age; to be getting 

P, ha-shi-'niitih (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 


tih, tiih, ti\ tih, tiih, to break. 

1. to break it in two (o slender 
stiff object, as a stick, bone, etc) 
F. k'f-deesh-tih (dii, idoo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. k'fnfsh- 
tffh (nf, f, jf, nil, noh) (bi'dee-) 


P. k'i-ni-ti* (ini, ini, zhni, nii r 
noo) (bi'dee-) R. k'i-nash-tih. 
(ndni, nei, riji, neii, ndh) (ndbf- 
di-) O. ki-osh-tfih (66, yo, jo, 
oo, ooh) (bi'do-) 

2. to break it up (as a box). 
F. nihideesh-tih (nihidii, niidiyoo 
nizhdiyoo, nihidii, nihidooh) (ni- 
bi'diyoo-) I. nihish-tiih (nihi, 
niyii, njii, nihi i, nihoh) (nibi'dii-) 
P. nihi-ti' (nihini, niyiiz, njiiz, 
nihii, nihisoo) (nibi'diis-) R. ni- 
nd-hdsh-tih (hi, yii, jii, hi i, hoh) 
(bi'dii-) O. nihosh-tn'h (nihoo, 
niiyo, nijiyo, nihoo, nihooh) (ni- 
tih, ti, ti\tih, ti\ to talk. 

1. to talk; to speak. 

F. ya-deesh-tih (diit, doo+, zh- 
doo+, diil, doot) C-l. ydsh-tf (yd- 
n\\, yd+, yd jit, yeiil, yat) *Prog. 
yaash-tih (yddt, yddt, ydjoo+, ya- 
iil, yddt) P. yadi-rP (yeinft, ydd+ / 
ydjiM', yeiil, ydoot) R. ya-ndsh- 
tih (ndnft, ndt, hjf+, neiil, not) 
O. ya-oosh-tr (oot, oot, jot, ool, 

*The progressive is used when 
one is talking while moving a- 

bilagaanaa bizaad bee yashtf, 
I am talking English, bilagaa- 
naa bichT ydshti', I am talking 
to a White man. yishdatgo 
yddshtih, I am walking along 

2. to lisp. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -tsoo* bee, tongue 



with, to the forms given in no. 1 . 
Thus, sitsoo 1 bee ydshtf, I am 
lisping, I lisp. 

3. to not talk clearly; to garble 
one's speech. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding doo hats'ii ( — da), 
not clearly, to the forms given in 
no. 1. Thus, doo hats' f i yashti* 
da, I do not talk clearly. 

4* to be sarcastic; to use harsh 
and abusive words. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bik'e'diniihgo, 

there being soreness on account 
of it, to the forms given under 
no. 1. Thus, bikVdiniihgo 
yashti*, I am sarcastic; I speak 
using harsh words. 

5. to be hesitant in speech. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding doo hah ( — da), 
not quick, to the forms of no. 1 . 
Thus, doo hah yashti' da, I am 
hesitant in speech. 
Hit, tiih, tiid (ti'), tiih, tiih, to 

1 . to hesitate; to become hesi- 

F. deesh-tii+ (du, doo, jidoo, dii, 

dooh) I. yish-tiih (ni, yi, ji, yii, 

ghoh) P. yi-tiid (yinf, yi, jf, yii, 

ghoo) S-P (N) sis-ti' (sfni, yis, 

jis, sii, soo) R. nash-tiih (nani, 

no, njf, neii, nah) O. ghosh-tiih 

(ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

naaki yaal bfideeshkit nisin 

nt'^f t'66 bichY yftiid, I want- 


ed to ask him for a quarter, but 
I hesitated. 

2. to be careful; respectful to- 
ward it (as with reference to a 
fragile or delicate object, a reli- 
gious ceremony, etc.). 

N. (S-P) *baa sis-ti* (sinf, yis, jis, 
sii, soo) (Impersonal: baa hastf) 

t'aadoo baa sfniti'i, don't be a- 
fraid of it (don't hesitate to han- 
dle it)! 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

3. to be reticent, backward, 
shy, or overawed with respect 
toward him (as when one might 
suffer stage-fright before the 
president, etc.). 

N. (S-P) *bfka sfs-tP (sinf, yis, jis 
sii, soo) 

*bf- becomes yf- in 3o. 
tiin, a stem used to form several 
neuter verbs having to do with a 
track or trail; it is translated as 
a noun, for lack of a correspond- 
ing form in English, 
'atiin, track; trail, path, road; 
'aheebitiin, his trail in a circle; 
'ahibidiitiin, their convergent 
trails; 'atnahabitiin, their cross 
trails; 'afts'abftiin, their diver- 
gent trails; 'anabitiin, his trail 
back; bitiin, his trail; ch'fbitiin, 
his trail out (horizontally); habi- 
tiin, his trail up; hadabitiin, his 
trail down; nabiztiin, his tracks 
or trail about; yah 'abitiin, his 
trail in; yoo 'abitiin, his trail a- 



III*, t|ih (tin), t$, tiih, tf|t, to han- 
dle a slender stiff object, as a 
pole, dry branch, stick, rod, cig- 
aret, etc.). For the derivational 
prefixes relating to "to handle, 
see the stem adt. 

1. fro understand, or compre- 
hend it (with the mind). 
F. bik'idrdeesh-tii* (bik'idfdii, 
yik'idfdoo, bik'idizh'doo, bik'i- 
di'dii, bik'idi'dooh) (bik'idi'doo-) 
I. bik'i'diish-tiih (bikVdii, yikY- 
dii, bik*izh*dii # bik'fdoh) (bik'i- 
•dii-) P. bik'i'dii-tq (bikTdini, 
yikTdii, bik'izh'dii, bik'Pdii, bi- 
k'i'doo) (bikYdii-) R. bik'in'- 
diish-t[[h (bik'iri'dii, yik'irVdii, 
bik'infzh'dii, bik'iri'dii, bik'irV- 
dooh) (bik'iri'dii-) O. bikY- 
doosh-t[[h (bik'idoo, yikYdoo, 
bik'izh'doo, bikYdoo, bikT- 
dooh) (bikYdoo-) 

2. to start to rain. 

F, nikihodoo+t[fl I. nikihottiih 
P. nikihonf+tq R. nikinahattf[h 
O. nikihottqq*. shee nikihonft- 
tq, it started to rain on me r 

3. to rain (about). 

F. nahodooft|[t C-l, naha+tin P. 
nahooftq R, ninaha+t[[h O. na- 
ho+tqq (or -tfi« 

4. to be raining along (refer- 
ring to a rainstorm as moving 
progressively along). 

Prog. hooJtiH, aadff hoottii* 
there comes the rain. 

5. to stop raining (refers to the 
storm as moving away out of 


F. yoo* *ahodoott(i+ I. yoo* 'ahaJv 
t[ih P, yoo' 'ahoo+tq R„ yoo' a- 
ndha+t[[h O. yoo* ahottqq' 

In Navaho rain is thought of as 
a storm which progresses, arrives 
and then stops by virtue of the 
fact that it passes on into the 

6. to hail; to rain hailstones. 
rilo (or nflo), hail, is propound- 
ed to the following forms. 

F. ndoott[[t C-l, naa+tin P. 
naattq R. ninatt[[h O. naoftqq* 

7. to open it (a door). 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding 'qq, open, to the 
following verbs: 

F. dideesh-tip (didii, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dinish- 
tjjh (dini, yidee, jidee, dinii, di- 
noh) P. dini-tq (dfinf, yidini, ji- 
dim, dinii, dinoo) R. ridish-t[fh 
(ridi, neidi, nfzhdf, hdii, ridoh) 
O. dosh-tfft (doo, yido, jido, doo, 

8. to pull it (as a nail). 

See 'aa+ for the conjugation of 
this verb. It is herewith given in 
the 1st person singular. 
F. hadeeshtiit I. haashtijh P. 
haata R. hanashtiih O. haosh- 

\\\\, tjjh, tji*, *1*\ *!, tqq', to gal 

1. to gallop; arrive galloping. 
F. din6olt[i+ I. drnfltjih Prog. 
nooltfft P. neettqq* R. ridfnflt[ 
O. dinfltift' 

2. to gallop about. 



F. ndinooltiit Prog* naandnool- 
t[H P. naneestqq' R. ninaniHj 

0. nanoltqq' 
3* to go on horseback (at a 


This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t[[ -it, horse with 
one, to the forms given under no. 

1. Thus, ■'♦a' shit dinooltUt, I'll 
go on horseback. \\\ nit noolt[[t, 
you are going along at a gallop. 

4. to ride around on horse- 
back (at a gallop). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding k[\ -it, horse with 
(one), to the forms given under 
no. 2. Thus, t[[* shit naananool- 
tfft, I am riding about on horse- 

tjjt, Hn f tin, ti[h, tin, to freeze. 

1. to freeze. 

F. deesh-tift (dfi, doo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) L yish-tin (ni, yi, ji, yii, 
ghoh) P. sis-tin (sfni, yis, jis, sii, 
soo) R. nash-t[[h (nam, na, nji, 
neii, nah) O. ghosh-tin (ghoo, 
gho, jo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to freeze it; to cause it to 

F. deesh-ti(t (dfft, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidfdool-) I. yish- 
tin (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghoot) (bP- 
dil-) S-P. set-tin (smit, yis, jis, 
sii I, soot) (bPdis-) R. nash-tiih 
(nanit, neft, njft, neiil, nat) (na- 
bi'dil-) O. ghosh-tin (ghoot, yot, 
jot, ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
tiff, tin, tqq\ — , tqq\ to teach. { 


1. to give him lessons in it; to 
teach it to him. 

F. blnabidineesh-tiit (binabidi- 
nift, yfneidinoot, binabizhdinoot, 
binabidiniil, binabidinoot) (bina- 
bidi"n6ol-) C-l. binabinish-tir 
(binabinit, yfneinit, bfnabizhnit, 
binabiniil, binabinoO (binabidi- 

nil-) P. binabinet-tqq' (binabi- 
ninit, yfneinees, bmabizhnees, 
binabineel, binabinoot) (bmabi- 
di'nees-) O. binabinosh-tqq* 
(bfnabinoot, yfneinot, bfnabizlv 
not, binabinool, binabinool) (bf 

chidi neitbqqs dooleet biniigh^ 
bfnabinishtin, I am teaching him 
(so that he'll) (to) drive a car. 

2. to teach it (giving several 
lessons in it). 

C-l. bi'na'nish-tin (bfna'ni't, yina- 
'nit, binazh'nit, bfna'nlil, bfna'- 
not) bilagaanaa bizaad bina'- 
nishtin dooleet, I'll teach English 

3. to teach it to him. 
G-L bmanish-tin (bfnanft, yfnei- 
nit, bmazhnit, bfnaniil, bmanot) 
(bfnabidr'nil-). bilagaanaa bi- 
zaad bmanishtin, I'll teach him 

4. to teach. 
C-l. na*nish-tin (na'nf, na'ni, na- 
zh'ni, na'nii, na'noh) 'olta'di 
na'nishtin, I teach at school. 

5. to coach him; to give him 

F. ndineesh-tijt (ndmn, neidfn6o, 
nizhdfnoo, ndmfi, ndfnooh) (na- 
bidf'noo-) C-l. nanish-tin (nanf 



neini / nazhni, nanii, nanoh) (na 
bidi'ni-) P. nane-tqq' (nanini, 
neineez, nazhneez, nanee, na- 
nooh) (nabidi'nees-) R. nin6- 
n(sh-tiih, (ninanf, nineini, nina- 
zhni, ninanii, ninanoh) (ninabi* 
di'ni-) O. nanosh-tqq' (nanoo, 
neino, nazhno, nanoo, nanooh) 

ba'olta'f nihada'atchinf neini- 
tin, the teacher teaches our chil- 

6. to teach; to coach; to give 

F, n'dfneesh-tjjt (n'dfnff, n'dfnoo, 
nizh'dfnoo, n'dmii, n'dfnooh) C- 
I. na'nish-tin (na'ni, na'ni, nazh- 
'ni, na'nii, na'noh) P. na'ne-tqq' 
(na'nfni, na'neez, nazh'neez, 
na'nee, na'nooh) R. nina'ash- 
t[[h (nina'f, nina'a, nina'ji, nina- 
*ii, nina*6h) O. na'nosh-tqq' 
(na'noo, na*n6, nazh'no, na'noo, 
tit, teet, reel, til, teet, to slide. 

1. to slide about; to skate* 

F. ndeesh-tit (ndn, ndoo, nizh- 
doo, ndii, ndooh) C-l. naash- 
teet (nani, naa, nji, neii, naah) 
S-P. nise-teel (nisini, noaz, njiz, 
nisii. nisoo) R. ni-nash-tit (nanf, 
no, najf, neii, nah) O. na-osh- 
teet (66, 6, jo, oo, ooh) 

2. to perspire (lit. water slides 
out on one). 

This meaning Is rendered by 

propounding to -qqh, water on 
(one), to the verbs given below. 
It is altered for person by chang- 


ing the pronoun prefix on -qqh. 
F. hadootit C-K haateet P. h6q- 
teel R. hanatit O. haooteet 

to shqqh haateel, I sweat (or 
tin, ice. 

tin bee naajaahi, ice tongs. 
rinilei, gila monster. 
tish, teesh, teezh, tish, teesh, the 
dual stem of to lie down. V. teet, 
ttah, ttah, ttah, ttah, ttah, to a- 
noint; smear with grease. 

1. to anoint him; to smear a 
greasy substance (as salve) on a 

F. deesh-ttah (dift, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidfdool-) I. yish- 
ttah (nit, yit 7 jit, yiil, ghot) (bf- 
dil-) P. set-ttah (simt, yis, jis, 
siil, soot) (bi'dis-) R. nash-ttah 
(nanit, neft, rijit, neiil, nat) (na- 
bfdil-) O. ghosh-ttah (ghoot, 
yot, jot,ghool, ghoot) (bi'dol-) 
ttah, salve; grease. 
rt'ah, tt'ah, tt*ah, tt'ah, tt'ah, to 
be left handed. 

1. to be left handed. 

N. nish-tt'ah (ni, ni, jini, nii, 

2. to be handicapped, held 
back, or delayed. 

F. dfneesh-tt'ah (dinii, dinoo, ji- 
dfnoo, dfnfi, dmooh) *(hodinoo-) 
N. na-nish-tt'ah (ni, ni, zhni, nii, 
noh) (nahoni-0 P. ne- tt'ah (nf- 
m, neez, jineez, nee, noo) (ho- 
neez-) R. na-niish-tt'ah (nii, nii, 
zhnii, nii, nooh) O. nosh-tt'ah 
(n66. no, jino, noo, nooh) (hon6-) 



*qwee* baa nanisht+*ahgo binii- 
naa doo naashnish da, I do not 
work because I am handicapped 
by a baby. 

*The parenthetic forms have 
ho-, impersonal it, as the subject 
pronoun. Thus, 'atiin ayoogc 
nahonitf'ah, the road is very bad 

3. to be difficult; to be hard. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding -it, with (one), tc 
the neuter verb form nanitt*ah, 
it is difficult. Thus, shit nani- 
tt'ah, it is hard for me; nit nani- 
tt'ah, it is hard for you, etc. 

4, to prevent him; to stand in 
his way; to delay him; to hold 
him back; to keep him from. 

F. bidfneesh-tf ah (bidinitt, yidf- 
noot, bizhdfnoot, bidfnfil, bidf- 
noot) (bididfnool-) I. binish- 
t-Kah (binft, yinit, bizhnit, biniil, 
binot) (bidi'nil-) P. binet-ttah 
{bininft, yinees, bizhnees, biniil 
binoot) (bidi'nees-) R. nabi- 
niish-t-Tah (nabinitf, neiniit, na- 
bizhniii, nabiniil, nabinooT 
(nabidi'niil-) O. binosh-t-Tah 
(binoot, yinot, bizhnot, binool, 
binoot) (bidPnoI-) 

nahaftin shineestt'ah, the rain 
delayed me. 

rf'aajPee*, trousers; bloomers; 

tt'aakai, skirt; dress. 

tree', night. 

ti'ee'go, at night. 

tt'eedqq*, last night. 


ttee*, tt'eeh, ttdh, ri'&h, tTeet, 

to run at a trot (a person only). 

1. to be trotting along. 

Prog, yish-tf'eet (yil, yil, jool, 
yiil, ghot) 

2. to hove started on one's 
way; to be on one's way; to be 
going to go (at a trot). 

S-P. desh-tt'ah (dmil, dees, ji~ 
dees, deel, disoot) haagooshq' 
dini'lt+'ah, where are you trotting 

3. to go at a trot; arrive trot- 

F. deesh-t+'eei (dffl, dool, jidool, 
diil, doot) I. nish-t+'eeh (nil, yil, 
jil, niil, not) P. nish-tt ah (yfnfl, 
yfl, jfl, niil, noot) R. nash-t+'eeh 
(nanN, nal, njil, neiil, nat) O. 
ghosh-tt'eet (gh66l, ghol, jot 
ghool, ghoot) 

tt'eestsooz, breech cloth; kotex. 
tt'ehonaa'ei, moon bearer; moon 
(lit. the one carried at night). 
tf'e'iigdhi, evening primrose. 
rt'e'iitniT, midnight. 
rt'ezhii, sweat bee. 
ri'id, flatulent expulsion. 
rt'iish, snake. 
rt'iish 'aninigii, rattle snake. 

n it, tt'iid, triid, trv, tnid, to 

throw (plural separable objects). 
1. to throw them away (plural 
separable objects). 

F. yoo 'ahideesh-trit Cahidfft, 
'iidiyoof, 'ahizhdiyoot, 'ahiidiil, 
'ahiidoot) ('abidi yool-) I. yoo' 
'ahish-tfiid Cahft, *ayiit, ajiit, 
'ahiil, 'ahoO Cabfdiil-) P. yoo* 



'ohet-tl*Hd Cahfnit, 'ayiis, 'ajiis 
aheel, 'ahisoot) ('abi'diis-) R. 
yoo' 'anahash-ttT (anahit, 'a- 
nayiil, anajirt, 'anahiil, 'ana- 
hoi') ('anabi'diil-) 0. yoo' *a- 
hosh-ri'iid Cahoot, 'iiyot, ajiyot, 
ahool, 'ahoot) (abi'diyol-) 

2. to be flatulent; to pass wind 
F. 'adeesh-tftf (*adif, 'adoo, 'a- 
zhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) I, *ash- 
t+'Md fi/'a, *aji, 'ii, 'oh) P. 'ase- 
M nd ( asini, az, ajiz, asii, a- 
soo) R. na'ash-t+T (na'i, naa, 
iVjf, na'ii, na'oh) O. osh-ti*iid 
( oo, o, ajo, oo, ooh) 
rt'is, tl'is, tt'is (tHz), tils, tt'is, 
to harden or stiffen. 

1. to become hard or stiff (the 
first form refers to an object, the 
parenthetic form to an area or 

F. doott'is (hodoot+'is) I. yitt'is 
(hatris) P. yftfis (hoott'is) N. 
nitt'iz (hott'iz) R. nati'is (naha- 
rt'is) O, ghott'is (hott'is) 

2. to harden or stiffen it; to 
make it become hard or stiff. 

F. dees-tf is (dfit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, dool) (bidi'dool-) I. yis- 
rt'is (nil, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bP- 
dil-) P. set-tt'is (sinft, yis, jis, 
siil, soot) (bPdis-) R. nas-tfis 
(nanft, neit, njR, neiil, nat) (na- 
bPdil-) O. ghos-t+'is (ghoot, yo+, 
jot, ghool, ghoot) (bPdol-) 
tfish, tl'nsh, tt'iizh (tHzh), 
tfish, rtiish. 

1. to soak it; to dampen it; to 
m^ke it wet. 


F. didfneesh-t+'ish (didinfit, yidi- 
dfnoot, jididmoot, didfniil, did*- 
noot) (bididPnool-) I. diniish 
ft* fish (diniii, yidiniit, jidiniit, di- 
niii, dinoot) (bidPniil-) P. di- 
niit-tl'iizh (dininit, yidiniit, jidi 
nii+, diniii, dinoot) (bidPniil-) 
R. ni-nadiniish-tP ish (nddiniit, 
neidiniit, nazhdiniit, nadiniil, 
nadinoot) (nabidi'niil-) O. di- 
noosh-tt'ifsh (dinoot, yidinoot, ji- 
dinoot, dinooi, dinoot) (bidP- 

2. to be soaking wet. 

NL diniish-t-Piizh (dinini, dinii, 
jidinii, dinii, dinooh) 

3. to wriggle or writhe (snake) 
F. dfnoolt'Tish Prog, nooltt'ish 
P. dineeshtfiizh R. ndfnfltt'iish 
O. dinoltt'iish 

4. to be zigzag. 

N. nooltt'iizh (honooltt'iizh re- 
fers to space, place or area). 

5. to become blue. 

F. didoott'ish I. diitt'fish P. dii- 
tf'iizh R. ndiitfish O. dootfifsh 

6. to be blue. 

N. dinish-t+'izh (dini, doo, jidoo, 
dinii, dinoh) (hodoo- refers to a- 
rea, space, place) 

7. to blue it; to dye it -blue. 

F. dideesh-tl'ish (didfit, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiil, didoot) (bidi 1 - 
dool-) I. diish-t+'iish (dii+, vidiit, 
jidiit, diil, doo+) (bi'diil-j P 
diit-tfiizh (dinit, yidiit, jidii*. 
diil # doo-f) (bi'diil-) R. ndiish- 
M'ish (ndiil, neidiit, nfzhdiif, n- 
diil, ndooi) (nabrdiii-) O 



doosh-tl'iish (doot, yidoot, ji- 
dool', dool, doot) (bi'dool-) 

8. to flash (with a bluish light) 
F. dah didoot+'ish I. dah dii- 
t+'ifsh N. dah dootfizh R. dah 
ndiitf'ish O. dah doott'fish 
tt'izi, goat. 

tf'izi da'atchini, wild goat(s); 
mountain goat(s). 
tt'izi'ili, angora goat. 
rt'izi chQoh, billy goat. 
tt'izikq', billy goat. 
tt'izi yazhi, kid. 

rt*|i#, tt'in, tt'in, tfiih, H*in, to 
pile (plural objects as rocks). 

1. to start to pile them along 
(as the act of starting to pile 
rocks along in a line in making 
a rock fence). 

F. dideesh-t+'iR (didii, yididoo, 
jididoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
H-'in (df, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) P. 
de-t-Tin (dim, yideez, jideez, 
dee, disoo) R. rtdFsh-tf [[h (ndi, 
neidi, nfzhdf, ridii, ndoh) O. 
dosh-t-Tin (doo, yido, jido, doo, 

2. to be piling them along. 

Prog. yish-tt'tR (yf, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bfdoo-) 

3. to pile them. 

F. deesh-tfiit (dii, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yish- 
tf'in (ni, yr, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
S-P. se-tf'in (sinf, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) 
(bi'dis-) R. nash-t+'uh (nam, 
nef, njf, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. 
ghosh-tt'in (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bPdo-) 


4. to pile them as far as a 
point; to stop or finish piling 

F. ndeesh-t+'iit (ndfi, niidoo, ni- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (nibidi 1 - 
doo-) I. ninish-tt'in (ninf, niyi, 
njf, ninii, ninoh) (nibi'dee-) P. 
nini-t-Tin (nimf, niinf, nizhnf, ni- 
nii, ninoo) (nibi'dee-) R. ni- 
nash-t-Tfih (nam, nef, najf, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. noosh-t-Tir 
(noo, niyo, njo, noo, nooh) (ni- 

5. to sling; to throw (into 

F. 'azdeesh-t+ '[it (azdif, azdoo, 
'izhdoo, 'azdii, azdooh) I. a- 
dzish-ti'in ('adzi, *adzi, *iiji, 'a- 
dzii, 'adzoh) P. *adzfi-trin ('a- 

zuni, adzn, iijii, adzn, a- 
dzoo) R. andzish-t+*iih (andzf, 
'andzf, 'aneidzi, 'ahdzii, 'an- 
dzoh) O. 'adzosh-t+'in Cadzoo 
*adzo, *iijo, 'adzoo, 'adzooh) 

tse bee 'adzfitt'in, I slung a 
rock (into space). 
ft'oh, grass; hay. 
tl'ohazihii, mormon tea. 
tfoh bee naaljooti, pitch fork; 
hay fork. 

tf'oh bee yilzhehi, scythe; mower 
tf'ohchin, onion. 
rf'ohchini, Ramah, N. M. 
tfoh naadq q\ wheat. 
tfoh naadqq' biya', cinch bug. 
tt'oh nastasi, grama grass. 
tt'oh yishbizh, burlap; gunny- 
t»'oh waa'i, alfalfa. 



tf'66'-, outdoors; outside. tToo'- 
di naagha, he is walking about 
(at) outdoors, tt'ee'go tt'oo'di 
nishteeh teh, I usually sleep out- 
side, ti'oo'goo ch'fnfya, I went 
(toward) outdoors. 
tf'odt, ft 66h (tt'o), tt'ooh, tToot, 
to tie; weave. 

1. to start weaving it. 

F. ha-deesh-tt'oot (dff, idoo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. 
haash-tt'ooh (hani, hai, haji, 
haii / haah) (habi'di-) P. haa- 
tfo (hafnf, hayff, hajff, hair, ha- 
oo) (habi'doo-) R. ha-nash- 
t+'ooh (nanf, nef, njf, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. ha-osh-ti'66+ (66, 
yo, jo, oo, ooh) (bi*do-) 

2. to start weaving along. 

F. dideesh-tt'oot (didff, yididoo, 
jididoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
tt'ooh (df, yidi, jidi, dii, doh) P. 
de-t-Tp (dfnf, yideez, jideez, dee, 
disoo) R. ndfsh-t+'ooh (ndf, n£i- 
di, nizhdf, ndii, ndoh) O. dosh- 
tt'oot (doo, yido, jido, doo, dooh) 

3. to be weaving it along. 
Prog, yish-tfoot (yf, yoo, joo, yii, 
ghoh) (bi'doo-) 

4. to weave it. 

F. deesh-t-Toot (dff, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yish- 
tf'6 (ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) 
S-P. se-tt*9 (sfnf, yiz, jiz, sii, soo) 
(bi'dis-) R. nash-tf'ooh (nam 
nef, njf, neii, nah) (nabi'di-) O. 
ghosh-tfodf (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi'do-) 

5. to stop or finish weaving it. 


F. ndeesh-t+'oot (ndff, niidoo, ni- 
zhdoo, ndii, ndooh) (nibidi'doo-) 
I. ninish-tt'ooh (nini, niyf, njf, 
ninii, ninoh) (nibi'dee-) P, nini- 
tl*9 (nfinf, niini, nizhnf, ninii, ni- 
noo) (nibi'dee-) R. ni-naslv 
t+'ooh (nanf, nef, najf, neii, ndh) 
(nabi'di-) O. noosh-ti'oot (noo, 
niyo, njo, noo, nooh) (ni bi'do-) 

6. to weave (intr.). 

F. adeesh-tt'oot Cadff, adoo, a- 
zhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) C-l. *ash- 
ti\5 ('f, 'a, aji, 'ii, oh) P. 'ase- 
t*9 Casfnf, *az, ajiz, 'asii, *asoo) 
R. na ash-tt'ooh (na'f, na a, n'jf, 
na'ii, na oh) O. 'osh-tf'oot ('66, 
*6, 'ajo, 'oo, 'ooh) 

7. to tie them together. 

F. ahf-hideesh-tt oot (hidift, idi- 
/oo+, hizhdiyoot, hidiil, hidoot) 
(bidi'yool-) I. ahehesh-tto (a- 
hfhft, 'ahfyitf, 'ahfjiit, ahfhiil, 
ahfhot) Cahfbi'diil-) P. ahf- 
het-tt'9 (ahfhfnft, 'ahfyiis, ahf- 
jiis, 'ahfheel, 'ahihisoot) (*ahi- 
bi'diis-) R. ahf-nahash-tiooh 
(nahil, nayiit, nijiit, nahiil, 
nahot) (nabi'dlil-) O. 'ahf-hosh- 
ti'ooi (hoot, iyot, jiyot, hool, 
hoot) (bidiV6l-) 

8. to tie it, him, to it. 

F. bfhidiyeesh-tt'oot (bfhidiyift, 
yfyidiyoof, bfhizhdiyoot, bfhidi- 
yiil, bfhidiyoot) (bfbidi'yool-) I. 
bfhesh-t^o (bfhft, yfyiit, bfjiit 
bfhiil, bfhoot) (bfbPdiil-) P. bf-' 
het-tt'p (bfhfnft, yfyiis, bfjiis, bf- 
neel, bfhisoot) (bibi'diis-) R. 
bfnahash-tfooh (bfnahft, yfn^i- 



y\\t, binajiyii+, bindhiil, bindhot) 

(binabi'diil-) O. bihosh-trdot 

(bfhoot, ynyoi, bijiyot, bihool, 

bfhoot) (bfbidi'yol-) shil[[* tsin 

bihett+'g, I tied my horse to the 


trdot, rope; string; cord; twine; 

lariat (bitt'661). 

tf'odfts'osi, cord; string. 

Hit, tfddd, t»ah, tti% ttdad, to 


1. to stop (moving); to holt. 
F. ndeesh-t-Ht (ndnl, ndool, nizh- 
dool, ndiil, ndoot) I. ninish- 
ttdad (ninfl, niil, njfl, niniil, ni- 
not) P. ninish-ttah (nffnfl, niil, 
njil, niniil, ninool) R. ni-ndsh- 
t+i' (ndnfl, ndl, ndjil, n6iil, ndf) 
O. noosh-t+ddd (nool, nool, njol, 
nool, noof) 

2. to stop him; to halt him. 
F. nibideesh-t+it (nibiditf', nii- 
doo+, nibizhdoot, nibidiil, nibi- 
doot) (nibidi'dool-) I. nibinish- 
t+aad (nibinit, niyft, nibijif, nibi- 
niil, nibinol) (nibi'deel-) P, ni- 
binii-tfah (nibifnit, niinit, nibi- 
zhnft, nibiniil, nibinoot) (nibP- 
deel-) R. nfbindsh-tti' (nibind- 
nft, ninefl, nibindjft, nineiil, ni- 
ndf) (nindbi'dil-) O. nibosh- 
ttddd (niboot, niyot, nibijot, ni- 
bool, niboot) (nibi'dol-) 

3. to be lighted; to be burning. 
N. dilttf. kg* dilHi\ the fire is 

4. to light it; to set fire to it; to 
make it burn. 

F. dideesh-t+it (didfit, yididoot, 



jididoot, didiil, didoot) I. diish- 
t+ddd (clil+, yidiit, jiditf, diil, doot) 
P. diit-ttah (dinit, yidiit, jidii*, 
diil, doot) R. ndiish-tfi' (ndiil, 
neidiit, nizhdiit, ndiil, ridoot) O. 
doosh-ttddd (doot, yidoot, jidoof, 
dool, dool) ndt'oh dii+ttah, I 
lighted the cigaret. 
With indefinite objective *a- 
the meaning becomes "to turn 
on the lights/' Thus, 'adiiittddd, 
turn on the lights! 
Ilish, ttiish, ttizh, tlish, tiiish, to 
fall (one animate object). 

1 . to fall out; to be born. 
F. hadootlish I. haat-Kfsh P 
hddt+izh R. handttish O. ha- 

2. to fall from one's grasp (one 
animate object). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -lak'e, hand (area), 
to the forms of no. I , Thus, shi- 
Idk'e hddttizh, it fell from my 
grasp (or cut of my hand;) nf- 
Idk'e hddtffzh, it fell from your 
grasp, etc, 

3. to fall out one after another 
in succession; to be born one af- 
ter another. 

F. hahidoottish I. hahatlfish P. 
hahaazht+izh R. handhdttish 
0. hahotifish. dibe ydzhi k ad 
hahatfffsh, the lambs are drop- 
ping (being bom) now. 

4. to fall out (from a window, 
car, etc.). 

F. ch'f-deesh-ttish (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) i. ch'fnfsh-tfifsh 


(chmf, ch'6, ch'ijf, ch'fnii, ch'i- 
noh) P. ch'f-ni-ttizh (inf, ni, zh- 
nf, nii, nooh) R. ch*f-nash-tiish 
(nani, na, nji, neii, nah) O. 
ch'oosh-t+ffsh (ch'66, ch'oo, ch'f- 
jo, ch'oo, ch'ooh) 

5. to start falling along. 

F. dideesh-ttish (didff, didoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. dish- 
t+iish (df, di, jidi, dii, doh) P. 
de-ttizh (dim, deezh, jideezh, 
dee, dishoo) R, hdish-t+ish (ndf, 
ridi, nfzhdf, ndii, ndoh) O. dosh- 
t+iish (doo, do, jido, doo, dooh) 

6. to be falling along. 

Prog, yish-t+ish (yf, yi, joo, yii, 

7. to fall into the water. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding taah, into water, or 
to biih, water into it, to the verbs 
that follow: 

F. deesh-tlish (dff, doo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) I. yish-ttffsh (ni, yi, 
ji, yii, ghoh) P. yf-ttizh (yfnf, yf, 
jff, yii, ghoo) R. nash-tlish (na- 
nf, na, rijf, neii, nah) O. ghosh- 
tfffsh (ghoo, gho, jo, ghoo, 

8. to fall into worry; to be- 
come deeply perturbed. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding yfni biih, into worry 
(mind), to the forms of the verb 
given under no. 7. Thus, yfnf 
biih yftfizh, I became deeply per- 
turbed; fell into worry. The 
'plural (where several become 


worried simultaneously) is rend- 
ered by use of the stem dah, to 
fall (several or plural objects one 
after another). V. dah. 

9. to fall (into, with propound- 
ed yah). 

F. 'adeesh-Nish ('adff, 'adoo, *a- 
zhdoo, 'adii, 'adooh) I. 'iish- 
t+iish Cani, 'ii, 'aji, 'ii, 'ooh) P* 
ii-tfizh ( nni, ii, ajn, n, ooh} 
R. 'anash-ttish ('ananf, 'ana, 'a- 
nji, aneii, 'anah) O. 'oosh-ttffsh 
Coo, 'oo, 'ajo, 'oo, ooh) 

10. to fall under his or their 
power (one person). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding biyaa, under him 
or them, to the forms given un- 
der no. 9 Thus, biyaa *ift+izh, I 
fell under his power. When the 
objects of the verb are plural, 
and fall simultaneously under 
his power, the stem dah, to fall 
(plural objects falling one after 
another), is used. V. dah. 

11. to fall down. 

F. hada-deesh-ttish (dfi, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. hadaash-tlffsh 
(hadani, hadaa, hadaji, hadeii, 
hadaah) P. hadda-tlizh (hadei 
nf, hadaa, hadajff, hadeii, hada- 
oo) R. hada-nash-tfish (nanf A 
na, najf, neii, nah) O. hada- 
osh-ttifsh (66, oo, jo, oo, ooh) 

12. to rush about; to be rush- 
ed; to be in a frenzied rush. 
Prog, naa-nash-tfish (naa, naa 
njoo, neii, naah) bibee'eldooh 



tiainitaago kin gone' naanaa- 
ttish, he is rushing around in the 
house looking for his gun. 
ttoh, tteeh (tteeh), ttee\ ttoh, 
tteeh, to handle mushy matter. 

For the derivational prefixes 
relating to the handling of ob- 
jects, see the stem *aat, 
ttoh, tteeh, ttee\ ttoh, tteeh, to 
be mushy; wet. (V. ttoh above.) 

1 . to become wet. 

F. ndeesh-ttoh (ndifl, ndooi, ni- 
zhdool, ndiil, ridoot) I. nash- 
tteeh (nanN, nal, rijfl, neiil, nat) 
P. nfsis-ttee' (nfsfnfl, nas, njfs, 
nfsiil, nfsoot) R. nf-nash-ttoh 
(nanil, nal, najfl, neiil, nat) O. 
naoosh-tteeh (naool, naool, njol, 
naool, naoot) 

2. to be wet. 

N. dinish-ttee* (dim, di, jidi, di- 
nii, dinoh) 

3. to moisten it; to make it 
wet (lit. to re-wet it). 

F. ndeesh-ttoh (ridift, neidoot, 
nizhdoot, ndiil, ridoot) (nabidi*- 
dool-) I. nash-tteeh (nanft, neft, 
rijit, neiil, nat) (nabi'di!-) P, 
n i set- ttee' (nfsfnft, nefs, njfs, nf- 
■siil, nfsoot) (nabi'dis-) R. nf- 
nash-ttoh (nanft, neft, najft, ne- 
iil, nat) (nabi'di!-) O. naosh- 
tteeh (naoot, nayot, rijot, naool, 
naoot) (nabi'dol-) 

4. to drop it (mushy matter as 
mud, or a tattered and decrepit 
object as an old hat). 

F. ndeesh-ttoh (ndff, neidoo, ni- 
z:hdoc, ndii, ndooh) (nabidi*- 


doo-) I. naash-tteeh (nani, nei, 
nji, neii, naah) (nabi'di-) P. 
naa-ttee' (neini, nayfi, njii, neii, 
naoo) (nabi'doo-) R. ni-nash- 
ttoh (nani, nef, naji, neii, nah) 
(nabi'di-) O. naosh-tteeh (na- 
66, nayo, njo, naoo, naooh) (na- 

ttoot, ttooh, t\66\ ttooh, ttooh, 
to slacken; loosen. 

1 . to slacken it; to loosen it (a 
rope, cord, wire, etc.). 

F. didfneesh-t+oot (didfnfit, yidi- 
dfnoot, dizhdfnoot, didfnfil, di- 
dfnoot) I. diniish-ttooh (diniit, 
yidiniit, jidiniit, diniil, dinoot) 
P. diniit-ttoo* (dininit, yidiniit, 
jidiniit, diniil, dinoot) R. ridi- 
niish-ttooh (ndiniit, neidiniit, ni- 
zhdiniit, ndiniil, ndinoot) O. di- 
noosh-ttooh (dinoot, yidinoot, ji- 
dinoot, dinool, dinoot) 

t'66 'ahayof nyqq'go biniinaa 
siziiz diniitttoo', I loosened my 
belt because I ate so much. 

2. to relax it; slacken it back 
to its original loosened state. 

F. rididfneesh-ttoot (rididfnfft, 
neididfnoot, nfdizhdfnoot, ridi- 
dfnfil, rididfnoot) I. ndiniish- 
rtooh (ndiniit, neidiniit, nfzhdi- 
niit, ndiniil, ndinoot) P. ndiniit- 
ttoo* (ridininit, neidiniit, nizhdi- 
niit, ndiniil, ndinoot) R. nf-nadi- 
niish-ttooh (nadiniit, neidiniit, 
nadiniil, nadinoot) O. ndinoosh* 
ttooh (ndinoot, neidinoot, nfzh- 
dinoot, ridinool, ndinoot) 
to, water (bito'). 



tobeehwiisgoni, Pinedale, N. M. 

to bee naakahi, bucket. 

to biishghadn, wave (on water). 

to dilchxoshi, soda pop. 

todifhii, whiskey. 

todineeshzhee', Kayenta, Ariz. 

to doo niyol 'ooshashigii, erosion 

tog hot, Taos, N. M. 

toghotnii, Taos people. 

tohaachY, Tohatchi, N. M. 

tohaali, Toadlena, N. M. 

to hahadleeh, well; pump. 

to hajiifeehe, Canoncito, N. M. 

to hwiisxini. White Horse Lake, 

N. M. 

to Tthq, water blister. 

to tikani halchini, perfume. 

tonaneesdizi, Tuba City, Ariz. 

tonitts'ili, Crystal, N. M. 

tonteel, ocean; sea; great lake, 

to tichxi'i, wine. 

to tikoni, wine. 

tooh, large body of water. 

tooh nlini, river. 

toohji' nidiigaii, snowy egret. 

toohk'inidiigaii, snowy egret. 

toohji' noofnahii, blue heron. 

toot, took, to\ tooh, to*, to break 

1. to breok in two (a slender 
stiff object, as a stick or bone); 
to fracture; to snap in two. 

F. kTdooltgot I. k'd'eltggh P. 
k'e'eltg R. k'fna'alt^h O. k'f- 

2. to break to pieces; shatter 
(as a wooden box). 

F. nihidooltgpt I. niheltg* P 
niheeste' R. ninahaltpgh O 


toshjeeh, wicker water bottle; 
water jug; wooden barrel; keg. 
tota', Farmington, N. M. 
toti'iish, water snake. 
to yigeed, ditch (for water). 
tozis, water bag; tumbler; bottle. 
tozhaan, mushy; viscous. 
tsaaf, tsaah, ts^# tsaah, tsaat, 
the singular stem of to die. 
neet, ne, no, neeh, neet, the duo- 
plural stem of to die. 

1 . to die. 

This verb uses distinct stems 
for the singular and duoplural. 
The two forms are herewith gi- 
ven consecutively: 
F. dadees-tsaat (dadff, dadoo, 
dazhdoo) dmff-neet (dfnooh 
dfnoo, dfzhnoo) *l. daas-tsaah 
(dani, daa, daji) nii'-ne (noh, 
ni, jini) P. dase-tsq (dasfnf, 
daaz, dajiz) nee'-na (sinoo, 
neez, jineez) R. danatsaah (3rd 
pers.) nanTneeh (3rd pers.) O. 
daoos-tsaal (daoo, daoo, dajo) 
noo'-neet (nooh, noo, jinoo) 

* This form is used with the 
meaning to be sick. 

2. to be dying (to have started 
to die). 

P. shi-'niitsq (ni, bi, ho) nihi- 
'niina (nihi, bi, ho) 

The verb to die is also used in 
such idiomatic senses as: nfnii- 
tsaanfsh, can't you do any better 
than that?! (lit. have you started 
to die?) t'aa kad daaztsq, he 
couldn't make it; he folded up! 
(lit. he just now died) 



tsqqt, tsq, tsqqd, tsqqh, tsqqh, 

to be pregnant. 

1. to become pregnant. 

F. 'idi'nees-tsqqJ; CidPnifl, W- 
nool, 'izhdfnool, *idi*niil jr idf- 
r\6ot) N. yis-tsq (yinfl, yil, jool, 
yiil, ghot) P, Vniis-tsqqd ('in'- 
nil, Yniil, 'izfVniil, Yniil, Ynoo+) 
R. 'ina'niis-tsqqh (MnarVnil, *ina- 
mil, inazn mil, ina mil, ma - 
noo+) O. Ynoos-tsqqh (Ynool, 
Ynool, 'izh'nool, Ynool, Ynoot) 

2. to impregnate her; to make 
her pregnant. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding the postposition -a, 
for (one), to the forms given un- 
der no. 1. Thus, sha MdPnffl- 
tsqql, I will make you pregnant 
(lit. you will become pregnant 
for me); na Yniistsqqd, you 
made me pregnant (I became 
pregnant for you). 
tsah, tsah, tsah (tsa'), tsah, tsah, 
to grasp with the teeth or beak. 

1. to grasp it in the mouth; to 
grasp it with the teeth or beak. 
F. dees-tsah (dif, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yiis- 
tsah (yii, yiyii, jii, ghooh) (bidi'- 
dii-) P. se-tsah (sfnf, yiz, jiz, sii, 
soo) (bi'dis-) R. neis-tsah (neii, 
nayii, rijii, neii, naooh) (nabi*- 
dii-) O. ghos-tsah (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to be holding it clamped in 
the teeth or beak. 

N. yinfs-tsa* (yinf, yo, jo, ymfi, 
yinoh) (bi'do-) 


tsah, awl; needle. 

tsahts'osi, needle. 

tsd'dszi*, yucca. 

tsa'aszi' nteeli, broad leafed 

yucca; yucca latil. 

tsa'aszi'ts'ooz, narrow leafed 

yucca; yucca amole. 

tsask'eh, imprint left by the body 

(as in grass, mud, etc.); bed. 

tsask'eh bikad' dah naazghini* 

gii, mattress. 

tsqhodiniihtsoh, typhoid (lit. big 


tse, rock; stone (bitse'). 

tse bee 'ak'aashi, grindstone; 


tse bitVi, Shiprock Pinnacle, N. 


tsech*izhi, Rough Rock, Ariz. 

tsedaashch'ini, upper millstone; 

mano of the metate. 

rsedaashjee*, lower millstone; 


rsedei (tsede), on one's back; in 

a supine position, tsedei setjjgc 

'ii+haazh, 1 went to sleep Iving on 

my back. 

tse dik'pozh, impure alum. 
tseet, tseeh, tsq, tseeh, tseet, to 


1. to see him, it. 

F. yidees-tseel (yidfft, yiidoot, 
yizhdoot, yidiil, yidoot) (bidi*- 
dool-) I. yiis-tseeh (yitf, yiyiit, 
jilt, yiil, ghoor) (bPdiil-) P. yiil- 
tsq (yintf, yiyitt, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) R. neis-tseeh (neiii, na- 
yitf, rijiif, neiil, naoor) (nabi 1 - 
diil-) O. ghoos-tsdet (ghoot, 



yoot, joot, ghool # ghoot) (bf- 

tsee'e, frying pan. 
fseek'indstanii, ground squirrel. 
tseghddi'nidinii, rock crystal. 
tseghdhoodzdni. Window Rock, 

tsehegod, stump. 
rsehootsooi, Fort Defiance, Ariz. 
tse 'dghozi, flint (rock). 
tse'ddn, rock cave; den; lair. 
tse'ak'iya'ii'dhii, sphinx cater- 

rse 'atndoztVi, Sanostee, N. M. 
tse 'dst'ei, hotcakes; piki or pa- 
per bread. 

rse 'dst'ei doott'izhigii, blue piki. 
tse 'dst'ei tigaaigii, white piki. 
tse'edg'ii, (common) fly. 
tse'£sdaazii, mountain mahog- 

tse 'if'dhi, Standing Rock, N. M. 
tse'naa, across, tse'naa ni*nft- 
kgg 1 , I swam across. 
tse'naa na'nizhoozh, bridge. 
tseyaa, face forward; on one's 
face, tse'yaa *'igo\ I fell over 
face forward (face first, or on my 
rse nit, ax. 

tsenit ydzhi, hatchet. 
tsek'ina'azolii, rock lizard. 
tsek'iz, rock crevice. 
tsekg', raw alum. 
tse lichiP dah 'azkdnf, Red Rock, 

tse tichtV deez dhi, Rock Point, 
tse ndhddzoh, Twin Lakes, N.M. 


tse ndshchii', Hunter's Point, 


tse nidaaz, iron ore. 

tse noofch'dshii, rock wren, or 

canon wren. 

tse sikaad, pavement. 

tsesg', glass; mica; window pane; 


tsesp' naat'oodi, celluloid. 

tsetah dibe, bighorn; mountain 


tset'ees, griddle. 

tsett'eet, stone flint (igniter). 

tsetsoh, boulder. 

tseyaaniichii', Rehoboth, N. M. 

tse ydzhi, pebbles. 

tsezei, gravel. 

tsezhjjh deezlj, Black Rock, N. 


tsezhin (chezhin), lava; malpais. 

tsezhin deez'dhi, St. Johns, Ariz. 

ts'ah, ts'eeh, ts'ee', ts'ah, ts'eeh, 

to eat mushy matter. 

1. to eat it (mushy matter, as 
gravy, jello, mush, etc.). 
F. dees-ts'ah (dnt, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidPdool-) I. yis- 
ts'eeh (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) (bP- 
dil-) P. yft-ts'ee* (yinit, yiynt, 
jfit, yiil, ghoot) (bi'dool-) R. 
nas-ts'ah (nanft, neit, njft, neiil, 
not) (nabPdil-) O. ghos-ts'eeh 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 

ts'ah, sagebrush. 
ts'dni, pinon jay. 
ts'ee*, to be coiled up (as a snake 
rope, etc.). 
N. nahineests'ee* 



ts'ida, really, 'al'qq dine'e ts'f- 

da t*66 'ahayoi hole, there are 

really lots of different races, doo 

ts'fda bidziil da, he is not really 


ts'ih, ts'ih, ts'ih (tsY), ts'ih, ts'ih, 

to pinch it with the nails. 

1. to pinch it with the nails. 

F. dees-ts'ih (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, 
dii, dooh) (bidi'doo-) I. yiis- 
ts'ih (yii, yiyii, jii, yii, ghooh) 
(bi'dii-) P. se-ts'ih (sfni, yis, jis, 
sii, soo) (bi'dis-) R. neis-tsMh 
(neii, nayii, njii, neii, naooh) 
(nabi'dii-) O. ghos-ts'ih (ghoo, 
y6/ )o, ghoo, ghooh) (bfdo-) 

2. to hold it clamped or pinch- 
ed between the nails. 

N- yinis-tsY (ymf, yo, jo, yfnfi, 
yfnoh) (gho- or bi*do-) 

3. to go on tiptoes. 

Prog, ayees-ts'ih Cayfi, ayoo, 
'ajiyoo, *ayii, *ayooh) 

4. to pick on him; to tease or 
tantalize him. 

N. be'e-ts'ih (bc'i, ye'e, bf'ji, bf- 

fi, bPoh) 

ts'ihootso, St. Michaels, Ariz. 

ts i n, gnat. 

tsTii danineezi, mosquito. 

rs'iid, to be nice, or agreeable. 

1. to be nice; agreeable; pleas- 

t oo ts'ifd, it's not bad; it's pretty 
good; it's fair; he's fair (as in 
speaking of the condition of a 
sick person), ei t aa ts'ffd, that 
is ok (as \n comparing, or refer- 


ring to something where there 
was a choice). 

2. to be pretty hard to beat; to 
be "tops." 

N. doo ts'ffd 'anfsh-tee da Cani, 
a, aji, ami, anoh) 

3. to become or be lonely; to 
dislike the place. 

This verb is conjugated for per- 
son by altering the pronominal 
prefix on the postposition -i+, 
with (one). It is herewith given 
for the 1st person sgl. 
F. doo shii hodoots'iid da (I'll be- 
come lonesome) P. doo shi+ 
hoots' i id da (I became lonesome) 
N. doo shil hats'Nd da (I am 

4. to be nice (a place or area). 
hats fid, or t'aa hats'ud, it's a 
nice place. 

5. to feel ill; to not feel well. 
This verb is conjugated for per- 
son by altering the pronoun pre- 
fix on the noun -tah, body. It is 
given herewith for the 1st person 
sgl. N, shitah doo hats'fid da, I 
do not feel well, 

6. to be quick tempered; to be 

N. doo yis-ts'iid da (ni, yi, ji, yii, 

7. to subsist on it. 

N. *bee hodinists'ffd (hodinil, 

hodil, hozhdil, hodiniil, hodino+) 
naadqq' t'eiya yee dahodilts'ffd 
they subsist on corn alone. 
*bee becomes yee in 3o. 
ts'iilzei, trash. 



ts'iiyahghozhii, meadow lark. 
ts'in, bone; skeleton, 
ts'in niheesto/, multiple fracture. 
ts'tft, ts'ilh, H'q? (tsV), ts'iih, 
ts'qq', to hear; listen; sound. 

1. to make a sound; to make 
noise; to be heard (a definite 

F. didoots lit I. yiits'a' P. yiis- 
tsqq' R. ndiitsuh O. doots'qq* 

A continuative imperfective 
diits'a*, it is making a noise; it 
is running (car), is also used. 

2. to make a noise; be heard 
{an indefinite thing). 

F. Vidoots'ii* I. "fitsV P. *iis- 
ts'qq O, 'dots'qq' 

3. to be a noise (which is heard 
over an area). 

F. hodkJootsiR C-l. hodiits'a* 
P. hodiists'qq* R. nahodiits'ifh 
0. hodoots qq* 

4. to start to run; to start (the 
engine of a car). 

F. didoots'tft I. diits'uh *C-I 
diitsV P. diistsqq' R. ndii- 
ts'IIh O. doots'qq* 

* It is running. 

shichidf doo diits*{[h da, my car 
will not start, shichidf diitsV. 
my car is running. 

5. to start it (a car) (lit. make 
it sound), 

F. didees-ts'tft (didift, yididoot 
jididoaf, didiil, didoot) I. diis- 
ts'fih (diit, yidiit, jidiit, diil, doot) 
P. diset-ts'qq' (disfnit, yidiis, ji- 
diis, disiil, disoot) R. ndlis-ts*i[h 
(ndiit, n6idiit, nizhdiit, ndiil, n- 


doot) O. doos-tsqq (doot, yi- 
doot, jidoot, dool, doot) shichidf 
disetts'qq', I started my car. shi- 
chidf doo doosts'qq* 'at'ee da, I 
cannot get my car started. 

6. to hear it; to understand it* 

F. didees-ts'tit (didff, yididoo, ji- 
didoo, didii, didooh) I. diis- 
ts*i{h (dii, yidii, jidii, dii, dooh) 
C-L (N) diis-ts a* (dini, yidii, ji- 
dii, dii, dooh) P. dise-ts*qq* (disi- 
n(, yidiiz, jidiiz, disii, disoo) 
R. ndiis-ts'iih (hdii, neidii, nfzh- 
dii, ndii, ridooh) O. doos-ts'qq' 
(doo, yidoo, jidoo, doo, dooh) 

7. to hear; to be able to hear; 
to understand (a language). 

N. 'adiis-ts'a' Cadini, 'adii, *a- 
zhdii, *adii, 'adooh) 

8. to listen to it. 

F. yidees-ts'{[t (yfdift, yifdocrf. 
yizhdoot, yidiil, yidoot, N. (S-P) 
yinis- (or yfsinfs-) ts'qq* (ymft or 
yfsfnit, yiyifs, jffs, yisfil, yisoot) 
R. nefnis-ts'iih (neinit, nayfit. 
njfit, nemfil, neinoot) O. ghoos- 
ts qq' (ghoot, yoot, joot, ghool, 

9. to listen; to hark. 

F. 'if-dees-ts'iit (dfit, doot, zh- 
doot, dill, doot) N. 'ffsfs-ts qq* 
Cfisfnit, 'lis, 'ajfis, 'nsiil, 'ffsoot) 
R. na'finfs-ts'ijh (na'ifnft, na'iit 
n'jiit, na'finfil, na'imoot) O 
'oos-ts'qq* ('66t, *6ot, ajoot, '6ol, 

10. The words that imitate 



There follows a list of onoma- 
topoetic words, given where pos- 
sible with the nearest English 
equivalent. Thus, don don yii- 
ts'a', bong! bong! is heard (it 
goes bong! bong!), 
bal, a flapping sound, 
biib, sound made by a whistle, or 

by the horn of a car; English 

ch'iizh, a sawing or grinding 

ch'ik'azh, a metallic rubbing 

sound, as that made by rub- 
bing stones together. 
ch'it, popping, cracking, clack 

ing sound as that made by 

breaking a stick, chewing gum 

too energetically, etc. 
ch'izhaazh, a jabbering sound, 

the sound of an undertone of 

many voices. 
cIVog, chewing sound; sound 

made in pulling one's foot out 

of the mud. 
chxaazh, sound made by a big 

stream of falling water, as the 

water from an eave. 
chxosh, a splashing sound, 
diil, a deep rumbling sound, as 

that of thunder, 
dlaad, a ripping sound, and also 

that of a trombone, 
dog, a thumping sound, 
don, a bong ing sound, 
duuh, rumbling sound as that of 

thunder, a distant gun or drum, 
dzid, sound of a "bronx cheer." 
dziid, a roaring sound, as that of 


an airplane, or racing motor. 

gaa, caw! (of a crow). 

geez, a low-pitched squeak. 

ghaz, a scraping sound. 

ghiid, a booming sound. 

ghot, a gurgling sound, as that 
of running water (Taos, N. M. 
is called toghot, gurgling wa- 

gogzh, a crackling or crunching 
sound, as that of chewing. 

jah-jah, a clanking sound. 

jqh, a rattling sound. 

jiizh, a crushing or crunching 
sound, as that of a steamroller 
crushing rocks. 

loozh, the sound made by a 
small stream of falling water / 
as in pouring from a bottle. 

kqqg, a snoring sound. 

k'ai, slopping or sloshing sound, 
as that of water in one's shoes. 

k'azh, a grinding sound. 

k'fz, a high-pitched squeak. 

k'ol, glugging sound made by a 
partly filled bottle when carri- 
ed, or the plunking sound made 
when a stone drops into water. 

k'61, murmuring sound as that 
made by a small brook. 

k W, gurgling sound, as that of 
a person who is being choked; 

or the sound made when one's 

stomach "growls." 

ky, a growling sound, as that 

made by the stomach of a horse 

when it runs; or by one's in- 
mee\ maa! baa! (of a sheep). 



muu, moo! (of a cow). 

shd, like English ssst! (to call 

one's attention), 
shiid, a shushing sound; sh! 
sxooh, a rustling, swishing or 

whirring sound, as that of the 

wind in the trees. 
tt'ish, a slapping sound, 
ttiizh, crashing sound, as that of 

falling timber, 
tiog, a plopping sound, as that 

of falling mud. 
ts'pz, sucking sound as that 

as that made in kissing, 
tsid, chirping sound (tsidii, bird). 
wqq, growling sound, as that of 

a dog. 
wqq', whining, whimpering or 

mewing sound, 
zghpz, swishing sound, as that 

of a whip, 
zhood, a rubbing, or shuffling 

sound, as that made when the 

feet are rubbed on the floor. 
zhiP, hissing sound, as that of a 

zfil, a ringing sound, as that of 

a bell (shijaaghPjf zffl yiits*a\ 

my ear is ringing). 
zqqz, a low-pitched buzz, as the 

sound of a bumble bee. 
zoqz, high-pitched buzzing or 

whining sound, as that made 

by a bee, mosquito, or a rico- 
chet bullet. 

ts'jfl, tsMn, ts'in, ts'ifh, ts'in, to 

strike with the fist. 

1 . to strike him a blow with 
the fist; to hit him (once). 


F. ndidees-ts'u+ (hdidfit, neidi- 
doot, mzhdidoot, ndidiil, ridi- 
doot) I. ndiis-ts'in (ridiit, nei- 
diit, nizhdiit, hdiil, hdoot) P. 
hdiit-ts'in (ndnnit, neidfft, ni'zh- 
dfft, ndiil, ridoot) R. ni-nadiis- 
ts'[[h (nadiit, neidiit, nazhdiit, 
nadiil, nddool) O, ndoos-ts'in 
(hdoot, neidoot, nizhdoot, ridool, 

2. to pommel him with one's 
fists; to beat him up; to hit him 
(with repeated blows). 

F. hdmees-ts'iR (ndfnfit, neidi- 
noot, nizhdinoot, hdfnfil, Mi- 
noot) (nabididi'nool-) C-l. na- 
nis-ts'in (nanit, neinit, nazhnit, 
naniil, nano+) (nabidi'nil-) P. 
nanei-ts'in (naninfl, neinees, 
nazhnees, naneel, nanoot) (nabi- 
dfnees-) R. nf-nanfs-ts'[[h (na- 
nit, neinit, nazhnft, naniil, na- 
not) (nabidi'nil-) O, nanos- 
ts'in (nanoot, n6inot, nazhnot, 
nanool, nanoot) (nabidi'nol-) 

3. to fist-fight with him; to 
box with him 

F. *bi+ na ahi-diznees-ts'([+ (dfz- 
nffl, dfznool, dfzhnool, dfznfil 
dfznoot) I. bit naa-hfznfs-ts'in 
(hfznfl, hfznfl, hfzhnfl, hfzniil, 
hiznot) P. bit na'a-hfznes-ts'ir 
(hiznfnfl, hfznees, hfzhnees, hiz- 
neel, hfznoot) R. bit nina'a-hfz- 
nfs-ts'uh (hfznfl, hfznfl, hfzhnfl. 
hfzniil, hfznot) O. bit na'a-hfz 
nos-ts'in (hfznool, hfznol, hfzh- 
nol, hfznool, hfznoot) 
*bit becomes yit in 3o. 



ts'iini, to be skinny. 

1 . to be skinny. 

N, si-ts*iinf (ni, bi, ha, nihi, nihi) 

2. to be losing weight; to be 
becoming skinny (lit. to have 
started to be skinny). 

P. shi-'niits'iini (ni, bi, ho, nihi, 


ts'iisi, to be small in size. 

1. to be small; to be little. 
N. 'anfs-ts'fisi (anit, 'at, 'ajit, 
'aniil, 'anot) Cahoot-, refers tc 
place or area). 

ts'it, tsiid, ts'id, tsY, ts'iid, to 
fall (a single bulky object, as a 
hat, knife, coin, book, etc.). 

1. to fall (downward). 

F. ndoolts'it I. naalts'ifd P. 
naalts'id R. ninaltsY O. na- 

2. to fall from one's grasp; to 
drop it from one's hand. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -lak'e, hand (area) 
to the following verbs. Thus, 
shflak'e hadoolts'it, I will drop it 
(it will fall out of my hand) nf- 
lak'e haalts'id, you dropped it 
(it fell out of your hand, etc.). 
F. hadoolts'it I. haalts'nd P. 
haalts'id R. hanaltsY O. ha- 

3. to capsize; to overturn (as 
a car, ship, etc.). 

F. nahididoolts'it I. nahideel 
ts'iid P, nahideSlts'id R. nina- 
hideeltsY O. nahidolts'fid 

shichidf shit nahideelts'id, my 
car turned over with me. 


ts 'it, ts'it, tt'il, ts'it, ts'it, to shot 
ter; break. 

1. to break, shatter, crack, 
bloat (as a dish, rock, sheep). 

F. doots'it I. yi its' it S-P. sits' i I 
R. neiits'it O. ghots'it. dibe 
sits'il, the sheep is bloated (and 

2. to break, shatter or crack 

F. dees-ts*it (dfit, yidoot, jidoot, 
diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. yiis- 
ts'it (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, ghoot) 
(bi'diil-) S-P. set-ts'il (sfnit, yis, 
jis, siil, soot) (bi'dis-) R. neis- 
ts'it (neiit, nayiit, njiit, neiil, na- 
oot) (nabi'diil-) O. ghos-ts'it 
(ghoot, yot, jot, ghool, ghoot) 
(bi'dol-) teets'aa* se+ts'il, I 
broke (or cracked) the dish. 

It is also used in such an idiom- 
atic sense as, shidfftts'it, you'll 
blow me up (crack or make me 
bloat up and burst) (with the 
generous amount of food you 
served me). 

rs'oozi, to be long and slender. 
N. anfs-ts'oozf ('dn.t, 'at, f 6jtt, 
'ami I *anot) Cahoot-, refers tc 
place or area). 

tsVasanii, tadpole. 

ts\>t, ts'Qpd, ts'ppd, tsV# ts 9pd, 

to stretch or make taut a slender* 
flexible object as rope or wire. 

1 . to pull it out (a slender flex- 
ible object). 

F. ha-dees-ts'<?t (dift, idoot, zh- 
doot, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
haas-ts'ppd (hanit, hait, ha jit 



haiil, hoot) (habfdii-) P. hddt- 
tsQQd (hainft, hayift, hajif+ / ha- 
iil, hooot) (habi'dool-) R. ha- 
nds-ts'g 1 (nanft, neit, najft, neiil, 
nat) (nabi'dil-) O. ha-os-ts 9<?d 
(66+, yot, jot, ool, oot) (bi'dol-) 

2. to pull them out one after 
the other in succession (plants). 
F„ ha-hidees-ts'gt (hidift, idiyoot, 
hizhdoot, hidiil, hidoot) (bi'di- 
yool-) I. ha-has-ts*9Qd (hft 
yiit, jiit, hiil ; hot) (bi'diyiil-) P. 
ha-hat-ts'gpd (hfnft, yiis, jiis. 
heel, hoot) (bi'diis-) R. ha-na- 
has-tsV (nah ft, nay i it, najiit 
ndhiil, nahot) (nabi'diil-) O. 
ha-hos-ts'pgd (hoot, iyot, jeiyot, 
hool, hoot) (bi'diyol-) 

3. to pull it taut; to stretch it; 
to jerk it (in the iterative). 

F. didees-ts*gt (didfft, yididoot, 
jididoot, didiil, didoot) (bidi'- 
dool-) I. dis-ts\>gd (dft, yidit, ji- 
dit, diil, dot) (bi'dil-) P. det- 
ts'ggd (dm it, yidees, jidees, deel, 
disoot) (bi'dees-) R. hdfs-tsV 
(ndft, neidit, nfzhdft, ridiil, ridot) 
(nabi'dil-) O. dos-ts'ggd (doot, 
yidot, jidot, dool, doot) (bPdol-) 

4. to be pulling it taut; to be 
stretching it. 

Prog* yis-ts'pt (yit, yoot, joot, 
yiil, ghot) (bi'dool-) 

5. to stretch (as a rubber 

F. didoots'gt I. dits'QQd P. deez- 
ts'pod R. ndftsN?* O- dots'ggd 
Prog. yits'gt 


6. to crane one's neck (in or- 
der to see) (lit. to stretch about); 
to peep from behind it (with pro- 
pounded bine'dgf', from behind 
it); to peek through it (with pro- 
pounded binakadff', from 
through it). 

F. ndees-ts'gt (ndii, ndoo, nizh 
doo, ndii, ndooh) C-l. naas- 
ts'gQd (nani, naa, nji, neii, naah) 
P. nise-ts'ggd (nisfni, naaz, njiz, 
nisii, nisoo) R. ni-nas-ts'g* (na- 
ni, najf, neii, nah) O. naoos- 
tsggd (naoo, naoo, njo, naoo, 
naooh) hozh£ yideestseet bi 
niighe naasts'ggd, I am craning 
my neck in order to see well tsin 
bine'd§§* nisets'ggd, I peeked (or 
peeped) from behind the tree. 

7. to lean out (as from a win- 

F. ch'f-dees-ts'gt (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. ch'fnfs-ts'ggd 
(ch'inf, ch'e, ch'fjf, cfVfnii, ch'f- 
noh) P. ch T fni-ts*QQd (ch'ffnf, 
ch'fnf, ch'fzhnf, ch'fnii, clVfnoo) 
R. cIVf-nas-tsV (nanf, na, najf, 
neii, nah) O. ch'oos-ts'ggd 
(ch'66, ch'oo, ch'fjo, ch'oo 

8. to lean in (as in through a 

F. yah 'a-dees-ts*gt (dff, doo, zh- 
doo, dii, dooh) I. yah 'iis-ts'pgd 
ani, ii, aji, n, ooh) P. yah n- 
ts'ggd (*finf # *ff, 'ajff, Mi, 'ooh) R. 
yah 'a-nas-tsV (n6ni, na, najf, 
neii, nah) O. yah *oos-ts ggd Coo, 
oo, a jo, oo, ooh) 



ts'os, ts99s 7 ts99i # ts'os, ts'oos, 

to suck, 

1. to suck it (refers to sucking 
against a surface, as in sucking 
candy, meat, or against the skin) 
to kiss her. 

F. dees-ts'ps (dff, yidoo, jidoo, 
dli, dooh) I. yis-ts'ggs (ni, yi, ji, 
yii, ghoh) P. yf-ts*QQZ (yfni, yi- 
y\\, jff, yii, ghoo) R. nas-ts'<?s 
(nani, nei, njf, neii, nah) O. 
gh6s-ts'g<?s (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 

tsibqqs, (wooden) hoop, 
tsidideeh, purple four-o'clock. 
tsidii, bird. 

tsidii bidaa', bird's beak. 
tsidii bit'oh, bird's nest. 
tsidit, stick dice; dice game. 
tsidifdoohii, screech owl. 
tsidiitbdhi, sparrow. 
tsidiittsooi, Rocky Mt. goldfinch; 
orange crowned warbler. 
tsih, tseeh, tsih, tsih, tseeh, to 
point a slender stiff object. 

1. to point it at him. 

F. bididees-tsih (bididu, yididoo, 
bizhdidoo, bididii, bididooh) (bi- 
didoo-) I. bidiis-tseeh (bidii, yii- 
dii, bizhdii, bidii, bidooh) (bi- 
dii-) P. bidii-tsih (bidini, yiidii, 
bizhdii, bidii, bidoo) (bidii-) R 
bindiis-tsih (biridii, yineidii, bi- 
nfzhdii, biridii, bindooh) (bindii-) 
O. bidoos-tseeh (bidoo, yiidoo, 
bizhdoo, bidoo, bidooh) (bidoo-) 
shibee'eldeeh nidiitsih, I point- 
ed my gun at you. 


2. to set it (as a post) (lit. to 
point a slender object into the 
earth, or into the air). 

F. 'adees-tsih Cadu, 'iidoo, 'azh- 
doo, *adii, 'adooh) Oabidi'doo-) 
I. f iis-tseeh ('ani, 'ii, f aji, 'it, 
ooh) ( abi'di-) P, 'if-tsih Cffnf, 
*ayfi, 'ajif, *ii, *oo) Cabi'doo-) R. 
'a-nas-tslh (nanf, nei, nfji, neii, 
nah) (nabi'di-) O. 'oos-tseeh 
Coo, 'ayo, 'ajo, *oo, *ooh) ('abf- 

3. to be pointing (with a slen- 
der object, as a stick). 

tsih, tsddh, tseii, tsih, tsddh, to 


1. to become dry or withered; 
to dry back up. 

F. ndees-tsih (ndiil, ndool, nfzh- 
dool, ndiil, ridoo-l') I. nas-tsaah 
(nanil, nal, njfl, neiil, nat) P. 
naas-tseii (neinfl, naal, njool, 
neiil, naoot) R. nf-nas-tsih (na- 
nil, nal, najil, neiil, na+) O. na- 
oos-tsaah (naool, naool, rijol 
naool, naoot) 

2. to be dry; to be withered. 
N- yinis-tseii (yfnfl, yft, jit, yfnfil, 
yfnot) (hoot-, refers to a place or 
on area). 

3. to dry it (lit. to dry it back 
since it is assumed that its origi- 
nal condition was dry, not wet). 
F. ndees-tsih (ndnt, neidoot, nf- 
zhdoof, ndiil, ndoof) (nabidi* 
dool-) I. nas-tsaah (nantt, neft, 
njit, neiil, nat) (nabi'di!-) P 
naat-tseii (nefmt, nayrit, njift, 



neiil, ndoot) (ndbi'dool-) R. nf- 
nds-tsih (ndnit, neit, ndjit, n6iil / 
nd+) (nabi'dii-) O. ndos-tsddh 
(ndoot, ndyot, njot, ndool, nd- 
.oot) (ndbi'doU) 
tsihaf, club; boomerang, 
tsiighd yilzhceh bo hooghan, 
barber shop, 
tsiih yit'dod, abrasion. 
tsii'ditddn, spear. 
tsiindztTi, headband. 
tsiishgaii, pygmy nuthatch. 
tsiis'ddl, tsii'ddl, pillow. 
tsiitah'aba', dandruff. 
tsiitt'oot, hair cord (for tying up 
the hair) (bitsiitt'661). 
tsiits'in, skull. 

tsiits'ffdiniih 'azee', aspirin. 
tsiiziz, scalp. 
tsiizizii, Leupp, Ariz. 
^M*, Hf, ts|\ HilK H{\ to sprin- 
kle (rain). 

F. nikidadi'dooftsjit C-l. niki- 
da'di+tsf P. nikida'dff+tsi' R 
nikinindda'dMtsiih O. nikida*- 

tsjit, rapidly; fast; quickly. ts£[* 
nisht[, I'm in a hurry; I'm fast. 
tsijtgo, quickly; fast. tsfjtgo 
naashnish, I work fast. 
tsgjtkaatii, woodpecker. 
tsilghddh, water dog; salaman- 
der; mud puppy. 
tsiikei, youth. 

tsit, tsddd, tsaad, tsi\ tsddd # to 
turn oneself around while in a 
sitting position. 

F, ndhi-dees-tsit (dfil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doofl C-l. ndhds- 


tsddd (ndhil, ndhdl, rijiil, nahiil, 
ndhot) S-P. ndhisis-tsaad (nd- 
hisfnil, ndhaas, nijiis, ndhisiil, 
ndhisoot) R. nf-ndhds-tsi' (nd~ 
hil, hdl, hijil, hiil, hot) O. ndhos- 
tsddd (ndhool, ndhol, ndhijdl, 
ndhool, ndhoot) 

shqq'jP ndhisistsaad, I sunned 

tsit, tseed, tseed, tsi\ tseed, to 
kill (plural objects). 

(In the following verb forms the 
l-classifier may be inserted or 
omitted in the passive.) 

1. to kill, slaughter or massa- 
cre them (plural objects). 
F. ndees-tstf (ndiit, neidoot, ni- 
zhdoot, ndiil, ndoof) (nabidi** 
doo-) C-l. naas-tseed (nanit, 
neit, njit, neiil, noot) (nabi'di-) 
P. niset-tseed (nismft, neis, njis, 
nisiil, nisoot) (nabi'diz-) R. ni- 
nds-tsi' (ndnft, n6\t, ndjfi, neiil, 
not) (ndbi*di-) O. naos-tseed 
(naoot, nayot, njot, naool, na- 
00+) (nabi'do-) 

tsit, tsid, tseed, tsi f , tsid, to beat; 

1 . to pound it; beat it. 

F. dees-tsit (d\i t yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doo-) C-l. yis-tsid 
(ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'di-) P. 
yf-tseed (yinf, yiyn, jff, yii, ghoo) 
(bi'doo-) R. nds-tsi* (ndni, nei, 
rtjf, n«ii, ndh) (ndbi'di-) O. 
ghos-ts'id (ghoo, yo, jo, ghoo, 
ghooh) (bi'do-) 

2. to pound; to be o smith. 
N. as-tsid (7, 'a, 'aji, 71, 'oh) 



tsinaabqqs, wagon. 
tsinaabqqs bee binidiidlohi bite' 
nani'dhi, brake bar or beam on 
a wagon. 

tsinaabqqs biishghddn, coupling 
pole (of a wagon). 
tsinaabqqs biishghddn bit 'ii'dhi 
coupling pin (on a wagon). 
tsinaabqqs bijddd, wagon wheel. 
tsinaabqqs bijddd beesh bindz- 
'dhigii, tire; rim (wagon wheel). 
tsinaabqqs bijadd binddlghoti- 
gii, axle (of a wagon). 
tsinaabqqs bijddd bindneeskdl- 
igii, spokes (of wagon wheel). 
tsinaabqqs bijddd bita* nani'dhi, 
axle tree (of wagon). 
l-sinaabqqs bijddd bitsiits'iin, 
hub (of wagon wheel). 
tsinaabqqs bijddd tsin bindz'd- 
higii, felloes (of wagon wheel). 
tsinaabqqs bik'esti'i, wagon co- 

tsinaabqqs bitsqq', wagon bows. 
tsinaabqqs bits'a', wagon box. 
tsinaabqqs bits'a' bd ni'dhi, bol- 
ster (of wagon). 

tsinaabqqs bits'a' bd ni'dhi bit 
'ii'dlii, king bolt (of wagony. 
tsinaabqqs ydzhi, buggy 
tsinaabqqs ydzhi bijddd naaki- 
igii, cart. 

tsinaa'eet, ship; boot; canoe. 
tsinaa'eet bee da'ahijigdnigii, 

tsinaa'eet tdttt'dahdi ndaakaa- 
igii, submarine. 
tsinoalzhoodi, sled; sleigh. 


tsin bee bighdda'a'nili, brace 
and bit. 

tsin bee diilkeehi, wood plane. 
tsin bee hahalzhishi, wood chis- 

tsin bee nihijihi, wood saw. 
tsin bee yigoti, wood rasp. 
tsin bee na'addhi, crutches. 
tsin bineest'q', fruit. 
tsin bineest'q' 'ddaaniidi, fresh 

tsin bineest'q' daazganigii, dried 

tsin bisgq 1 , snag; old dead tree. 
tsindao, penny. 
tsin dit'inii, rock squirrel. 
tsin 'andhdlghqhi, javelin. 
tsin 'ii'dii, tree (standing). 
tsinldtah 'aydnii, giraffe (lit. the 
one that eats the tree tops). 
tsin na'ayq'ii, wood louse. 
tsinidi'm", bull-roarer, 
tsiniheeshjii', board; plank; lum- 

tsin sitq, mile (lit. wood or pole 
sets; probably from the former 
custom of having mileposts). 
tsin sitq, yard (measurement). 
tsin tdshjeeh, wooden barrel. 
Isints osi, stick. 

tsis, tsees, tsiz, tsis, tsees, to ex- 

1. to go out (fire). 
F. din6otsis I. nitsefe P. neez- 
tsiz R. nanitsis O. notsees 

2. to extinguish it; put it out 
{a fire or light). 

F. dfnees-tsis (dfnfft, yidin6ot, ji- 
dfnoof, dinfil, dfnoot) (dfnoo(-) 



I. nis-tsees (nit, yinit, jinit, niil, 
not) (nil-) P. net-tsiz (ninit, yi- 
nees, jinees, neel, noot) (nees-) 
R. nanis-tsis (ndnit, neinit, nizh- 
nit, naniil, nanot) (nanfl-) O. 
nos-tsees (noot, yinot, jinot, nool 
noot) (not-) 

3. to shake, shiver or quiver 
(from nervousness). 

N. dinis-tsiz (dinf, di, jidi, dinii, 

4. lo tremble or shiver (from 
the cold). 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding dah, up, to the 
forms given under no. 3. Thus, 
dah dinistsiz, I am shivering. 
rsis'na, bee; honey-bee. 
tsis'nd bighan, beehive. 
rsis'na bijeeh, beeswax. 
rsiVnd bitt'rzh, honey. 
tsis'naltsooi, wasp. 
rsis'ndtsoh, bumble-bee. 
tsistiin, chronic. 
tsitTeti, match. 
rsits'aa', wooden box. 
rsits'aa' naadlo'i, suitcase. 
rsits'aa' ntsaaigii, trunk. 
tso, to be large or big (in size). 
N. 'dnis-tso ( anfnft, anft, *dzh- 
nft, 'anfM, *anot) Cahonft-, re- 
fers to space, place, area). 

-tsoh, large; big. dinetsoh, big 

tsot, tsood, tsood, tso\ tsood, to 

grasp. grasp it; to grab it; to 
take hold of it (an animate or an 
inanimate object). 


F. yidees-tsot (yidfit, yiidoot, yi- 
zhdoot, yidiil, yidoot) (bidi'- 
dool-) I. yiis-tsood (yiit, yiyiit, 
jiit, yiil, ghool') (bi'diil-) P. yiit- 
tsood (yinit, yiyii+, jiit, yiil, 
ghooO (bi'diil-) R. neis-tso' (ne- 
iit, nayiit, njiit, neiil, naoot) (na- 
bi'diil-) O. ghoos-tsood (ghoot, 
yoot, joot, ghool, ghoot) (bi* 

2. to arrest him; to take him 
into custody. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding bee haz'aanii bi- 
k'ehgo, in accord with the law, 
to the forms given under no. 1. 
Thus, bee haz'aanii bik'ehgc 
shPdiiltsood, I was arrested. 

3. to feed him; to give him 
food; to share food with him. 

F. ba'dees-tsot (ba'dfit, ya'doot, 
bazh'doot, ba'diil, ba'doot) (ba ( - 
dool-) I. ba'nis-tsood (ba'nft 
ya'ft, ba'jit, ba'niil, ba'not) 
(ba'fl-) P. ba'nft-tsood (ba'finft, 
ya'nft, bazh'nft, ba'niil, ba'noot) 
(ba'fl-) R. bona as-tso' (bana'Tt 
yana'dt, band'jft, bana'iil, ba 
na'ar) (bana'al-) O. ba'os-tsood 
(ba'oot, ya'ot, ba'jof, ba'ool, ba- 
oot) (ba'ol-) 

4. to chew on it (by pulling at 
it; as a child on a tough piece of 
meat, etc.). 

U. yis-tso' (nit, yit, jit, yiil, ghot) 
teechqq'f yazhi ats'id yittso', 
the puppy is chewing on a sinew. 
tsos, tsoos (tsoos), tsoox, tsos, 
tsoos, to handle one flat flexible 



object, as cloth, paper, cured 
hide, inner tube, etc. For the 
derivational prefixes relating tc 
the handling of objects see 'aat. 
tsxaaz, tsaaz, to be big (in the 
sense of having grown big) (a 
mountain may also be referred 
to as ni tsxaaz). 

1. to be big (in absolute sense) 
N. nis-tsxaaz (nf, ni, jf, nii, noh) 

2. to be big (in relative sense). 
N. 'anfs-tsaaz ( aninft, 'anft, 'a- 
zhnft, *anfil, 'anot) 

tsxis, tsxaas, tsxas, tsxis, tsxaas, 
to whip. strike him a blow with 
a whip; to hit him (once) with a 

F. ndidees-tsxis (rididnt, neidi 
doot, nfzhdidoot, ndidiil, ndi- 
doot) I. ridiis-tsxaas (ridiit, nei- 
diit, nfzhdiit, ndiil, ndoot) P. 
ridift-tsxas (ndiinft, neidift, ni- 
zhdift, ndiil, ridoot) R. nf-nadiis- 
tsxis (nadiit, neidiit, nazhdiit, 
nadiil, nadoot) O. ndoos-tsxaas 
(ndoot, neidoot, nazhdoot, ndool 

2, to give him a whipping; to 
hit him (repeatedly) with a whip. 

F. ndfnees-tsxis (ndi'nift, neidf- 
noot, nfzhdmoot, ndmfil, hdi- 
noot) (nabidf'nool-) C-l. nanfs- 
tsxis (nanit, neinit, nazhnft, na- 
niil, nanot) (nabidi'nil-) P. na- 
net-tsxas (nanfnit, neinees, na- 
zhnees, naneel, nanoot) (nabi- 
di'nees-) R. nf-nanfs-tsxis (na- 
nit, n6init, nazhnft, naniil, na- 


not) (nabidinii-) O. nanos- 
tsxis (nanoot, neinot, ndzhnot, 
nanool, nanoot) (nabidfnol-) 
tsxo, tsxooh, tsxoi, tsxoh, tsxooh, 

to yellow. 

F. to become yellow; to get yel- 
low; to yellow. 

F. yi-dees-tsxo (dfi, doo, zhdoo, 
dii, dooh) I. yiis-tsxooh (yini, 
y !i / i<»/ yi'/ ghooh) P. yii-tsxoi 
(yini, yii, jii, yii, ghooh) R. neis- 
tsxoh (neini, neii, rijii, neii, na- 
ooh) O. ghoos-tsxooh (ghoo, 
ghoo, joo, ghoo, ghooh) 

2. to be light yellow, or orange 
in color. 

N. dinis-tsoh (dinil, dinil, dizh- 
nil, diniil, dinot) 

3. to be yellow. 

N. tinis-tso (tinf, ti, jil, tinii, ti- 
noh) (hal- refers to place or 

4. to make it yellow; to dye it 

F. yidees-tsxo (yidfft, yidoot, jii- 
doot, yidiil, yidoot) (bidi'doo!-) 
I. yiis-tsxooh (yiit, yiyiit, jiit, yiil, 
ghoot) (bi'diil-) P. yiit-tsxoi (yi- 
nit, yiyiit, jilt, yii I, ghoot) (bi'- 
diil-) R. neis-ts*oh (neiit, nayiit, 
njiit, neiil, naiot) (nabi'diil-) 
O. ghoos-tsx66l> (ghoot, yoot 
joot, ghool, ghoaf) (bi'doof-) 


waa*, beeweed. 

waashindoon, Washington, D 
C; the federal government. 
wdashindoondi *atah bee haz- 
*aanii 'tit'inigii, congressman. 



wddshindoondi bee haz'danii '6- 
deii'inigii, congress. 
wddshindoondi sitiinii, Presi- 
dent (of The United States), 
wdldchti', red ant. 
wdldzhini, black ant. 
wdna'attehe, wasp. 
wooneeshch'ffdii, 17 year cicada 
wddshighishi, measuring worm. 
wdosits'ili. bedbug. 


yddh, what? (said when one does 
not hear or understand, and de- 
sires that the speaker repeat). 
yoa', louse; tick; mite (biya'). 
yddzh, little; small. 
yaateet, sheepskin for bedding 

yqqt, yq, yqqd, — # yqq\ to be a- 
wore or alert. 

1 . to take care of it; to be a- 
ware of it; to be careful of it. 
F. *baa aho-deesh-yqqt (dill, 
dool, zhdool, diil, doot) (dool-) 
C-l. baa 'a-hash-yq (hoi, hal, ho- 
jfl, hwiil, hot) (hal-) P. baa 
a-hosis-yqqd (hosfnil, hoos, ho- 
jis, hosiil, hosoot) (hool-) O, 
baa a-hoosh-yqq* (h66l, hool, 
hojool, hool, hoot) (hoi-) 

* baa becomes yaa in 3o. 
yd, sky. 

yadiizini, tin can. 
yddiihit, the blue sky. 
yah, inside (an enclosure, in the 
sense of motion toward the in- 
terior), kin gone* yah 'ffyd, li 
went inside the house. 

ydhdsin, embarrassment; bash- 

yah Tiiniitii, policeman; sheriff. 
ya'/ isn't it? now? n'est-ce pas. 
deesk'aaz ya*, it is cold, isn't it? 
(ya* requires agreement with the 
preceding statement) ya? shall 
I now? (as if one were holding a 
gun aimed at an object, and ask 
if he should shoot now or wait a 
moment longer). 
yd 'atnir, the zenith. 
yd'dt'eeh, good; well; advisable; 
(as a greeting) hello! (also as an 
emphatic greeting, ya'at*ehei!) 
yd'dt'eeh ndddleetii, convale- 
scent (person). 

yd'dt'eehgo, well. ya'at'eehgc 
na'ashdfjh teh, I usually eat well. 
yd'^qsh, the heavens; celestial 
space; region beyond the sky. 
ya'iishjddshchili, June. 
ya'iishjddstsoh, July. 
ya'niilzhiin, Torreon, N. M. 
yas, snow, 

yas bit 'ahaniheeyoligii, snow- 

yas nilt'ees, January. 
ydtashki*, bastard. 
ydzhi, little; small. 
yq, to be wise (a stem which is 
probably related to sq, old age). 
N. honisq (honiyq, hoyq, hojiyq, 
honiidzq, honohsq) 
ye'ii, the gods. 
ye'iitsoh, giant. 

yeigo, diligently; hard, yeiga 
naashnish, I am working hard. 
| yeigo 'anft'i, try very hard! 



yichx?', spoiled; ruined. 
yideehV, slippery (an object, os 
-a bar of soap). 
yiisii', asleep (as one's limb). 
yikaisdahi, Milky Way. 
yilch'ozh, boil; furuncle. 
yildzis, furrowed. 
yilk'oot, wavy. 
yilk'ootigii, wave; waviness. 
yilzgq', cured (hide). 
yilzholi, fluffy; soft. 
yittseii, dried up; withered. 
yisddbeegq, owl's claw. 
yisdah hoghee', close; suffocat- 
ing, kone' yisdah hoghee', it is 
close in here. 
yishzhoh, damp. 

yiskqqgo, tomorrow. yiskqqgc 
doo ndeeshnish da, I will not 
work tomorrow. 
yiskq daamfigo, Saturday. 
yisnaah, captive. 
yistteetf'661, garter. 
yistte, stocking; socks (bisttee*) 
yishttizh, brown (dist. pi. daasfv 

yizdlad, cracked; broken. 
yizhi, name (bizhP). 
yodi, valued possession. 
yot, yood (yood), yood, yo\ yood, 
to drive a small group of 5-10 

In the 1st person dpi, and in the 
passive, stem-initial y- is replac- 
ed by dz- Also, where stem ini- 
tial y- is preceded by s, the stem- 
initial y- becomes s. This will be 
noted in most of the 1st person 
singular forms given below. 


1. to drive them (5-10). 

F. dfnees-sot (dinii, yidmoo, jidi- 
noo, dinfi, dfnooh) (bididi'noo- 
dzot) I. dfnfs-sood (dfnf, yidini, 
jidfnf, dinii/ dfnoh) (bididF- 
nfdzood) Prog, nees-sot (nff, yi- 
noo, jinoo, nil, nooh) (bidi'noo- 
dzot) P. dfn£~yood (dfnfnf, yidi- 
nee, jidfnee, dfnee, dfnoo) (bidi- 
df'neesdzood) R. ndfnfs-so* (n- 
dfnf, neidfnf, nfzhdfnf, ndfnfi, rv 
dfnoh) (nabidi^nrdzo') O. dfnos- 
sood (dfnoo, yidfno, jidfno, df- 
noo, dfnooh) (bididf'nodzood) 

2. to drive them about. 

C-l. nanis-sood (nam, neini, na- 

zhni, nanii, nanoh) (nabidi'ni- 


yot, yoot, yol, yot, yoot, to blow. 

1. to come up; to start to blow 
(a wind). 

F. didooyot I. diyoot P. deeyol 
R. ndfyof O. doyoot 

2. to be moving along (as a 

Prog, yiyot 

3. to blow; to arrive (with ref- 
erence to the wind). 

F. dooyot I. yfyoot P. nfyol R. 
nayot O. ghoyoot 

The perfective form, nfyol, is 
used to translate the present 
tense, it is blowing, in English, 

4. to stop blowing (lit. to move 
away out of sight); to go down 
(the wind). 

F. 'adooyot I. 'iiyoot P. 'ffyol 
R. *anayot O. *ooy66t 

5. to take a breathe; to inhale. 



F. 'adeesh-yol' Cadif, 'adoo, 'azh- 
doo, "adii", 'adooh) I. 'iish-yool 
Coni, *ii, *aji, *ii', 'ooh) P. 'fi-yol 
(ifnf, 'II, 'aiii, 'if, 'oo) R. 'anash- 
yof ( anani, ana, anji, anen , 
'anah) O. *oosh-yoat Coo, *oo, 
'ajoo, oo*, *ooh) 
6. to bloat up. 
F. dinoolyot I. niiJyool P. niil- 
yool R. naniilyot O. noolyoot 
yoi, to be much or many. 

1 . to be many. 

N. t'66 'ahonii'-yoi fahonoh, 'a- 
ha, 'ahoji) 

2. to increase in number or 
quantity; to become many. 

P. t'66 'ahonii'-yof ('ahonooh, *a- 
hoo, 'ahojfi) 

3. to excel; to be good at. 

N. honish-yoi (horn, ha, hojf, ho- 
nif, honoh) taa hayof dinish- 
gho\ I am a good runner. 

4. to become stricken with 
fright; terror stricken. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t'66 -it, merely with 
(one), to the forms given under 
no. 2. Thus, bit yah 'ifyaa nt'ef 
t'66 bit 'adahooyof, they (dist. 
pi) were terror stricken when ! 
came in on them. 
yooch'iid, lie; falsehood. 
yoo*, away (into invisibility), yoo* 
'ahithan, throw it away! yoo* *ff- 
ya, I went away; I got lost. 
yoo\ beads; necklace. 
yoo' bee bighadaVnili, bowdrill 
for perforating beads. 
yoo 4 diitsVi, bell. 


— ... .. — ...... ■ . — . . 

yoo* nitchini, button. 
yoo'nifchini bo bighahoodzani* 
gii, button hole. 
yoo* nimazi, (silver) bead. 
yoostsah, (finger) ring. 
yoostsah bindd', ring set. 
yooto, Santa Fe, N. M. 
yowehedi, farther on; beyond 
yowehedi hadi'mlf, look for it 
beyond there (farther on). 

Stem-initial z- usually becomes 
s- when it is preceded by s, or h, 
as in thelst person sgl, and the 
2nd person dpi. Verbs with zero 
classifier change the stem initial 
z- to dz-, in the 1st person of the 
dpi, and in the passive. In the 
ensuing paradigms, d- is added 
in the forms wherein dz- replac- 
es z-, as a reminder of this alter- 
ation of the stem-initial. 
xqq\, zq, zqq\ zqqh, zqq\ to 

1 . to beat one's wife. 
F. 'iidees-sqqt ('ildn, 'iidoo, 'ii- 
zhdoo, 'iidiid, 'iidooh) C-l. *iis- 
sq ('ayi, 'ii, ajii, 'iid, *ayoh) P. 
ayri-zqq ( ayini, ayn, ajii, a- 
yiid, *ayoo) R. na'iis-sqqh (r\6 f - 
'ayi, na'ii, na'ajii, na'ayiid, na*- 
ayoh) O. *ayos-sqq' Caghoo, 
'ayo, *ajo, 'ayoo, 'ayooh) 

tfeedqq' 'ayffzqq', I beat my 
wife last night. (This verb gives 
rise to the common personal 
name 'iizaanii, wife-beater.) 
zah, zeeh, za\ zah, zeeh, to 




belch (probably related to the 
noun -zee*, mouth). 

1. to belch; to "burp. 
F. didees-sah (didfi, didoo, jidi 
doo, didiid, didooh) I. dis-seeh 
<di, di, jidi, diid, doh) P. de-za' 
(dmf, dee, jidee, deed, disoo) R 
fridfs-sah (ndi, ndf, nfzhdf, ridiid, 
*ridoh) O. dos-seeh (doo, do, ji- 
<do, dood, dooh) 
zahalanii, mocking bird. 
zeedeetdoii, neckerchief. 
zeedeeltsooz, neckerchief. 
zeedeetTi, necktie. 
zee'iilgho'ii, foxtail grass. 
-zeet, zeeh, zq, zeeh, zeeh, to 
move as a large crowd. 

1. to start moving along (as a 
xrowd or an army), 

F. ndidoozeet I. ridiizeeh P. ri- 
diizQ R. nfnadiizeeh O. ridoo- 

2. to be moving along; to be 
progressing (as an army); to be 
an the move. 

Prog, yizeet 

3. to invade it (lit. to move in- 
to it). 

This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding biih (or yiih), intc 


it, to the following verbs (the 

meaning being that a large 

group of people moves into (a 


F. doozeet I. yizeeh P. yfzq R. 

nazeeh O. ghozeeh 

Hitler bisilaago keyah France 
gholghehfgn yiih yfzq, Hitler's 


soldiers (army) invaded the 
country called France. 

4. to move as far as a point 
(and then stop); to move up to. 
F, ndoozeet I. niizeeh P. nini 
zq R. ni nazeeh O. noozeeh 

5. to move into (an enclosure 
with propounded yah); to move 
away out of sight (with pre- 
pounded yoo*). 

F. *adoozee+ I. 'iizeeh P. 'ifzq 
R. 'anazeeh O. 'oozeeh 

6. to bypass it; make a detour 
around it; to move around it (as 
an army, in bypassing an ob- 

F. yik'ee 'qq 'aheedoozeet I. yi- 
k'ee 'qq 'ahenadz^eh Prog, yi- 
k'ee qq yizeet P. yik'ee 'qq *a- 
heenfzq R. yik'ee *qq *ah£ni- 

zeenaztTi, necktie. 
zenaztTi, shirt collar. 
zei, zei, zei, zei, zei, to crumble 
(Cp. sef, sand). 

1 . to crumble. 

F. didoozei I. dizei P. difzef 
R. ndfzei O. dozei 
tse 'a+tso dfizei, the rock all 
crumbled away. 

zhah, zheeh, zhee', zhah, zheeh, 
to spit. 

1 . to spit; to expectorate. 

F. 'adideesh-shah Cadidif, 'adi 
doo, 'azhdidoo, 'adidii, 'adidooh) 
I. 'adish-sheeh Cadi, adi, azhdi, 
*adii, *adoh) P. adif-zhee* ( f a- 
dfinf, 'adn, 'azhdff, 'adii, 'adooh) 
R. 'andish-shah ('andf, andf, 'a- 



nizhdi, artdii, 'ahdoh) (>♦ 'a- 
dosh-sheeh Caddo, 'ado, 'azhdo 
'adoo, 'adooh) 

2. to spit; to be spitting. 
U. dish-shah (di, di, jidi, dii, doh) 
zhah, zheeh, zhee', zhah, zheeh, 
to hunt (game). 

1. to hunt; to go hunting (for 

F. ndeesh-zhah (ndiil, ndool, ni* 
zhdool, ndiil, ndoot) C-l. naash- 
zheeh (nanil, naal, njil, neiil, 
naa+) P. nishesh-zhee* (nishi- 
nil, naash. njish, nishiil, nishoot) 
R. ni-nash-zhah (nanil, n6l, n6- 
jil, neiil, na+) O. na-oosh-zheeh 
(661, ool, jol, oof, oof) 

2. to hunt it; to go after it (re- 
ferring to game). 

F. ha-deesh-zhah (diil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) C-I 
haash-zheeh (hanil, haal, hajil, 
haiil, haof) (habi'dil-) P. ha- 
shesh-zhee' (hashinfl, haash 
hajish, hashiil, hashoot) (habi'- 
dish-) R. ha-nash-zhah (nanil 
nal, najfl, neiil, nat) (nabi'di!-) 

0. ha-oosh-zheeh (661, ool, j6l, 

001, oot) (bi'do!-) 

zhah, zheeh, zhee', zhah, zh£eh, 
to coil; to bend. 

1. to coil up (as a snake). 

F. nahidfnoolzhah I. nahinil 
zh6eh Prog, nahinoolzhah P. 
nahineeshzhee* R. ninahinil 
zhah O. nahinolzhe£h 

2. to be bent (horseshoe like). 
N. nazhah 

zhash, — , zhaozh, zhash 


zhddsh, to erode; wear away. 
1 . to erode; to wear away* 
F. didoozhash Prog, yizhash 
P. ninfzhaazh R. ninazhash O. 

zhish, zheeh, zhee*, zhih, zheeh, 
to mow (V. shih). 

1. to shave oneself. 

F. *adi-deesh-zhih (diil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doof) C-l. 'a-dish- 
zheeh (dil, dfl, zhdil, diil, do!) P. 
'a-deesh-zhee' (diinil, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) R. a-ndish- 
zhih (ndri, ndfl, nfzhdil, ndiil, 
ridot) O. 'a-dosh-zheeh (dool 
dol, zhdol, dool, doot) 

2. to be shaved. 

These passive forms are given 
for the 3rd person sgl. 
F. bidPdoolzhih C-l. bi'dilzheeh 
P. bi'doolzhee' R. nabPdilzhih 
O. bi'dolzheeh 

zhiii, zhih, zhi\ jiih, zhiih, to 

1. to eall him by his name; to 
name him. 

F. yfdeesh-shiit (yfdff, yfdoo, yf- 
zhdoo, yfdii, yfdooh) (bidPdoo- 
jii-f) I. yfnish-shih (yinf, yo, jo, 
yfnfi, yinoh) (bPdojih) P. yi-zhf 
(ymf, yiyif, jif, yfi, ghoo) (bi'deS- 
ji*) R. neinish-jiih (neinf, nayo, 
rijo, nefnii, nemoh) (nabf'dojiih) 
O. ghosh-shiih (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) (bPdojiih) 

2. to name them off; call off 
their names. 

F. *bitaa- , ffd^esh-shiit ('iidfi, 'ff- 
doo, 'fizhdoo, Tidii, *iid6oh) CK- 



doojirf) I. bitaa-'iinish-shfh (*ii- 
ni, oo, jo, iinn, unoh) ( ojin) 
P. bitaa-'ff-zhi' Cffnf, 'ifdee, Mi- 
zhdee, •iid<§e, 'ffdoo) ('eeji') R 
bitah rVdfsh-shiih (rVdf, n'di, ni- 
zh'di, iVdii, n'doh) (rVdfjiih) O 
bitaa-'osh-shi* (*66, *6, 'jo, *oo, 
ooh) Cojf) 

dVil bitaa'ffzhi', I called off the 
names of various plants. 

*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 
zhish, zhiish (zhish), zhiizh, 
zhish, zhiish (zhish), to move (in 
a definite rhythm or order, as the 
celestial bodies, dancers, etc. 

1. to dance. 
F. 'a-deesh-zhish (difl, dool, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) C-l. *ash-zhish 
Cil, 'al, ajil, Mil, 'o« P. 'eesh- 
zhiizh Cifnfl, f ooI, 'ajool, iil, oot) 
R. na- ash-zhish Cfl, '61, 'jil, Mil, 
*6t) O. \5sh-zhish Cool, '61, *ajol, 
*ool, •oot) 

nit 'adeeshzhish, I'll dance with 

2. to start to become; to begin 

(an era). 
Apparently, in the following 
forms having to do with the pas- 
sage of time, both the imperson- 
al pronoun subject (ho-) and the 
verb stem refer to the move- 
ments of celestial bodies, in ac- 
cord with which time is measur- 

F. hodidoolzhish I. hodilzhffsh 
P. hodeeshzhiizh R. nahodil- 
zhish O. hod6lzhffsh 
These forms likewise are used 


to translate the idea of "to start, 
commence, initiate/' in such a 
sense as, jeeh dighazii nfnadei- 
ni+t'jihgo hodidoolzhish, they 
(dist. pi) will start to raise, or in- 
itiate the raising of, rubber; — 
hodilzhffsh, they are commenc- 
ing etc.; — hodeeshzhiizh, they 
commenced, etc. k'ad kodoc 
deesk'aazgo hodidoolzhish, from 
now on the weather will (start to) 
be cold, kin 'attso 'adeeshtift 
ch'eeh nisingo t*66 bit naas ho- 
deeshzhiizh, I want to finish 
building the house, but I keep 
putting it off 

3. to bo passing (time, or an 

Prog, hoolzhish 

k*ad deesk*aazgo hoolzhish 
it is cold now; a cold period is in 
progress now. joot bee ndaiine- 
hfgff 'atnff'goo hoolzhish, the 
ball game is half over now. 

4. to become; to be (an era). 
F. hodoolzhish I. hoolzhffsh P. 
hoolzhiizh (or nahashzhiizh) R 
nahalzhish O. holzhffsh 

naabeeho ndaabaahgo nahash- 
zhiizh, there was an era during 
which the Navaho were raiders. 

deesk'aazgo hoolzhiizh, it has 
been cold (there was an era of 
cold weather). 

5. to end (an era); to stop (be- 

F. nihodoolzhish I. nihalzhffsb 
P. nihoolzhiizh R. ninahfilzhish 
O. niholzhffsh 



'ashdlcT nadhaiidqq' naabeehc 
bidibe daalq'igo nihoolzhiizh. 
the period during which the Na- 
vaho had many sheep ended five 
years ago. 

6. to completely pass (on era 
or a period of time). 

The adverb yoo', away into in- 
visibility, may also be prepound- 
ed to these forms, giving the 
meaning of "to pass on" (with 
reference to a period of time. 
F. 'ahodoolzhish I. 'ahalzhffsh 
P. 'ahoolzhiizh R. 'anahalzhish 
O. aholzhiish 

k'ad kodoo deesk'aazgo aho- 
doolzhish, from now on it will be 
cold (a period of cold weather 
will continue for on indefinite 
period of time, but to complet- 
ion, or literally, until it has mov- 
ed on out of sight). 

dgqgo t'aa niyolgo 'ahodool- 
zhish, there will be a continuous 
wind in the spring. 

*anaa* baa na'aldeehgo haa- 
sh[[ nfzaadgoo 'ahodoolzhish, 
who can tell how long the war 
will go on (lit. war being carried 
on how probably far — i.e. for 
an unknown length of time — it 
will go on). 

'aak'eego 'ayoo ndahaftingc 
'anahalzhish, there is always (re- 
peatedly) a rainy period in the 

t'aadoo hodina'f deesk*aaz bit 
yoo' 'ahodoolzhish, soon the cold 
weather will be over (soon im- 


personal it, the time measuring: 
bodies, will move away into in- 
visibility with the cold weather)., 

7. to become, be, one's turn. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -aa f to (one), to the* 
forms given under no. 4. Thus, 
shaa hodoolzhish, it will be my 
turn; shikeed§§' naa hodool- 
zhish, it will be your turn after 
me; kad nihaa hoolzhiizh, it is 
our turn now, etc. 

8. to take (time); to be (time). 
This meaning is rendered by 

the forms given under no. 5. 
Thus, haa nfzah nihodoolzhish, 
how long will it take? (or how 
long will it be?) 

zhoh, zhooh, zhoo', zhoh, zhooh, 
to brush (V. shoh). 

1. to brush oneself; to brush 
one's hair. 

F. adi-deesh-zhoh (diil, dool 
zhdool, diil, doot) C-l. a-dish- 
zhooh (dil, dfl, zhdil, diil, dot) 
P. 'a-deesh-zhoo* (dffnfl, dool, 
zhdooi, diil, doot) R. a-ndfsh- 
zhoh (ndil, ndil, nizhdil, ndiil r 
ndot) O. 'a-dosh-zhooh (dool 
doi, zhdol, dool, doot) 
zhot, zhood, zhood, zho\ zhood, 
to move in a dragging manner 
(V shot). clear off (the weather) 
(lit. they, the clouds, drag or 
move away into invisibility). 

F. yoo* 'ahodoolzhot I. yoo* *a- 
halzhood P. yoo' *ahoolzhood 



R. yoo' 'andhdlzho' O. yoo* 'a- 

2. to clear off again (lit. to 
drag or move back away into in- 

F. yoo' andhodoolzhot I. yoo' 
'andhdlzhood P. yoo 1 'andhool 
zhood R. yoo* 'anindhdlzho' 
O. yoo* 'andhol zhood 

3. to sail; to move in a drag- 
ging manner (as the clouds). 

F. doolzhot Prog, yilzhot P. 
yilzhood R. ndlzho* O. ghol- 

4. to drizzle (a very little). 

F. ndi'doozhot C-l n'dizhot P, 
n'difzhot R. nind*dfzhot O, n'- 

zhoni, to be pretty; beautiful; 
nice; clean. 

N. nish-zhonf (nF, ni, jf, nil, noh) 
(ho-, refers to space, place, area) 
zhosh, — , zhoozh, zhosh, zhoosh 
to place slender objects in paral- 
lel position (V. shosh). 

1. to extend one's legs; to put 
the legs straight out. 

F. k'i-dideesh-zhosh (didul, di- 
dool, zhdidool, didiil, didoot) P. 
k'f-desh-zhoozh (dfnil, deesh 
zhdeesh, deel, dinoot) R. k'f-n- 
dfsh-zhosh (ndii, ndil, nfzhdil 
ndiil, hdot) O. k'i-ddsh-zhoosh 
(dool, dol, zhddl, dool, doot) 

nedd doo k'fdeshzhoozh, I sat 
down and stuck my legs straight 

2. to have the legs extended. 


N. k'l-di'ni'sh-zhoozh (di'ni'l 
deesh, zhdeesh, dinfil, di'not) 

k'fdfnishzhoozhgo sedd, I am 
sitting with my legs extended; or 
with my legs straight out. 
zhpef, zhg, ztiQgd, jgh, zhQh, to 
become beautiful (V. shoot and 

1. to become or be happy. 
This meaning is rendered by 

prepounding -if, with (one), tc 
the following verb forms. It is 
conjugated for person by alter- 
ing the pronoun prefix on the 
postposition -it. Thus, shit ho- 
zhg, I am happy; nit hozhg, you 
are happy, etc. It is herewith 
given for the 1st person sgl. 

To be happy about it is render- 
ed by prepounding baa (yaa in 
3o.), about it, to -it. Thus, baa 
shit hozhp, I am happy about it. 
F. shit hodoozhoot N. shit hd- 
zhg P. shit hoozhood R. shit 
ndhoojoh O. shit hdzhgh 
zih, zeeh, zee' (zee*), zih, zeeh, 
to be calm, motionless. 

1 * to become calm; quiet; still; 
tranquil; motionless. 
F. aho-didees-zih (didiil, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) I. aho- 
diis-zeeh (dill, diil, zhdiil, diil 
doot) P. 'dho-diis-zee' (dinil, 
diil, zhdiil, diil, doot) R. and- 
ho-diis-zih (diil, diil, zhdiil, diil, 
doot) O. aho-doos-zeeh (dool, 
dool, zhdool, dool, doot) 

2. to be calm; tranquil; still; 



N. 'aho-dimis-zee* (diinil, dees, 

zhdees, difniil, dimot) 

zit, ziid, zid, zV, ziid, to month. 

1. to pass or go by (lit. to re- 
pass/ since there have been other 
months before). 

F. ndidoozit I. ridiziid P. ridee- 
zid R. ninadizf O. ndozifd 

2. to pass one after the other 
(months passing in succession). 
F. nahididoozit I. nahidiznd 
P. nahideezid R. nfnahidizP 
O. nahidozffd 

3. to spend the month. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding -ee, with (one), tc 
the forms given under no. 1. 
Thus, shee ndidoozit, I'll spend 
the month; nee ndeezid, you 
spent the month. 

4. to be careful with it; to han- 
dle it with care. 

N. (S-P). *baa s<§-zid (sfnf, yiz, 
jiz, siid, soo) johonaa'ei baa se- 
zidgo hanash'aah, I take out my 
watch carefully. 
* baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

zif, ziid/ ziid, dzi", ziid, to rake. 

1. to rake them together (as 
leaves, trash, etc.). 

F. 'aha-ndees-sif (ndu, niidoo 
nizhdoo, ndiid, ndooh) (nibidi*- 
dood-) I. 'aha-ninis-snd (ninf 
niyf, nji, niniid, ninoh) (nibi*- 
deed-) P. 'aha-nini-ziid (nfinf 
niinf, nizhm, niniid, ninoo) (ni- 
bi'deed-) R. 'ahani-nds-dzi' 
(nam, nef, na]i, n£ii, nah) (na- 


bi'di-) O. 'aha-noos-siid (noo,. 
niyo, nijo, nood, nooh) (nibi'~ 

2. to cover it (by raking sand, 
leaves, snow, etc. on it). 

F. *bik'ii-dees-si+ (dii, doo, zh- 
doo, diid, dooh) (bik'ihwiidood-) 
I. bi-k'iis-snd (k'ii, k'iyii, kMjii^ 
k'ii, k'ioh) (k'ihood-) P. bi-k'ii- 
ziid (kTini, k'iyii, k'ijii, k'ii, k'i- 
oo) (k'ihood-) R. bik'i-neis-dzi* 
(neii, nayii, rijii, neii, naooh) {no- 
hood-) O. bik'i-oos-sud {66, 
yoo, joo, oo, ooh) (hood-) 
*bi- becomes yi- in 3o. 

3. to pour it. 

F. yeidees-si+ (yeidfi, yeidoo, yei- 
zhdoo, yeidiid, yeidooh) (yabi- 
di'dood-) I. yaas-sifd (yaa, ya- 
yii, yajii, yeiid, yaoh) (yabi'diid-) 
P. yaa-ziid (yeini, yayii, yajii, ye- 
ii, yaoo) (yabi'diid-) R. yanaas- 
dzi* (yanaa, yanayii, yanjii, ya- 
neii, yanah) (yanabi'diid-) O. 
yaoos-sffd (yaoo, yayoo, yajoo, 
yaood, yaooh) (yabi'dood-) 

'asaa* bighi'ji' to yaaziid, I 
poured water into the dish. 

4. to grope one's way. 

F. ho-dees-si-t (dff, doo, zhdoo, 
diid, dooh) Prog, hwees-stf 
(hoo, hoo, hojoo, hwiid, hoh> 
P. honf-ziid (hwifnf, honi, hozh- 
ni, honiid, honoo) R. na-has-si' 
(hf, ha, hoji, hwiid, hoh) O. hos- 
sffd (hoo, ho, hojo, hwood, hooh) 
chahatheelgo biniinaa hwees- 
sitgo ch'infya, I groped my way- 
out on account of the darkness. 



5. to grope for it; to feel o- 
round for it, 

F. haho-dees-sit (dii, doo, zhdoo, 
diid, dooh) C-l. ha-has-siid (ho, 
*ha, hoji, hwiid, hoh) P. ha-hose- 
ziid (hosrni, ha, hoji, hosiid, ho- 
soo) R. hana-has-sP (ho, ha, ho- 
|i, hwiid, hoh) O. ha-hos-siid 
<h66, ho, hojo, hood, hooh) 

siza'azis gone' beeso hahassiid, 
1 am groping in my pocket for 
tnoney. t+'eedqq* shibee'eldggh 
dVeeh hahoseziid, last night I 
=g roped in vain for my gun. 
ilit, zijh (zin), zf|* (*||d), zj[h 
{dzigh), zf j\ to want; to know; to 
think or be of an opinion. (V. 

1 . to wont it; to desire it. 

F. dfn6es-sji+ (dinii, yidinoo, jidi- 
noo, dinfid, dfnooh) (bididf- 
nood-) I. niis-s[ih (nii, yinii, ji- 
mii, niid, noh) (bidi'niid-) N. 
ni(s)-sin (nini, yinf, jini, niid, 
noh) (bidi'ni-) P. nii-z[f (nini, 
yinii, jinii, niid, noo) (bidi'niid-) 
R„ naniis-dz[[h (nanii, neinii, na- 
zhnii, nanii, nanooh) (nabidP- 

2. to think; to be of the opin- 
ion; to become sleepy (with pro- 
pounded bit, sleepiness); to feel 
like laughing (with propounded 
dloh, laughter). 

F. dmees-sjit (dinfi, dfnoo, jidf- 
noo, dinfid, dfnooh) (hodinood-) 
1. niis-si[h (nii, nii, jinii, niid, 
nooh) (honiid-) N. ni(s)-sin (ni- 
ni, ni, jini, niid, noh) (hwiinid-) 


P. nii-zu (nini, nii, jinii, niid, 
noo) (hwiiniid-) R. na-niis- 
dzj[h (nii, nii, zhnii, nii, nooh) 
(honiid-) nahodoo+t{it sha'shir 
nisin, I think maybe it will rain, 
bit niiz[[', I became sleepy, bit 
nisin, I am sleepy, dloh nisin, I 
feel like laughing. 

3. to have no appetite (lit. to 
not want anything). 

N. doo 'a-ni(s)-sin da (nini, ni, 
zhni, niid, noh) 

4. to mean. 

dishnf nisin, I say I want (I want 
to say), renders the idea "to 
mean." Thus, tt'eedqq dees- 
k'aaz — deesdoi dishni nisin, it 
was cold — I mean hot last 

5. to hold it in reserve; to be 
economical with it. 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding t*aa bqqh hqqh 
(yqqh in 3o.), to the forms given 
under no. 2. Thus, t*aa yqqh 
hqqh nizin, he is holding it in re- 
serve; economizing on it. 

6. to be shy; bashful; asham- 

This meaning is rendered by 
prepounding ya, shame, shyness 
to the forms given under no. 2. 
Thus, ya nisin, I am bashful 
(note that ya raises the tone of 
the syllable ni- to nf-.) To be 
ashamed of it, bashful toward it, 
is rendered by prepounding bao 
(yaa in 3o.), toward it, as in baa 



yo nisin, I am ashamed of it; or 1 
am bashful about it. 

7. to be jealous (of him, her) 

This meaning is rendered by 
propounding te*, jealousy, or baa 
te' (yaa in 3o.), jealousy about 
him, her, to the forms of no. 2. 
Thus, te* nisin, I am jealous; baa 
te* nisin, I am jealous of him. 

8. to be interesting or attract- 
ive to one. 

N. t'66 *baa na-ni(s)-sin (ninf, 
ni, zhni, niid, noh) 

t*66 baa nanisin, it is interes- 
ing to me. ha'at'ii la baa naha- 
sin, what is so interesting? ha'a- 
t'ii la baa nahoosiid, what be- 
came so interesting? 

9. to keep oneself in readi- 
ness; to be always prepared. 

N. hashtV 'adf.nis-zin Cadnnil, 
adol, azhdol, adfnfil, adffnot) 
t'aa atajr hashtV 'adffniszin, 
I am always ready. 

10. to maintain oneself; to 
keep from. 

N. adrfnis-zin ('adif'nil, a'dol, 
'azh'dol, 'adfPnfil, 'adffnot) 
doo shidi'yoolgheetgoo adiT 
niszin, I keep from getting kill- 

1 1 . to pray. 

F. so-didees-zjjt (didfil, didool, 
zhdidool, didiil, didoot) *(hodi- 
doo-) C-l. so-dis-zin (dil, dil, zh- 
dil, diil, dot) (hodi-) P. so-dees- 
zin (dnnil, dool, zhdool, diil, 
doot) (hodoo-) R. so-ndis-zijh 
(ndfl, ndil, ntzhdil, ndiil, nd6t) 


(nahodi-) O. so-dos-zin (dool 
dol, zhdol, dool, dot) (hodo-) 

* These forms have impersonal 
ho-, ha-, as the pronoun subject. 
Thus, sohodidoozj[t, there will 
be prayer (praying). 

12. to become, be, famous. 
This verb is herewith given for 

the 3rd person. Other persons of 
the verb are obtained by alter- 
ing the pronoun prefix on the 
postpositional -ee. Thus, bee* 
ho'dilzin, it is famous; sheeho'- 
dilzin, I am famous, etc. 
F. beehodi'doolziii N. beeho'- 
dilzin P. beeho'doolzjid R 
beenaho'dilzjih O. beeho'dool 


13. to find out; to ascertain; 
to know it or about it. 

In the following verb the im- 
personal ho- is the subject. Thus 
hozin, there is knowledge; ho- 
doozjit, there will be knowledge, 
etc. It is herewith given for the 
first person sgl only, the other 
persons being rendered by alter 
ing the pronoun prefix on the 
pos tposition -it. Thus, shit bee- 
hozin, I know it (lit. there is 
knowledge concerning it with 
me) ; nit beehoozin, you found 
out (lit. knowledge concerning 
it came into existence with you). 
F. shit beehodooziit I. shit bee- 
hoozjjh P. shit beehoozin R. 
shit beenahoodzjjh O. shit bee- 



t f 6a 'at'eegi na shit beSbodoo- 
*iH, I'll find out about it for you. 
doo shit b£6hozin da, I do not 
know about it. 

14. to become aware of it; to 
be aware of it (in the neuter). 
F. *baa aho-dmees-s[[t (dfnff, 
dinoo, zhdfnoo, dfniid, dinooh) 
N. baa 'aho-ni-sin (nfni, nf, zhm, 
tiiid, noh) P. baa 'aho-nii-ztf.' 
{nini, nii, zhnji, niid, noo) R. 
baa 'anaho-niis-dzjih (mi, nii 
zhnii, niid, nooh) O. baa 'dho- 
noos-si[h (noo, noo, zhnoo, nood, 
nooh). 'adqqdqq* t'aadoo nishi- 
nflnishigff baa 'ahonisin, I am 
aware of the fact that you didn't 
work yesterday. 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

15. to be unaware of it. 
N. t'aadoo *baa aho-ni(s)-sinf 
{ninf, ni, zhni, niid, noh) 

*baa becomes yaa in 3o. 

16. to cease; discontinue. 

T. 'aadoolzii* I. ana Izijh P. a- 

naszijd R. 'aninalzjih O. 'ana- 


zjjt, zjjh, zj> (zj), dztfh, zifh, to 


1 . to stand up. 
F. yi-dees-siit (dif, doo, zhdoo, 
diid, dooh) I. yiis-sifh (yii, yii, 
jii, yiid, ghooh) P. yii-zj' (yii, 
yii, jii, yiid, ghoo) R. neis-dzfth 
{neii, neii, rijii, n6ii, naooh) O. 
-ghoos-sjih (ghoo, ghoo, joo 
ghood, ghooh) 

2. to be standing; to be in an 
•erect position. 


N. (S-P.) se-z[ (sini, si, ji, siid, 


zis, zis, zas (zaaz), zas, zas r to 


1 . to put on one's belt; to gird 

F. 'aka-dees-zis (did, dooi, zh- 
dool, diil, doot) (bidi'dool-) I. 
'akas-zis ('akanil, 'akal, 'aka- 
J'fl, \5kaiil, 'akaatt Cakabi'dil-) 
P. *akasfs-zas ('akasinil, *akas, 
akajfs, 'akasiil, 'akasooO ('a 
kabPdis-) R. 'aka-nas-zas (na- 
nfl, nal, njil, neiil, nat) (nabi*- 
dil-) O. 'aka-oos-zas (661, ool, 
jol, ool, oof) (bi'dol-) 

2. to have one's belt on. 

N. 'akasfs-zaaz ('akasfnfl, *aka 
'akajf, 'akasiil, 'akasoot) 
zis, zees, zeez, dis, zees, to singe 
This verb is highly irregular in 
the 1st person dpi, and in the 
passive, where the stem becomes 
dis, de£s, deez, dis, dees. 
F. dees-sis (dfi, yidoo, jidoo, dii, 
dooh) (bidi'doodis) I. yis-sees 
(ni, yi, ji, yii, ghoh) (bi'didees) 
P. yi-zeez (ymi, yiyif, jfi, yii, 
ghoo) (bi'doodeez R. nas-dis 
(nani, nei, njf, neii, nah) (nabi'- 
di-) O. ghos-sees (ghoo, yo, jo, 
ghoo, ghooh) (bi'do-) 
zo, zo, zo, dzo, zo, to mark. 

1. to make a mark. 
F. 'a-dees-so (dif, doo, zhdoo, 
diid, dooh) I. *iis-so Cii, 'ii, 'ajii, 
*iid, 'oh) Prog, 'ees-so ('if, *oo, 
*ajoo, Mid, f ooh) P. 'ase-zo Casf- 
ni, 'a, 'aji, 'asiid, *asoo) R. na'- 



us-dzo (na ii, nan, njn, nan, 
na on) O. oos-so ( oo, o, ajo, 
'ood, *ooh) 

2. to mark it; to scratch it (a 

F. dees-soh (dii, yidoo, jidoo, diid 
dooh) (bidi'dood-) I. yiis-soh 
(yii, yiyii, jii, yiid, ghooh) (bi'- 
diid-) P. se-zoh (sinf, yiiz, jiiz, 
si id, soo) (bi'disd-) R. neis-dzoh 
(n6ii, nayii, njii, neiid, naooh) 
(nabi'dii-) O. ghos-soh (ghoo 
yO/ J6/ ghood, ghooh) (bi'dod-) 

tsitt'etf sezoh, I struck a match. 
zoh, zooh, xo\ zoh, z66h f to spit. 

1. to spit it out. 
F. ha-didees-soh (didii, ididoo 
zhdidoo, didiid, didooh) I. ha- 
dis-sooh (df, idi, zhdi, diid, doh) 
P. ha-dff-zo' (dfini, idif, zhdif, 
diid, dooh) P. ha-ndis-soh (ndi, 
neidi, nizhdf, ndiid, nd6h) O. 
ha-dos-sooh (doo, ido, zhdo, 
dood, dooh) 

Z99S, Z99S, Z99X, dqq%. 199s, to 

This verb, like zis, is highly ir- 
regular in the 1 st person dpi, and 


in the passive, where stem-init- 
ial z becomes d. 

1 . to rip it; to tear it (roughly). 

F. 'adees-SQgs Cadif, 'iidoo, 'a- 
zhdoo, *adii, *adooh) (*abidi*- 
doodggs) I. 'iis-sggs (*ani, *ii, 
'aji, 'ii, *ooh) Cabi'did^s) Prog. 
yis-sgps (yi, yoo, joo, yii, ghoh) 
(bi'doodQ9s) P. 'ff-zpgz ('fini 
'ayff, ajii, 'ii, 'oo) Cabi'doodggz) 
R. 'anas-dpgs ('anani, 'anef, *a- 
njf, 'aneii, *anah) ('anabi'didgps) 
. oos-sgps ( 00, ayo, ajo, 00, 
ooh) ('abi'dodogs) 

2. to turn it inside out (as a 

F. ndees-SQQS (ndfi, neidoo, nfzh- 
doo, ndii, ridooh) (nabidPdoo- 
dQQs) I. nas-S9QS (nanf, nei, n- 
jf, neii, nah) (nabPdid<?<?s) P. 
nise-zggz (nfsfnf, nei, nfjf, nfsii, 
nfsoo) R. nf-nas-dpgs (nanf, nef, 
najf, neii, nah) (nabi'didgps) O. 
naos-sggs (naoo, nayo, njo, no- 
oo, naooh) (nabi'dodQQs) 

she*6etsoh nfsez^gz, I turned 
my coat inside out. 



The following words, largely interjections and other similar 
expressions were not entered in the main body of the dictionary. 
A list of words of similar type, namely the onomatopoetic, were 
given under the verb stem ts'[[+ (10). 

*qq\ well! (anticipation, as 
when a person approaches one 
as though to speak, but says no- 

'ahdldane', poor! woe! (as in 
'ahalaane' shicheii, poor grand- 
pa! — showing that one is sorry 
for, or sympathetic with "grand- 
pa" who is sick, or otherwise in 
trouble, 'ahalaane* is also used 
as an exclamation when inti- 
mates are reunited after long 
'ahehee', thank you. 
'akdh, excuse me! 
'akdoh, get out of the way! make 

'akooh, look out! (warning). 
*ak6d nildahdi nanich'fjdii, gc 
on, scram! get the heck away 
from here! 
'ditse t'aa 'dk^ nanind, stick 
*ayd, ouch! 

behe! behe, (to call a sheep). 
beii'! beiP, hyah! hyah! (to call a 

bichV dah diilgheed, sic em! 
ch'ijdiitahgdd, damn! 
da* t'dd 'aanii, no kidding! is 
that a fact!? (incredulity). 
doo 'dhdlydni, you blockhead! 
doolddd'da, golly! oh boy! (as 
when one sees something beauti- 

doolddd' doodada or doolddd' 
'aydi da la, oh dear! (mild dis- 

dooda sh|i, no! (as when one ex- 
presses incredulity and surprise) 
doo shaa ndhdt'ij da, I'm not 
supposed to be bothered. 
*ei Id t'dd 'ei ni, that's the stuff! 
now you're in the groove! 
'eii, oh! (suffering). 
ge', silence! hush! 
ghoshdff'! ghdshdff', here! 
here! (as in calling to another 
player to throw the ball to one). 
gidi! gidi, kitty! kitty! 
haald 'dhdneeh, well! well! well! 
(mild and pleasant surprise, as 
in meeting an old friend). 
haald 'dhdneeh, what the — ! 
haald 'dhoodzaa, wake up! (qs 
when one is not paying atten- 

haald 'dnineeh, what's the mat- 
ter with you?! (as one would say 
to a child who spilled its milk) 
hdgoshu, go ahead! ok! 
hdgosh|f beehodoozjji, we'll see! 
(disbelief, or acceptance of a 

hazhd'dgo, be careful! (as when 
one cautions a hunter about to 
start on a hunting trip). 
heeh, oh ho! (as when one catch- 
es a thief in the act). 


hei, hey! (as in shouting to at- 
tract a person's attention). 
heii or heeh, sa-a-y! (suspicion). 
hoot'aah, make room! (as when 
one wants to enter a crowded 

hwddh, whew! (as when one is 
hot or tired, or when one sets a 
burden down). 

jishchaadff' , what the heck! 
jo t'dd 'aanii, and how! (empha- 
tic agreement). 

k'adi or t'dadoo 'dnit'ini, quit it! 
that's enough! 

k'ad Iqq, there! (as when one has 
finished a task). 
kodi! kodi, help! help! 
Wtt, ph! phff! (to show one's dis- 
dain, as of a braggard's claims). 
nahji', one side! (as when one 
wants people to step to one side 
in order to pass). 

nanich'iidii, all right then, don't! 
nda yee*, hell no! 
nighohddi, shove over! move 

niish nik'ehdi, what's it to you! 
what do you care! 
rtiyooch'iid, nuts to you! you lie! 
nizee* or t'dadoo anilck'jjdii 
shut up! 

rtldahdi nanind, go away! beat 

shiid, s-ss! s-sst! (to call one's 
attention without being over- 

shuuh! shuuh, here! here! (as in 
shuuh! shuuh! haaffi la baa 
nanina, here! here! what are you 

doing?!) (as when one might see 
a child tearing up money). 
t'dd 'aanii 'ddishni, no fooling!! 
(as in t'aa 'aanii 'adfshni haa- 
shq' hooted, no fooling, what 

t'dd *dko or \q'qq t you're wel- 
come (in answer to thank you). 
t'dadoo 'ddinini, pipe down! 
don't say that! 

t'dadoo 'dnit'ini, look out! take 
care! (a warning given to a per- 
son who is annoying one). 
t'dadoo shaa ndnit'ini, don't bo- 
ther me! let me alone! 

t'dd shj[ 'dko, oh well! (resigna- 

r'dd shp^di, please. 
t'dd 'ddini, no! you're not seri- 
ous (incredulity and surprise). 
t'dd 'ddishni, I merely remarkedf 
I'm just kidding! 

r'dd bdhodoonih, (indicates that 
one is bothered or disturbed, as 
when one's neighbor turns on o 
radio in the middle of the night 
and awakens one, or when a fly- 
insists upon sitting on one. The 
corresponding English expres- 
sions cannot be printed). 
tj' or tj'e$, let's go! come on! 
tt'is! Wis, to call a goat. 
* sx !!*9<>, hurry up! 
wddh, yoo hoo! 

ydd tsik'eh, gnats! phooey! (tc 
express incredulity of a tale or 
statement that appears to be a 
gross exaggeration of the truth) 


yih, oops! (as when one nearly 
drops something). 
yooch'iid *at'e, it's a lie! 

yaah, wow! (amazement). 
y<T *eii, aw c'mon! 
ya'at'eelv swell! fine! good! (al- 
so as a greeting, hello!) 




Naabeeho dine e bizaad t aadoo yee 'ak 'eda'atchfhi t'66 yee 
yddaattfgo t'dd 'ahayof nddhai. Bilagaanaa Naabeeho bizaad 
dao bit beedahdzinii Naabeeho Bilagaanaa bizaad t'eiyd yee yd- 
daatti' dooleet, hddld Naabeeho bizaad doo yd'dt'eeh da, daanfi- 
go Bilagaanaa bizaad t'eiyd yinida'nittingo hoolzhiizh. 

K'ad naaltsoos dikwfi sh[[ Naabeeho bizaad bee bik'ida'ash- 
ch[[go 'dlyaa, doo k'ad nihil beedahozingo Naabeeho bizaad ndd- 
ndtahd£§' saadfgff t'dd bit 'ahidaatt'eego 'dt'ee la. Naabeeho 
dine'e t'66 'ahayof, doo hool'ddgoo t'dd bi bizaad yee yddaatti' 
dooleet, doo Naabeeho t'dd bf bizaad gholta' doo bee 'ak'e'elchf 
yfdahwiidoot'ddt 'atdd\ Bilagaanaa bizaad ghdlta* doo bee 'ak'e- 
'elchf doo bee ydti' 'atdd' yfdahwiidoot'aat, 'dko dff nahasdzddn 
bikda'gi t'dadoo bee bich'j' 'andhodt'ugoo keehat'[[ dooleet, ndi 
Naabeeho bizaad doo yoo* 'adeididoo'dat biniighe 'dhd'nfi da. 
Dif saadfgff bee 'ak'e'elchff doo bee yati* doo Bilagaanaa bizaad 
bit 'ahqqh sinilgo binahji' Bilagaanaa bizaad t'dadoo hodina'f 
bfhoo'aah dooleetgo *dt*e. 

Dif naaltsoos saad bii* 'dtah 'dlyaafgff 'dt'e. Naaki 'ahif sinil; 
'dtse si'dnfgff Bilagaanaa bizaad Naabeehok'ehgo yaa halne', 
doo 'akeedee' si'dnfgff t'eiyd Naabeeho bizaad Bilagdanaak'ehgo 
yaa halne*. 

Naabeeho to' saad Naabeeho bizaad bee 'dlyaafgfi hddideesh- 
'j[t jinizingo dff saad hdzhdeez'figff saad t'dadoo le'e yaa dahal- 
ne'fgff bee ninft'i'fgff (verb stem) bikd'fgff biyaagi jidfddo'jit. Hd- 
dfzhdoo'iitfgff t'eiyd saad bd sildhfgff t'ah bich'i* dahweelzhfizh- 
go baa nitsdhdkeesigff doo k'ad *ddahat*[jgo baa nitsdhdkeesfgff 
dabikd'fgff biyaagi hddizhddo'jit. 

Kdt'do (for example) dooleei t'eiyd t'ah bich'i* hoolzhishgo 
'dolghe. Yileet t'eiyd k'ad 'dhdt'Qgo 'dolghe. Dff saad t'dd *dtah 
t'ddtd'fgff bd slid, 'dko kot'e doo-leet; yi-Ieet. Dff saadfgff t'dd 
""atari -leef bee ninftT, 'dko *ef 'dolghe bd sildhfgfi (stem) 

*Ako dff naaltsoos saad bii' 'dtah 'dlyaafgif bighi* leet bikd'fgi 
jidfdoo'iit doo biyaagi saad t*dd 'attso lee* bd naazldhfgfi dabi- 
kdd' dooleet, ddd Bilagdanaak'ehji 'atdd* bikdd* dooleet. 'Adddo 
"fnda nddndtahgo Bilagaanaak'ehgo bee bik'indd'ashchinfgi hd- 
ndddizhddo'iit doo 'inda saad£§ t'dd 'dolgheii hot beehodoozjjt. 
Kdt'do leet bikd'fgi *aa 'djiilaago dff saadfgff biyaagi kdt'eego bi- 
kdd* dooleet: 

leet, leeh (If, I9), \$ t dleeh, leV to become. 

F. deesh-teet (dfi, doo, jidoo, dii, dooh) 
La' jiz[ ha'at'eego la Bilagaanaak'ehjf leet, leeh (lj, lq) t Iff, 
dleeh, le* jididoonitf la jinizingo dn naaltsoos bikaa'gi become bi- 
ka'igi jididoo'u* doo 'mda 'akwe'e kot'eego bikaa' dooleet: 

become/ to (becoming, became, become) 
Saad 'alqqji* si'anfgfi (become) t'eiya infinitive gholghe. Jo *6f 
'akohgo 'adoodleei doo 'ako'oolgheenii dooleet doo nfi da. Jo t'66 
'adleeh, 'oodleei, 'asdlu' jini nahalin. K6t'6ego bee yati': 

Hastiin deesh+eet nisin, I want to become a man. (Naabee- 
ho doo "hastiin 'adoodleei nisin" daanii da, Bilagaanaa t'eiy6 
'dkot'Sego yadaa*ti\) 

Saad naanata* 'a+do* t'a6 'akonaadaat'e. Jo 'ei 'adoolnfft (to 
moke). 'Adeesh+fit nisin, I want to make it; 'aPf be6hasin, I know 
how to make it. 

Diidugii t'eiya saad to be gholghShigfi bit bee ydti\ Kof 6ego. 

deeshteet, I will become. diidleet; dadiidleet, we will 

dffleet, you will become. become. 

dooleet, he, she, it will be- doohteet; dadoohteel, you 

come. will become. 

jidooleet, he, she will be- dooleef; dadooleet; jidoo 

become. leet; dazhdooleei, they will be- 

hodooleet, it will become; come, 
things will become, 

deeshteet nt'£|', I would be- difleet nt*e£', you would be- 

come, come. 

'Atch'j'go nrda'azhahigii ( ) bita'gi saad taa' 'atkee* sinil. 
'Alqqji* sfanigif t'eiya gerund gholghe. Saad infinitive deitnini- 
nfgu 'at'eegogo t'aa 'ndqq' -ing bee ninft'i' teh. Jo dii saadign 
'ako'oolgheenii 'at'i doo nfi da; t'aa hazho'6 t'66 k'ad 'ahat'i nfi- 
gohalne' Jo 'ei saad to be gholghehfgif bit bee yati\ 'Oodleet = 
to be becoming. 

yish+eet, I am becoming. yishtee! nt'e^ 1 , I was be- 

yfleel, you are becoming. coming. 

yileet, he (bikq'ii), she (ba- yfleet nt'e§\ you were be- 

'aadii), it, is becoming. coming. 

jooleet, he, she, it is becom- yileet ht'$$\ he, she, it was 

ing. becoming. 

hooleet, it is becoming; jooleet nt'§f \ he, she, was 

things are becoming. becoming. 

yiidleet; deiidleet, we are hooleet nt'4£', it was be- 
becoming. coming; things were becom- 

ghohteet; daahteet, you are ing. 
becoming. yiidleet; deiidleet nt*££\ we 

yileet; daaleet; jooleet; da- were becoming, 
jooleet, they are becoming. ghohteet; daahteet nt'e£\ 

you are becoming. 

yileet; daaleet; jooleet; da- 
jooleet nt*e£* they were be- 

'Atch'i* na'azhahfgff ( ) bita'gi naaki g6ne' saad nadnast'a- 
nigff t'eiya post tense gholghe. J6 *6i 'ako'oolghSenii '6f[ doo nfi 
da, t'aa hazh6'6 t ad 'ifdqq* 'ahoot ud niigo halne\ Pronoun 
gholgh^hfgn bilqqji' si'qqgo bee yati\ *ako 'ako'oolgh^enii nfigo 
halne\ 'Ako: 

selii', I became. siidlu ; dasiidlif, we be- 

sinilii', you became. came. 

silii', he, she, it became. soolu ; dasoolif, you be- 

jizljf , he, she became. came. 

hazlff, it became; things sil{f; daazl[{'; jizlff; dajiz- 

became. \{[\ they became, 

'AtchT na'dzhahfgff ( ) bita'gi saad tad' g6ne* si'dnfgfi 
t'^iya post participle gholgh£. Jo *£i saad to hove doodait* to be 
daolghehign bit bee ydti\ K6t*6ego: 

selii*, I have become siidlif; dasiidlii, we have 

sfnflii', you have become. become, 

sillf , he, she, it has become soolii'; dasoolif, you have 

jizIJi', he, she has become. become, 

hazlif, it has become; silff"; daazlu'; jizlff; dajiz- 

things have become. Iff, they have become. 

s6lii' ni*, I had become. siidlif ; dasiidlif ni\ we had 

sin i I if nP, you had become, become. 


si I if ni\ he, she y it had be- sooljf ; dasoolif r>r , you had 

come. become. 

jtzlf-f ni\ he, she had be- sil££*; daaztff; jtel{i; dajiz- 

come. I if nP, they had become. 

Saad to be doo to hove gholghehfgn doo saad \q 'crfch'f tia'a- 
zhahign ( ) bita'gi siniligif bit *a*kee' sinilgo Bilagcanaa 'agha 
yee yad'ddttr, 'ako ndr+ahgo 'anaa'nnt. 'Cf biniinaa kwe'e blk6a" 

nisht[, I am. niidl[; daniidlf, we are. 

n*t{, you are. nohtj; danohti, you are. 

nil[, he, she, it is nil[; danil[; jfl[; dajili, they 

jil[, he, she is. are. 

holg, there is. daholg, there are. 

nisMff rtt'ee', I was. were. 

n»lf[ f\f§§\ you were nohtfi; danoh'tfi Tit'"#e\ yotr 

niljj nt'lg', he, she, it was. were. 

jflii rtf&\ he, she was. nil[{; danilfi; jfltf; dafttff n- 

holQg nt'§e', there was; t^e*, tbey were, 

there used to be. daholQQ nt*^, there were; 

niidlii; daniidl|[ nt*e£', we there used to be. 

nisht[i dooleet, I will be. will be. 

nfljj doolee+, you will be. rohtii; danoh+ii doolee*, you* 

nil{[ dooleeJ, he, she, it will will be. 

be. nilii; danilii; jf!£i, dajil{i 

jflft dooteet, he, she wilt be. doofeet, they wrlf be. 

hol§9 dooleet, there wilt be. daholfo * doofee*, there wrlf 

niidlii; daniidlJi dooleet, we be. 

nishtii doofee* ftt*&\ I nflft dooleet nt^f, you» 

would be. would be. 

shee hole, I have. nrhee hdlg, we have, 

nee hole, you have. nihee holp, you have, 

bee hol9 ? he, she, it has. shee holpp f\f$$' I had. 

hwee hol£, he, she has. nee holpQ nt*^', you had. 

Bilagdanaak'ehji na'fdikidgo dfl saadfgfi tahgo dnaddaat'Uh: 

selu , I become; da' self!*, did I become? 
sfnflif, you became; da* sinilil', did you become. 

Dff beedaa+niih: jo *ei faadoo !e\§ t'aa 'ifdqq' ah66t'iidigii bi ■ 
no'fdotkidgo dff saadfgif bee hadoohdzih. Did I? did you? did he? 
did she? did we? did you? did they? D66 'inda soad 'a+tse si'dnigii 
jo 'ef infinitive form gholghe, *ei bit *a+kee* sinilgo bee hadooh- 

Saad bring, to (bringing, brought, brought) gholgh^hfgff bik'i- 
ninootqq'go *6i I brought it, nPq jiniigo 'oolghe. Da* nfqish jinfi- 
go t'eiya did I bring it? — did I brought it? t'eiya dooda. 

K'ad sh[i 'inda dif naaltsoos bits'qqdoo Naabeeho Bilagaanaa 
bizaad Iq'f yfdahwiidoot'aaJ, doo Bilag6anaa Naabeeh6 blzaad 
Iq'i yidahwiidoot aat. 'Ahidinttnaago 'aheedadPdiitRfgM t'aa 'ii- 
ghisff bichq hwfideenih, *ako 'afch'ishjf yadeiilti'fgff doo nitsideii- 
keesfgn aha bik f idadi'diit[iJ\ 


abalone, diichiti. 
abdomen, 'atsq. 
ability, 'iichjih. 
able, to be (being, was, been), 
*qqt 3, I am able to do anything 
that you can do, nineesh'q. I am 
not able, doo bmeesh qq da. 
abortion, 'atsq haVeet. 
abort, to (aborting, aborted, a- 
borted), *ot 19. I aborted; I had 
on abortion, sitsq ha'iTeel. I a- 
borted it, sitsq ha'iiTeel. 
about, daats'f. There are about 
ten, neezndd daats'f yilt'6 
about it, baa; binaa. 
about to, k*ad£e, I am about to 
die, k*ad#§ shi'niitsq. 
above it, bideijfgo. 
abrasion, tsiih yft'ood. 
abreast, 'ahqqh. We are walk- 
ing four abreast, diniilt'eego *a- 
hqqh yiikah. 

absent, to be (being, was, been), 
dyt 1. Why were you absent, 
ha'dt'ushq* binfinao 'dnfdin nf- 

absentee, bdhdlydahii. 

acorn, chechMI bindd*. 

accident, doo bit ntsfhdkeesigi 


accompany, to (accompanying 

accompanied, accompanied) 

gddt 51 . I shall accompany him, 

bit deesh'ash. 

accomplish, to (accomplishing 

accomplished, accomplished) 

lift 23. I accomplished the task, 

naanish to* yishtaa. 


accomplished, to be (being, was, 
been), nnt 12. It has been ac- 
complished, \o yidzaa. 
accomplishment, \o yilyaafgii. 
according to it, bik'eh. 
accusation, 'ak'ihodiit'q. 
accuse, to (accusing, accused, 
accused), 'ddt 13. I accused 
him of killing my horse, shil[f 
sfnithf dishmigo bik'ihodii'q. 
ache, diniih. 

acidity of the stomach, titsoii. 
Acorn a, haak'oh, 
acquainted with, to get (getting, 
got, gotten), zjit, I will get ac- 
quainted with him, bit 'ah66ho- 
deeszijt. 1 am acquainted with 
him, bit 'aheehoniszin. We got 
acquainted with each other, V 

acquire, to (acquiring, acquired 
acquired), feet 9. I acquired a 
horse from a Mexican, t[f naa 
kaii bits 'qqd& shdi'sett'^ 
acquisition, shooztVii. 
acre, ndhdsdzo haydzhf. 
across, gonaa;. ha*naa; kdnaa, 
ts^ 1 naa. 

across here, kdnaa. 
across there, 'dkonaa. 
act alone, to (acting, acted f act- 
ed), t'eet. I am acting alone, 
t adtah dinisht^hf. 
action, to take (taking, took, ta 
ken), t'ijt 1 . I am taking action 
on it, baa yinfsht'f. 
actually, t'dd 'aanii. 
add to it, to (adding, added, add- 
ed), 'ddt 18. I added it to it, bf~ 



n6isht q. I added them to it, bi- 

addicted to it, to be (being, was, 
been), niit 2. I am addicted to it, 
bichq yfdeeshni. You are addict- 
ed to whiskev, todilhit bichq yf- 

addiction, 'achq hwffd^eni. 
addition, 'fnei'nil. 
adhesion, 'ahfdf'nfisq. 
adobe, bis. 

adolescence, 'anoos££t. 
adultery, 'aditghe; 'adoolya. 
adultery, to commit (committing 
committed, committed), Iee+ 1 
I committed adultery, 'adnla. 
advance, to (advancing, advanc 
ed, advanced), gaat 26. I am 
advancing, naas yishaat. 
advertise, to (advertising, adver- 
tised, advertised), kqqt 2. I am 
advertising it, bfooshkqqh. 
advertisement, '6'oolkqqh. 
advice, na'nitin. 
afar, mzaadgoo; nfzaagoo. 
afraid of it, to be (being, was, 
been), dzfft 1 . I am afraid of it, 
binctedzid. I'll come to be afraid 
of it, beedeesdznt. 
after, doo bilc*iji". 
after-birth, 'awe^ 1 biyaataf. 
after that, ghonaasdoo; 'aadoc 

after while, hodfina'go. 
against him, bfniika. 
against it, binahJP 
agent, naalchi'i. 

090, -dqq\ Two years ago, naa- 
ki naahdifdqq*. 


agree to it, to (agreeing, agreed, 

agreed), feet 4. I agreed to it, 

bee Iq 'asetii'. 

agreed upon, to be (being, was, 

been), leet 34. It was agreed up- 

on, bee Iq *azl[f. 

agreement, Iq *azl[[\ 

agreement with, to make an 

(making, made, made), t'dat 3 

I made an agreement with him, 

bit 'ahadi'nisht'q. 

agriculture, k'ee'dflgheeh. 

aground, to run (running, ran, 

run), *ot 4. The ship ran a- 

ground, tsinqa'eet dzfits'adi- 


ahead of him, bilqqji*; bitsiji'. 

aid, 'aka Velgheed. 

aid, to (aiding, aided, aided), 

ghot 11. I am aiding him, bika, 


ailment, 'qqh dahat'q. 

aimlessly, t'66 dzolnffgoo. 

air, nitch*i. 

airplane, chidi noat'a'f; beesh 


Albuquerque, N. M. be'eldi/la- 

sinil; bee'eldifldahsinil. 

alcohol, 'azee* likonf. 

alder, k'ish. 

alfalfa, t-Toh waa'f. 

algae, tatt'id. 

alive, to be (being, was, been). 

noot 2. I am alive, hinishna, I 

was alive, hinishnaa nt'§#\ 

alkali, teeyaan; tahaniT. 

all, aftso; t f aa 'attso. That's all, 

t'aa *ak6di. 

alligator, bitsee* yee 'adithatii. 


allow, to (allowing, allowed 
allowed), 'ddf 18. I allowed him 
to spend the night in my home, 
shighan gone' biidoo+kddt binii- 
ghe badi'nf'q. 

all right, hagoshu; Iq; Iq'qq'. 
all together, 'ahiooltq'go The 
man has three daughters, and 
two sons, so all together he has 
five children, hastiin bitsi' tad* 
bighe* t'eiyd naaki, 'dkot'dd 'at- 
tso 'ahiooltq'go 'ashdla' ba'd-l'- 

almost, k'asdqq*; k'ad^. I al- 
most died, k'asdqq* dasetsq. 
alone, t'dd sdhf; t'dd sahdii. 
already, t'aa 'fiddq'. I have al 
ready eaten, t'aa 'ffdqq* *nyqq*. 
also, 'aWo'; do'. 
alternation, 'ata'ninil. 
alum, tsek*?'; tse dfk'gpzh. 
aluminum, beesh 'ddaaszodlfgff 
always, t'aa 'dtaji'; hooPddgoo. 
ambuscade, baa ni'iiyeedza. 
ambush, baa ni'iiyeedzd. 
ambush, to (ambushing, am- 
bushed, ambushed), dddf 2. I 
ambushed him, baa nihinisdzd 
I am ambushing him; I am lying 
in ambush for him, baa hmfshdd 
ammunition, bee'efdpgh bik'a*. 
among them, bitah. 
amputation, 'ats'doz'a* k'egeesb 

anesthesia (general), 'atah na- 


anesthesia (local), 'ats'ooz naaz 

anesthesia, 'i'iilghddsh. 
anesthetic, bee 'i'iilghashi. 


anesthetic, to give an (giving, 

gave, given), hosh 5. I will give 

him an anesthetic, bi'iideesh- 


ancestor, 'azdzi; 'azdzf y§eni\ 

ancient people, 'anaasdzi. 

, doo; aadoo; inda. 
and then r 'dddoo. 
Aneth, Utah, taa bfich'fidii. 
anger, *dhdchi\ 

anger, to (angering, angered, 
angered), ch[[+ 3. I angered him, 
bd hootchi'. 

angry, to become (becoming; be- 
come, become), chill 4. I will be- 
come angry, shd hodoochjjt. I 
am angry, sha hach[\ 
angora goat, ti'fzMls. 
animal, naaldlooshii. 

ankle joint, 'akets'iin. 

annual, nindhdhdahgo ('dhoo- 
nttigfi); taa nindhdhddh bik'eh 

anoint, to (anointing, anointed, 
anointed), t+ah 1. I anointed 
him, sett+ah. 

another one, nddnd+a\ 
another, -ndd-. I made another, 
fa' 'dnddndshdlaa. I killed an- 
other, ta' nddseth[. 

ant, woldzhinf (black); wold- 

chff (red). 

antiseptic, ch'osh doo yit'iinil 

bee naatseedi. 

antilope, jddf. 

antler, (b[[h) bidee'. 

any, t'dd btholnfhf. 

anybody, t*dd hdiida. 

anyone, t'dd hdiida. 


anything, t'aa biholnihigii; t aa 

doo le'e. 

anus r 'ajilchit'. 

anvil, bik'i 'atsidi. 

Apache (White Mountain), dzit- 


ape, magitsoh; mogftsoh. 

apparatus, bee na'anishi. 

apparently, t'aa 'nshjdni; t'aa- 

doo bahat'aadL 

appease, ta (appeasing, appeas- 

ed, appeased), hit 3, I appeased 

you with money, beeso bee ni 

dii+heel. I gave you money to 

appease you, beeso naa nf'q bee 

didii+hit biniighe. 

appeasement, 'adiigheet. 

appendix, 'ach'iT bits'dni'nfsq. 

appetite, to lack an (lacking, 

lacked, lacked), z'iit 3. I lack an 

appetite; I have no appetite, doo 

'anisin da. 

appetizer, bich*i' 'aznfzinf. 
apple, bilasaanaa. 
apprehend, to (apprehending 
apprehended, apprehended) 

kah 1 . The criminal was appre- 
hended, dine doo yd'ashooni* 

approve, to (approving, approv 
ed, approved), feet 4. I will ap- 
prove it, bee \q 'adeeshteet. 
approval, \q *azl[(\ 
apricot, didzetsoh yazhi. 
April, t'qqchil. 
apron, 'ateelsittsooz. 
aragonite (banded), hadahoni- 


arch (of the foot), akeni."; *ake 


archery, nfdilt'oh. 

argyrol, ndkeedzi* tizhinigfi. 

arise, to (arising, arose, arisen), 

*nah 4. I arose, ridiish'na'. 

arm, agaan. 

armpit, 'ach'dhdya. 

around it, binaa; binaagdd. 

around, naa-. he is walking a 

round, naaghd. He is walking 

around it, yinddgddt. 

around the corner from it, biza- 

ndghah. My house is around 

the corner from that rock, nl6f 

rse deez'dhi bizdndghahdi shi- 

kin si'q. 

arrest, to (arresting, arrested, ar- 
rested), tso+ 2. I arrested him, 
bee haz'danii bik'ehgo yiittsood. 
arrive, to (arriving, arrived, ar- 
rived), gdd+ 1 8. I arrived, nfyd. 
arrow, k*aa\ 
arrowhead, k'aabeesh. 
arrowhead (of flint), beesh 'es~ 

arroyo, chdshk'eh; bikooh. 
art, na'ach'qqh. 
artery, 'ats'oostsoh tichi'fgfi. 
artist, na'ach'qqhi, 
ascend, to (ascending, ascended 
ascended), gddt 4, 5. I ascend- 
ed, haseyd. I ascended the hill, 
hok'dq haseyd. 

ascension, ha'asdzd; deigo dah 


ascent, ha'asdzd; deigo dah diil 



os far as, -ji\ I went as far as the 
river, tooh nli'niji* ninfya. 
ashamed, to be (being, was, 
been), zj[t 6. I am ashamed, ya 
nisin. I am ashamed of it, baa 
ya nisin. 

ashes, teeshch'ih. 
ashore, to go (going, went, gone) 
gaat 21. I went ashore, dzHts'a- 

ask, to (asking, asked, asked) 
kit 2, 3. I asked, na'fdee+kid. I 
asked him, nabideefkid. 
ask for, to (asking, asked, asked) 
kit 1. I asked him for it, yfkeed. 
asleep, 'athosh; yiisff\ I am a- 
sleep, 'ashhosh. My hand is a- 
sleep, shila' yiisif. 
aspen, t'iisbai. 

asperate, dich'fizh; dishch*ffzh. 
Asiatic, binaa'adaa+ts'ozi di- 
ne e. 

aspirin, tsiits'iin diniih *ozee\ 
ass, telii. 

assassin, 'iisxiinii. 
assassinate, to (assassinating 
assassinated, assassinated), h66t 
2; tsit 1. I assassinated him, set- 
hi. I assassinated them, niset- 

assassination, 'iilghe. 
assemble, to (assembling, as- 
sembled, assembled), leet 15 
We will assemble, 'alah diidleet. 
We are assembled, 'alah niidl[. 
assembly, 'atah 'aleeh. 
assorted, 'a+taas^f. 
astonished, to be (being, was, 
been), ghis 4. I was astonished 
by it, bik'ee d^sghiz. 

astonishment, 'adeesghiz. 
astray, to go (going, went, gone), 
gaat 30. I went astray, y66 *ifya 
atlas (bone), 'ak'os doolghoti. 
attack, 'ak'6e'iijah. 
attack, to (attacking, attacked, 
attacked), ghot 20. We will at- 
tack each other, 'a+k'iidiilghot 
We will attack one another, 'at- 
k'iidiijah. ghat 18. I will attack 
him, bik'iideeshghot. ghot 7. I 
attacked him, bik'ijf dah diish 
ghod. I sneaked up on the bear 
and attacked it, shash baa ni- 
nishna' doo bik'iji* dah diish- 

attention, to call — to (calling, 
called, called), nih 8. I will call 
his attention to the fact that his 
horse is dead, bilff daaztsancgu 
bee bi'deeshnih, 

at, -gi, -di. At school, 'olta'gi. 
At home, hooghandi. 
at the same time, t'aa 'ahqqh. 
attorney, *agha'diit'aahti. 
augmentation, ytdlqqd. 
August, bini'ant'qqts'ozi. 
aunt (maternal), *omo yazhf. 
aunt (paternal), *abfzhf. 
authority, to have (having, had 
had), nih 3. I have authority 
over you, nee shfholnffh. 
automobile, chidf. 
aviator, na'a+t'a'f. 
aware of, to become (becoming, 
became, become), zfit 14; chi[h. 
I am aware of the fact that you 
did not work yesterday, 'adqq- 
dqq' t'aadoo nisfnflnishfgff bao 
'ahonisin. I was aware of him, 


but before I could dodge he hit 
me, t'dd baa *dhdshch[ih, ndi 
taadoo disghesi' shit dzidees- 

away, yoo\ He went away, yoo' 
away from him, bits qq*; bits'qq- 

J' • 

awesome, to be. t'eet 3. It is 

awesome, 'aydf at'e. 
awful, hoghee'; t'dd 'fighisii; *a- 
yoogo. It is awfully cold, *ayoogo 
awl # tsah. 
ax, tsenit. 
axle (wagon), tsinaabqqs bijddd 
axle grease, 'ajee'. 
axle tree (wagon), tsinaabqqs bi- 
jaad bita' nanfdhf. 
Aztec, N. M., kinteel. 


baby, 'a wee'. 

Baca, N, M„ kin tigaaL 

bachelor, be'esdzqq 'ddinii. 

back, ndt'qq'. 

back (of head), 'atsiiyah. 

backbone, 'ffghddn. 

backwards, t'qq'; t'qqjigo; t'qq- 
« • » 

J' • 

back out, to (backing, backed, 
backed), t*|[t 3. I was going with 
him but I backed out, bit de- 
adzh nt^f t'66 'ddhosist'iid. 
backward, to be, leet 6. They 
are backward, nP danil[. 
bacteria, ch'osh doo yit'finii. 
bad, doo yd'dt'eeh da; doo yd a- 
shoo da. 


badger, nahashchMd. 
bag, 'azis. 
baker, bddh 'fit'fni. 
bakery, bddh al'iigi. 
baking powder, bit 'e'el'inf. 
ball, joot 

ball like, dijool; ni'maz. 
banana, hashk'aan. 
bandage, 'ak'idadidisi. 
bank, beeso bd hooghan. 
baptism, 'atsiit'dd to 'dlneeh. 
barber, tsiighd yilzhehi. 
barber shop, tsiighd yi!zh£eh bdh 

barbed wire, beesh deeshzhaaf; 
beesh 'adishahL 

bark, to (barking, barked, bark- 
ed), *{{t 7. The dog is barking, 
teechqq'i nahat'in. 
bark, tsin bahdsht oozh; 'azhiih. 
barrel, toshjeeh; wooden barrel, 
tsin toshjeeh. 
bastard, ydtasHkf. 
baseball game, 'aheejolgheedf. 
bashful, to be, zftt 6. I am bash- 
ful, yd nisin. 
bashfulness, yd hasin. 
basin (wash-), bii' ti'ddigisf. 
bast, 'azhnh. 

bat, jaa abanf; bee 'akalf. 
bat, to (batting, batted, batted) . 
hat5. I batted it, abfdzfithaal. 
bathe, to (bathing, bathed, bath- 
ed), beet 1 . I am bathing, naash- 

batten stick, bee nfkTnfltttsh. 

battle, 'atk'ee'iijah. 

battleship, tsinaa'eet bee da ahi 


beach, tabqqhgi. 

bead/ yoo'; (silver) yoo' nimazi. 

bead drill, yoo' bee bighada'a'- 


beak, tsidii bidaaV 

bean, naa'oJl 

bear, shash; dzitgoo ndaakaaf- 

r r 


bear, fro (bearing, bore, born), 
chitt 1, 2. The woman bore a 
child, 'asdzdnf 'awe£' yizhchi. 
beard (of grain), 'alastsii\ 
bean shooter, bee 'adiltqshf. 
beat, to (beating, beat, beaten), 
tat 2. My heart is beating, shijef 
dishjool dah naaltal, hat 1. I am 
beating the drum, 'asaa' yish- 
haat. ts'fjt 2. I beat him up, na- 
netts'in. sqqt 1. I beat my wife 
last night, tfeedqq 'ayiizqq\ 
chift 5. I was beating around the 
bush just to borrow some money 
from him, beeso \o sha'doonit 
nisingo trdishchfi nt'#f . 
beautiful, nizhonf; hozhonf. 
beaver, chaa\ 

because, biniinaa; haald; *ef 
bqqh; bee 'at'e. 
Beclabito, bit+'aah bito\ 
become, to (becoming, became, 
become), zhish 2, 4, 6. It will 
start to become cold, deesk'aaz- 
go hodidoolzhish. It will become 
cold, deesk'aazgo hodoolzhish 
lee* 2,9, 10, 19, 20, 27. I will 
become a man, dine deeshfeet. I 
will become again, naadeesh- 
dleet. It is becoming again, naa- 
hoodleet. The grass is becoming 


green again, tt'oh doott'izh nf- 
daadleeh. It will become Christ- 
mas, keshmesh 'adooleet. 
be, to (being, was, been), leet 4. 
I am, nishi[. You are, nilf. He, 
she, it is, nil[, jflj. We are, niidl[, 
daniidlf. You are, nohtj, danoht[. 
They are, nil[; danilj; dajfl[. t'eet 
1,2. I am, 'anfsht'e. I am thus; 
this is the way I am, konfsht'e. 
This is the way it is, kot'e. That 
is the way it is, 'akot'e. t'eet 4. 
The Navaho are numerous, naa 
beeho t'66 'ahayof yilt'e. It is, 
si'q, sittee*, sitq, shijool, sit{, si- 
la, sighi. sikq. They are, sinil, 

beiter, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), leet 26. I am getting better, 
ya'afeeh naashdleet. 

bed, bikaa* dah 'anitehi; tsas- 

bedbug, woosits'flf. 
bedstead, bikaa 1 dah anitehf. 

bee, tsfs'na. 

beef, beegashii bits[\ 
beehive, tsfs*na bighan. 
beer, bizhee' holonf. 
beeswax, tsfs'na bijeeh. 
bee weed, waa' 
beet, cfVil tichxi'i. 
beetle (stink — ), k'fneedlfshii. 
before him, bftse; bfftse; bitsiji'. 
beggar, 'adokeedf. 
beg, to (begging, begged, beg- 
ged), kqqf 1. I begged him not 
to talk, t'aadoo yanftti'f bidish- 
nfigo n6isiskan, 
begin, to (beginning, began, be- 


gun), gaat 1 . Things began on 
the earth, nahasdzaan bikaa' 
hahooya. t'ih 12. The sing be- 
gan, hataal haatY. Life began 
on the earth, nahasdzaan bikaa* 
'iina hadtY. 

behind him, bik6e'; bine*. 
belch, to (belching, belched, bel- 
ched), zah 1. I belched, deza\ 
belief, ghoodldnigu. 
believe, to (believing, believed, 
believed), dlqqt 1,2. I do not be- 
lieve you, doo nooshdlqq da. I 
believe; I am a believer, 'iinish- 

believer, 'oodlaanii. 
bell, yoo' diits cm. 
below it, biyaajigo. 
belt, sis. 

bench, bik'idah'asdahf nineez 

bend, to (bending, bent, bent), 
tas 1,2. It bent, yiitaaz. It is 
bent, shizhah. I bent it, yiHtaaz. 
nfit 8. I climbed the tree and it 
bent down with me, tsin bqqh 
hasis'na* doo shit yaa 'ddzaa. 
beneath it, biyaa. 
bent, shizhah; ndzhah. 
berry, didz£. 

beseech, to (beseeching, be- 
sought, besought), kqqt 1 . I beg- 
ged (besought) him to give it to 
me, shaa nFaah bidishnfigo n£i- 

beside him, biighah; bfighahgi; 
bfighahgoo; bqqh. , 
best, 'aghdadi yd at^hfgfi. 
between them, bita*; bita'gi. 


beverage, daadlanigii. 
bewitch, to (bewitching, be- 
witched, bewitched), gqsh 1. I 
bewitched him, shetgqsh. lift 31. 
I bewitched him, she'dliil bee 'a- 

bias tape, bi+ nda'alkadf. 
bicycle, ji'izf; dzi'izi. 
big, to be, tso, diil, tsddz, tsxaaz. 
I am big, 'dnfstso; 'antshdnl; 
'amstsaaz; nistsxaaz. Big man ; 

bigamist, be'esdzqq naakii; ba~ 
hastiin naakii. 
Big Dipper, ndhookgs. 
bighorn sheep, tsetah dibe. 
bile, 'atl'izh. 

binocular, bee 'adeest*([\ 
birth, 'achi. 

birth, to give (giving, gave, giv- 
en), chftt 1 , 2. I gave birth to a 
baby, 'awee 1 shetch[. I gave 
birth; I had a baby, *ashetch(. 
birthplace, ho'dizhchijgi. 
bison, 'aydni. 

bit (of a drill), beesh bee bigha- 

bit (of a bridle), 'azee' si'dm, 
bite, to (biting, bit, bitten), hash, 
1 . The dog bit me, feechqq'f 

bitter, dicfViiV 

bitterball, b[[h yiJjaaY 

black, +izh in; di+hi+. 

blackbird, ch'agii. 

blacken, to (blackening, black 

ened, blackened), sh[[f 1 . I 

blackened it, yishf[\ 



Block Rock, N. M., tsezhiih 

black, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), ji(t 1,3. I will get black, 
yideeshjijt. I am black, finish- 

black widow spider, na'ashje'ii 

bladder, tizh bee dah sighinfgfi. 
blame, to (blaming, blamed 
blamed), 'ah 1. If my horse dies 
1 will blame you, shil{f daaz- 
tsqqgo nik'ihodeesh'ah. 
blanket, beeldlef; beeldladf. 
bleed, to (bleeding, bled, bled), 
l(. He is bleeding, dit bqqh haa- 


blink, to (blinking, blinked, blin 

ked), ch'it 2. I am blinking, nish- 

ch'it. k'oM. I blinked, neshk'ot. 

'nih 5. The girl blinked at me 

(the girl made a face at me), 'a- 

t'eed shidees'nih. 

blister, to Mittq. 

bloat up, to (bloating, bloated, 

bloated), yot 6. The sheep has 

bloatpd up, dibe niilyool. 

blood, dit; blood from the nose, 


blood clot, dit dighilii. 

bloodshot, tichif* His eyes are 

bloodshot, binaa' tichff\ 

blood vessel, 'ats'oos. 

bloody, dit t^iya. 

bloomer, tt'aaji'ee*. 

blow, to (blowing, blew, blown), 

yot 3. The wind is blowing, nf- 

yol. sot 1 . I am blowing on the 

fire, kp' yissot. gheet 3. I blew 


my nose, shine'eshtit hdagh[ 
dp^t 1. The gun powder blew 
up, beeeld^h bikg* deesdQQh 
The tire blew out, chidi bikee* 

bluebird, chestnut breasted — , 
doliitchn'; mountain — , dolii. 
blue-eyed gross, 'azee'tt'ohii. 
blue joy, joogii. 

blue, to (bluing, blued, blued), 
tt'ish 7. I blued it, diittt'iizh. 
blue, to become (becoming, be- 
came, become), tt'ish 5. His skin 
became blue, bikagf diitt'iizh 
I am blue, dinishtt'izh. 
blue, doott'izh; hodoott'izh. 
blue, to be. gaat 34. I am blue, 
yfniit naasha. tt'ish, I am blue 
(in color), dinishtt'izh. 
Bluewater, N. M., t'iis nitsaa 
bluff, deez'a. 

bluff out, to (bluffing, bluffed, 
bluffed), lift 21, I bluffed him 
out, bit ghee' 'ahooshtaa. leet 
24. Checoslovakia was bluffed 
out by the fact that Hitler had 
many soldiers, Hitler bisilaagc 
t'66 'ahayofgo biniinaa Checo- 
slovakia bit ghee* dahazlff. 
board, tsin niheshjfP. 
boarding school, '6lta' h6tsaa 


body, 'ats'fis; 'azhi\ 

bodyguard, 'aa 'ahalyaanH, 

body hair, 'akashtt'o. 

body odor, k'gpzh. 

bog, nahoditsV- 

boil, yilch'ozh. 


boil, to (boiling, boiled, boiled), 
bishl,2. It will boil, doobish. I 
will boil it, deeshbish. 
boiled, shibeezh. 

bolster (of a wagon), tsinaabqqs 
bits'a* bd nPdhi. 

bolt down, to (bolting, bolted, 
bolted), mat 1 , 2. The dog bolt- 
ed down the meat, teechqq'f 'a- 
tsi* 'attso 'ayiimal. 
bomb, bee'eldpgh bik$* chidi 
naatVf bikdddef hadah 'ahi*- 

bomb, to (bombing, bombed 
bombed), niit 12. I dropped a 
bomb on it, bik'ijT hadah 
Ydeeshnitt. nit 12. We bomb- 
ed it, bik'ijP hadah TiTnil. 
bombardier, chidf naat'a'f bi 
kddd§#' bee*eld9Qh b\kg y hadah 

bombardment chidf naat'a't bi- 
kddd§#' bee'eldpgh bikg' 'ak'iji' 
hadah ahi'nfjfgfi. 
bone, is' in. 
book, naaltsoos. 
boot, kq deigo danineezf. 
boredom, 'ddahodeedld. 
bore, to (boring, bored, bored), 
nil 16. I bored through it, bind- 

bored, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), txaat 1,2. I am bored with 
my work, shinaanish 'ddadeesh- 
+xd. I got bored waiting for you, 
niba' seddago 'qdahodesh+xaa' 
born, to be (being, was, been), 
chifl 1. I was born in Gallup, 
na'nfzhoozhfdi shfdizhchf. leel 


19. Last night her baby was born 

tt'eedqq' be'awe6' hazlu'. tlish 

1,3. The lamb was born, dibe 

ydzhi hddttizh. The lambs are 

being born now, k'ad dibe ydzhi 


boss, naat'danii. 

both, t*dd *dta. 

bother, to (bothering, bothered, 

bothered), t'ijt 2. Don't bother 

me, t'dadoo shaa ndnit'inf! 

bottle, tozis. 

bough, tsin bits'dozV. 

boulder, tsetsoh. 

bow, 'attir. 

bow drill, yoo 1 bee bighdda'a'nilf 

bow guard, k'eet'oh. 

bowlegged, to be, 'ajadd shi- 

zhah. I am bowlegged, shijddd 


bow string, a+tjit+'ool. 

boy, 'ashkii. 

box, to (boxing, boxed, boxed), 

ts'[[l 3. I am boxing with him, 

bit na'ahiznfsts'in. 

box, tsits'aa*. 

brace and bit, tsin bee bighdda*- 

a mil. 

bracelet, Idtsinf. 

bracelet setting, Idtsinf bindd*. 

braid, yishbizh. 

braid, to (braiding, braided, 

braided), bish 1. I am braiding 

my hair, sitsiP yishbizh. 

brain, 'atsiighqq'. 

brake, bee 'fndiidlohf. 

brake bar, tsinaabqqs bee bini- 

diidlohi bita* nanf'dhf. 




brakes, to apply the (applying, 
applied, applied), loh 6. I appli- 
ed the brakes to my car, shichidf 
bidiilo'. loh 7. I applied the 
brakes, 'idiilo'. 

branch, 'idadii'a'; tsin bigaan. 
brand, to (branding, branded, 
branded), tit 1. I branded the 
cow, beegashii bi'diitid. 
brass, beesh titsoii. 
brave, t'aadoo yindldzidii; doc 

bread, bdah; tees'ddn; fried ---, 
dah di'nfilghaazh. 
breakage, 'azts'il. 
break, to (breaking, broke, bro- 
ken), tah 2. I broke it to pieces, 
difltaa'. ts'it 1,2. It broke, si- 
ts'il. I broke it, setts' il. dla-r 2. 
I broke the string in two, tt'66+ 
k'fnidladd. tih 1,2. I will break 
the stick in two, tsin k'fdeeshtih. 
I broke up the box, tsits'aa' nihf- 
ti\ nish 2. I broke the wire in 
two, beesh 'd+ts'oozf k'fninizh. 
toot 1, 2. His arm was broken, 
bigaan k'e'elto'. The box was 
broken up, tsits'aa* niheesto' 
The meeting broke up, tdd'oos- 
dee\ tit 2. I broke out in a sweat, 
to shqqh hdateel. leet 22. War 
broke out, anaa' hazl[[\ 
breakfast, 'ahbinfgo da'adanfgn 
breast, *aghid; *abe 'astse*. 
breath, 'aghih. 

breathe, to (breathing, breathed, 
breathed), dzih 3. When I brea- 
the my chest hurts, ndfsdzihgo 
shighid diniih. 

breed, to (breeding, bred, bred), 
'[+ 1. The sheep are breeding 
now, k'ad dibe da'o'iit. 
breech cloth, tt'eestsooz, 
breeze, ni.crTi. A breeze will 
come up, didooch'ih. There 
comes a breeze, *aade§' yich'ih. 
The breeze has gone down, 'if- 
ch'ih. (cfVih 1,2, 3.) 
bridge, tse'naa na'ntzhoozh. 
bridge, to (bridging, bridged, 
bridged), shosh 1. I bridged it, 
bridle, 'azddtTf; silver — , beesh 
tigaii 'anitt'ool. 
bright, bits'adf nflit'd. 
bring, to (bringing, brought 
brought), '66+7, 8, 9, 11. I will 
bring the baby to you, 'awee' 
naa deeshteet. I will bring it to 
town, kjjh deeslVddt. i brought 
it as far as your house, nikinji* 
ninf*q. Bring it in, yah 'ani'aah! 
166s 4. I will bring your horse to 
you, nil(f naa deestoos. 
brittle, di'[di; dit'odi. 
broken, sits'il; k*e*e!to'; k*fni 
dlaad; yizdlad 
bronco, doozhoohii. 
broad, niteel; hoteel. 
broom, bee nahalzhoohf. 
brother, 'anaaf (elder brother); 
'atsili (younger brother). 
brown, yishttizh. 
brown, to be (dark), j[ft 2. I am 
dark brown, dinishzhin, 
brownish, nithin. 
brush, to (brushing, brushed, 
brushed), zhoh 1. I am brushing 
myself, 'ddishzhooh. 



bubble, to (bubbling, bubbled, 
bubbled), ghosh 1; hosh 1. It 
bubbled, hanoolghaazh. I made 
it bubble, haniithaazh. I made 
the coffee, gohweeh hanfft- 

bucket, 'asaa' t6 bee naakahi; 
to bee naakahi; *asaa\ 
buckle, bee f atchT didloh. 
buck, to (bucking, bucked, buck- 
ed), go! 11, 12. The horse is 
bucking around, Iff naalgeed 
The horse started bucking, t[[' 
deesgeed The horse is bucking 
with me, tiT shit yilgot (+[[' shit 

buck, bjihkq*; deen6sts'aa'. 
buckskin, 'abanf. 
buffalo, 'ayanf. 
buffalo robe, ch'idf. 
•>"99y# tsinaabqqs yazhf. 
build, to (building, built, built), 
biit 1. I will build a hogan, ho- 
deeshb[{t. lift 1 . I built a house, 
kin ashtaa. jah 3. I built a fire, 

bullet, bee f eld<?Qh bik*a\ 
bull roarer, tsinidi*ni\ 
bullsnake, diy66sh. 
bumble-bee, tsfs'n6tsoh. 
bump into, to (bumping, bump- 
ed, bumped), goh 19. I bumped 
into the door, daddfikat bfde- 
goh. The cars bumped into each 
other, chidf 'ahfdeezgok 
bun, baah yazhf. 

bundle, faadoo le'6 'atchT be- 

bunion, 'akeghos. 


burden, heet. 
burglar, *ani*i£hii. 
burlap, tt'oh yishbizh. 
Burnham, N. M., t'iistsoh sikaad 
burning, to be, tti\ It is burning, 

burnt, dfilid. 

burn, to (burning, burned, burrv 
ed), k'qqt 2, 3, 4, 5. It will start 
to burn, didook'qqt. It is burn- 
ing, dook'qtjt. It stopped burn- 
ing, ndinfk'qq'. The house burn- 
ed up, kin 'attso 'adifk'qq. lit 
1,2. It burned, diflid. I burned 
it, dfftid. ch'ih. My feet burn, 
shikee' shitch'fi'. 
burro, telii. 
burrow, Vaan. 

burrow, to (burrowing, burrowed, 
burrowed), nit 12. The prairie 
dog is burrowing, dlgo* 'oonit. 
burrowing owl, dlp'atah ne'esh 

bury, to (burying, buried, buried) 
'oa\ 8. \ buried the pot, 'asaa* 
teeh yf'q. I buried him, teeh yft- 


bus, chidf din6 bee naagehf. 

business, 'anaanish. 

but, ndi. 

butcher, na'at'ahi. 

butt, to (butting, butted, butted) 

goh 17, 18. I butted, 'adziigoV 

I butted him, s£goh. 

butter, mandogfiya 

butterfly, k'aal6gii. 

buttock, f atfaa\ 

button, yoo'nitchfnf. 

buy, to (buying, bought, bought), 



nih 12. He bought my horse 

from me. shil[[' shaa nayiisnii*. 

buzzard, jeeshoo'. 

by, bee; bqqh; bfighahgi. 

by means of it, bee. 

bypass, to (bypassing, bypassed, 

bypassed), daat 1 . I bypassed it, 

bik'ee 'qq 'aheenisdza. zeet 6. 

The army bypassed the town, si- 

laago kin dah shijaa'fgii yik'ee 

*qq *ahe6nizq. 


cabbage, ch'il figaaf. 
cactus, hosh. 

cactus fruit, hosh bineest'q\ 
cajole, to (cajoling, cajoled, ca- 
joled), chfft 5. He found out that 
I was cajoling him just to borrow 
some money, beeso ia 9 sha'doo 
nil nisingo fPdishchff nt'fe' biJ 
cake, baah tikam, 
calcaneous, 'aketal. 
calendar, bik'ehgo nahidizfdi. 
calf, beegashii yaazh, 
calf of the leg, 'ach'ozh. 
call, to (calling, called, called), 
zhiitl. I called him by name, yf- 
zhi\ nih 8. I will call his attent- 
ion to the fact that his horse is 
dead, brljY daaztsanfgfi bee bi'- 
deeshnih. n?i+ 3. I called him, 
bika 'adiiniid. We will call him 
John, John dabidii'nfi dooleet. 
gheet 1. He is called John, John 
gholghe. What is this called, dii- 
shq* haa gholghe? 
callous, shaazh; k£bqqh ntt f lz 
go dah naaznilfgff. 


camel, ghqq'ask'idii. 
camera, bee 'ak'inda'a'nilK 
camp, nfbaal sinil; t*66 atseed 

can, haz*q, I can make a stone 
house, tse bee kin 'adeesMfitgo 
haz'q It can rain today, dii j[ 
nahodoottii+go haz'q. 
can (being able, could, been a 
ble), *qqt 3. I cannot do it, doo 
bmeesh'qq da. I could not do it, 
doo binesh'qqd da. I will not be 
able to do it, doo bfdfneesh*qqt 
da. I cannot lift you, doo nani- 
dooshteei 'at'ee da. 
cancer, naaidzid. 
cancer root, teeh dool'eez. 
candle, ak'ah dilt+i'f. 
candy, 'atk'esdisi. 
canoe, tsinaa'eet. 
canyon, bikooh; tsekooh. 
canon, bikooh; tsekooh. 
Canoncito, N. M„ to hajiileehi. 
cantaloupe, ta'neesk'anf. 
canvas, nfbaal. 
canvas shoes, k^jeehf. 
cap, ch ah bftaa'ji 1 da'deez ahf- 

capillaries, *ats*oosts'66z. 
capsize, to (capsizing, capsized 
capsized), ts'if 3. The boat cap- 
sized, tsinaa'eef nahid^lts'id. 
captive, yisnaah, 
captor, 'asnaahii. 

capture, to (capturing, captured 
captured), naa+ 1. I captured 
him, s£tna. 

carbon dioxide, nfteh'l dfflfdfgff. 
carcass, 'ats'ffs doo hinaanii. 



card (playing — ), da dka'. 
cardboard, naaltsoos nti'izt'gfi. 
carders (for wool), bee ha'nil- 

card, to (carding, carded, card- 
ed); cha+ 1 , 2. I am carding, ha'- 
nishchaad. The woman is card- 
ing wool, 'asdzanf 'aghaa' hai- 

careful, to be, zi+ 4. I am care 
ful of it, baa sezid. 
carefully, hazho'ogo; baa hasti'- 

carried on, to be (being, was, 
been), dah 1 . A war is being car- 
ried on, 'anaa* baa na'aldeeh. 
carrier (of disease), naa+niih yii 

carrot, chqqsht'ezhiitsoh. 
carry, to (carrying, carried, car- 
ried), 'aa+. I will carry it up, ha- 
deesh aal I carried it out, ch*f- 
nf'q. i am going to carry it, de'q. 
You will start to carry it along, 
didiraa-r. I started off carrying 
it, dah dii'q. 1 am carrying it a- 
lorg, yish'aat. I carry a knife, 
beesh naastVa. He carried it in- 
to the house, kin gone* yah 'ayn 
'q. Carry it away, yoo* 'ani'aah! 
I will carry it as far as your 
home, nighanji' ndeeslVaat. 
carried it back and forth, 'a+na- 
nasht'q. I carried them in by 
making one trip after another 
yah 'ahejaa'. nah 13. He car- 
ries the tuberculosis, jef'adUh 


cart, tsinaabqqs yazhi bijaad 


cartilage, 'ooshg§§zh. 

carton, naaltsoos tsits'aa'. 

cartridge, bee'eldgqh bik'a*. 

cash, t'aa beeso. 

cast iron, beesh dit'oodigif. 

castor oil, 'ak'ah 'aghahwiizidi 

r r 


castrate, to (castrating, castrat 
ed, castrated), nit 1. 1 castrated 
the lamb, dibe yazhf bicho' ha- 

casualties, tfdaalnaanii. 
cat, mosi 

catch, to (catching, caught 
caught), dit 6. I caught the ball, 
joot bit dedeel. sit 1 . I will 
catch the horse, +[{' deesstf. 
'aat (gheet) 17. I made a big 
catch of fish, too' t'66 'ahayof 
dzilts'dni'ghf. loh 2. I catch 
fish all day long, sha bfighah 
roo 1 'ahihesh+eeh. k'as 3. I 
have caught a cold, shiih yfl 

caterpillar, ch'osh dittoof; tse- 
cat's cradle, na'at+V. 
cat-tail, teef. 
cattle, beegashii. 
cauliflower, ch*il ligaaf. 
cave, tse*aan. 

cave in, to (caving, caved, cav- 
ed), das 3. The house caved in- 
kin *ahiih naatdaaz. 
celery (wild), hoza'aleehtsoh. 
celestial space, ya'qqsh. 
cell (biological), hinaah bij6(. 



cellar, +6*009660!. 
celluloid/ tsesQ* naat'oodi. 
cement-, hashtt'ish tse nadleehf. 
ciement (glue), bee 'fda'diiljeehi 

rje ign. 
cent, sindao; tsindao. 
center, athff . 
centipede, jaadtanii. 
century, t'aatahadi neeznadiir 

cereal, ch'il bilastsiT daholom'gii 
ceremony, hatadl; nahagha. I 
am performing a ceremony, na- 

cervical, 'aah sita\ 
chain, beesh da'holzha'L 
chair, bik'idoh'asdaht. 
chairman, adah nanfdaahii. 
chalk, bee akVeichfhf. 
chamizo, chamise, dfghozhiit^ 

change, to (changing, changed 
changed), niit 3, 7. I wish the 
weather would change, tt'oo'di 
tango *anahodoo'nite§, I will 
change, tahgo 'adeeshnfft. \V\\ 
22. I changed the tire on my car, 
shichidf bikee* 'anashdlaa. 
chanter, hataatii. 
chapel, sodizin ba hooghan. 
chapped, to get (getting, got, 
gotten), ch'ish 3. My face will 
get chapped, shinii* didooch'ish 
charcoal, t'eesh, 

chase, to (chasing, chased, chas- 
ed), tat 9, 10. The dog started 
ro chase the rabbit, teechqq'f 
gah yike£' yaaftaal. 
chatter, to (chattering, charter* 


ed, chattered), ch*at 2. I am 
chattering, ha'dishch'at. 
chatter-box, ha'ditch'atf. 
cheap, doo *flfi da. 
cheat, to (cheating, cheated, 
cheated), loh 3, 4. He cheated, 
TdeezloV I cheated him, bi'd6- 

Cheechilgeetho, N. M., chechil 

cheok, 'aniitsf. 
cheek bone, 'aniishjaa*. 
cheese, geeso. 
chef, ch'iyaan 'fft'inf. 
cherish, to (cherishing, cherish- 
ed, cherished), ch[* 1,2. I cher- 
ish my possessions, shiyodf baa 
nishchf. He cherishes his land 
bikeyah baa hochj\ 
chest, *aghid, 

chew, to (chewing, chewed, 
chewed), *at 1 ; chosh 1 ; ghat 8; 
kit 9; ts'ah 1 . I am chewing it, 
yish'aat; yishchozh; yishghat, 
yishkeed; yists'e^h. I am chew- 
ing them, yishdeet. 
chewing gum, jeeh. 
chewing tobacco, ndt'oh ntfizf 
chick, naa'ahoohai biyazhf. 
chickadee, ch'fshiibeezhii. 
chicken, naa'ahoohai. 
chicken mite, naa'ahoohai biya' 
chicken pox, *qqh ha'ajeeh t6 
chicos, tee* shibeezh. 
children, # <5tchfni. 
chilli; chile, 'azeedfch/fr. 
chimney, ch'flaghi*. 
chin, ayaats'iin. 



China, binda'adaaJts'ozi bike- 
yah ntsaafgff. 

chinch bug, t-Toh naadqcj* biya\ 
Chinese, binaa'adaa+ts'ozf di- 
ne e. 

Chinie, Ariz., ch'fnfli. 
chip, to (chipping, chipped, 
chipped), niit 3. I chipped it off, 
bee+ne\ cIVit. The paint has all 
chipped off of it, dleesh 'a+tsc 

chipmunk, hazeists'osii. 
Chiricahua Apache, chfshi. 
chisel, bee 'iikaa+f (cold chisel), 
tsin bee hahalzhfshf (wood chis- 

chokecherry, didze di'k'gzhii. 
choke, to (choking, choked, 
choked), nih 6. I will choke you, 
nizak'fdideeshnih. nah 2, 4. I 
choked, 'aneshna*. I choked or 
the water, to neshna*. dzih 4. 
He choked on the milk, 'abe' yt+ 

choose, to (choosing, chose, cho- 
sen), 'aat 5. I chose my young- 
er brother, sitsilf ridiift[. la 1. I 
will choose twenty men, dine 
naadiin yilt'eego nahideeshtah. 
chop, to (chopping, chopped 
chopped), I am chopping wood 
tsin 'ahidishkaat. niit 2. I wil 
chop it in two with an ax, ts^nit 
bee k'ideeshniit. 

Christians, Christ dayoodlaanii. 
Christmas, keshmish. 
chronic, tsfstffn. 
chuckle, to (chuckling, chuck- 



led, chuckled), 'Uh. He is chuck- 
ling, dlo hahiniTiih. 
church, sodizin ba hooghan. 
cicada (17 year), wooneeshch'u- 

cigar, sighaala. 

cigaret, cigarette, nat*oh bit da'* 

cigaret paper, da'dt'qq*. 
cinch, 'acnxosht-TooI. 
cinders, teeshchMh. 
cinnamon roll, baah tikani nd- 
circular, nazbqs. 
circle, nahazbqs. 
circular, nahazbqsgo. 
city, kin \ax\\) kin shijaa*. 
claimant (at law), shf niinii. 
clamor, hodighosh. 
clan, doone'e. 

clap, to (clapping, clapped, clap- 
ped), kat 3. I clapped; 1 clapped 
my hands, *ahfs6kad. 
clarification, biyeet*[fii; t*66 
'fishjanf *e'eln6eh. 
clavicle, *at*og. 
claw, *ak£shgaan. 
claw, to (clawing, clawed, claw- 
ed), ghas 1, 3. I clawed it, nan£- 

clay, dleesh (white); bis doo 


clean, chin bqqh 'adin; nizhonf 

clean, to (cleaning, cleaned 

cleaned), gis 1, 2. I cleaned it, 

s£gis; taasegiz. Ifil 1. I cleaned 

(the dirt off of) it, chin bqqh a- 

dingo 'fishtaa. 

cleanliness, chin *qqh *6din. 



clear, nittolf; taa *iishjani\ I 
will make it clear to you, t'aa 
'ifshjani niha 'adeeshtfit. 
clear off, fro (clearing, cleared, 
cleared), zhot 1, 2. I wish it 
would clear off, yoo' 'ahodool- 
ahot§e! It cleared off again, yoo' 
clearly, t'aadoo bahat'aadi'. 
clench, fro (clenching, clenched, 
clenched), lift 6, I clenched my 
fist, shila' 'atch'i' 'iishtaa. 
club footed, keshgolii. 
cliff rose, 'aweets aal. 
climb, fro (climbing, climbed 
climbed), gaat 4. I climbed the 
mountain, dzit bqqh haseya 
'nah 1, 7. I climbed the tree, tsin 
bqqh hasis'na'. I climbed over 
it, baatis yish'na*. 
clock, johonaa'ef ntsaaigii. 
close fro frhe ground, nahashkad*. 
The bird is flying close to the 
around, tsidii nahashkaa' naa- 
t a . 

close, fro (closing, closed, closed) 
kat 3. Close the door, dadi'nit 
kaat! ch'it 1. I closed my eyes, 
niishch'iil. I will close it (by put- 
ting a lid on it), bidadPdeesh'aat 
if ft 6. I closed the book, naal- 
tsoos 'atch'i' 'ashtaa. 
close, t'aa 'ahanf. 
close frogefrher, dit'in. 
close call, fro have a (having, 
had, had), leet 32. I had a close 
call, shikaa'jP hazl[f . 
clofrh (cotton), naak'a'at'qhi. 
clothes, 'e6\ 


cloud, k'os, 

club, tsihat; bee 'akali. 
coach, fro (coaching, coached 
coached), t|[t 4, 5. I will coach 
him, ndfneesht[[t I am coach- 
ing; I am a coach, na'nishtin. 
coal, teejin; hot coal, tsnd. 
coal mine, tee j in haageed. 
coal miner, teejin haigedi'. 
coarse, dich'nzh. 
coafr, 'eetsoh. 

cobbler's nail, ke bit 'adaalkaatf 
cobweb, na'ashje'ii bitt'661, 
cockle bur, ta'neets'6hii. 
cocoa, gohweeh hashtt'ishf. 
Coconino, goohnnnii. 
coddle, fro (coddling, coddled, 
coddled), nih 6. I coddle my ba- 
by, she'awe6* biyaa ndishniih. 
codliver oil, too* bik'ah. 
coffee, gohweeh. 
coffee pofr, jaa'f. 
coiled, nahineests'ee\ 
coil up, fro (coiling; coiled, coil- 
ed), zhah 1. The snake is coll- 
ing up, tt'iish nahinoolzheeh. 
cold, sik'az. 
cold(-ness), hak'az. 
cold, fro gefr (getting, got, gotten) 
dloot 1. I will get cold, shidPnoo- 
dloot. I am cold, yishdlooh. I got 
cold, shPniidlf. k'as 1, 2. It 
will get cold (weather), didooN 
k'as; hodfnook'as. It is cold 
(weather), deesk'aaz; honeez- 
k*az. It got cold (weather), ho- 
colfr, te'6yazhi. 
collar bone, 'at'og. 



collar (harness), 'azeedeetani. 
collar, (shirt) zenazt'i'f. 
collect oneself, to (collecting 
collected, collected), doh 38. I 
regained consciousness and col- 
lected myself, shini' nahasdl(i' 
doo bik'iji* shii' haahwiisdoh. 
Comanche, naaiani. 
comb, be'ezhoo*. 
comb (in weaving), bee 'adzoof, 
combat, 'ahigq. 

come, to (coming, came, come) 
gaat 19. I will come to you, naa 
deeshaat. goat 43. When will 
you come back, hahgoshq' ndn* 
daal? gaat 41. I have come for 
my horse, shil[[* hanfya. lee* 15 
We will come together (in a 
meeting), 'a+ah diidleel. dlat 7 t 
8. The sun came out, johonaa'ef 
ch'fdi'nf+dlaad. The sun will 
come back out, johonaa'ei ch'ee- 
come here, hago! 
commerce, nadini'; 'ahaanda*- 

commit crime, to (committing 
committed, committed), t'aat 2 
I committed a crime, 'adqqh dah 

complain, to (complaining, com- 
plained, complained), -feet 3. I 
complained about it, baa saad 
hose+ff. I keep complaining a- 
bout it, baa saad honish+g. 
complaint, saad holonfgff. 
complexion, 'akagf *6n6olIngL 
comprehend, to (comprehending 
comprehended, comprehended) 


t{[* 1. I comprehend it, bikT- 

comprehension, 'akTdiitilh. 
comrade, 'ach'ooni. 
concern, to (concerning, con* 
cerned, concerned), t'ih 6. This 
doesn't concern you, dfi doo r\U 
deetV da. You do not concern 
me, doo shidiinit'P da. 
concrete, hasht+'ish tse nadleehi 
concur, to (concurring, concur- 
red, concurred), leet 15. The 
Navaho tribe concurred at Gal- 
lup, naabeeho dine'e na'nfzhoo- 
zhfdi "6+ah daazl[[\ 
conference, 'aiah 'aleeh. 
confidence in, to have (having, 
had, had), Hit 2. We have confi- 
dence in the president, waashin 
doondi sitfinii baa dzfinfidli. 
confluence, 'ahidiilfnfgi. 
confluent, to be, \[. These rivers 
are confluent, dff tooh nMinign 

confusion, 'i+ 'a+taanina'akah. 
congress, waashindoondi bee 
haz'aanii 'adeit'fnfgii. 
congressman, waashindoondi 'a 
tah bee haz'aanii 'itf'fnfgfL 
conical, dah 'ats'os; heets'ooz 
coniferous needle, 'it 
conquer, to (conquering, con 
quered, conquered), dleet 3. We 
will conquer our enemies, nihe- 
'ena'f danilmfgii bik'edadidii- 

conquest, 'ak'ehodeesdlif. 
consciousness, to regain (regain- 
ing, regained, regained), dleet 2 



I regained consciousness, shini' 

consideration, 'aa ntsdhakees. 
considered, to be (being, was, 
been), kos 5. It is being consid- 
ered, baa ntsahakees. 
consider, to (considering, consid- 
ered, considered), kos 5. I will 
consider it, baa ntsfdeeskos. 
conspiracy, *azee* deest'q. 
constantly, t'aalahagi 'at'eego 
She wove constantly all day, t'da 
lahagi 'at'eego 'ati'oogo Tii'q. 
constipation, chqq' 'ee*ni\ 
constipated, to be (being, was, 
been), I am constipated, shi- 
chaan shee*ni\ 

construct, to (constructing, con- 
structed, constructed), I fit 1. I 
am constructing a hogan, hoo- 
ghan 'ashfeeh 

construction, 'e elneeh. 
contamination, *fniiyqq\ 
continuation, k'eztT; naas yit'ih 
continue, to (continuing, contin- 
ued, continued), t'ih 15, 16, 17. 
The war is continuing, *anaa' 
naas yit'ih. Now I will continue 
my work, k'ad shinaanish nods 
deesht'ih We continued the 
war, 'anaa' k'fsiiltV. 

contract, to (contracting, con- 
tracted, contracted), nah 12. I 
will contract a cough, dikos shi- 
didoolnah. I have contracted 
tuberculosis, jef 'adi[h shidool- 

contraction, Tdilne£h (of a dis- 


ease); 'atch'f 'fneeh (of an ob- 

convalesce, to (convalescing 
convalesced, convalesced), lee^ 
26. I am convalescinq, ya'at'eeh 

convalescence/ ya'at^eh na'oo- 

convalescent, ya'at'eeh r\66- 

convention, 'atah 'aleeh. 
conversation, 'ahi+ hane\ 
convict, binalkaa'ii. 
convict, to (convicting, convict- 
ed, convicted), kah 3. They con- 
victed him of killing a man, dine 
\o yiyiisx[[go yeedeiskaa' 
conviction, 'malkaa'. 
cook, ch'iyaan 'fit'inf. 
cook, to (cooking, cooked, cook- 
ed), t'is 1 , 2. The meat is cook- 
ed, 'atsj' sit'e. I cooked the 
meat, 'atsf se-lt'e. 
cooked, sit'e. 

cookie, baah Jikanf daazganign. 
cool, sik'azf; honeezk'azf. 
cool, to (cooling, cooled, cooled), 
k'as2 (to get cold), k'eet 1, 2. 
I cooled off the iron, b£6sh net- 
k'e\ I cooled off the house, kin 
gone* honetk*e\ 

cooperation, ta'i 'idlf; 'ahf+ka 'a- 

Cooper's hawk, dzili. 
copper, beesh tichfPii. 

copy, to (copying, copied, copi- 
ed), lift 28. I am copying it, be*- 
cord, tfoo+ts'osf. 



corn, naadqq*. 

corn (on one's foot), kebqqh ni- 
tt'izgo dah naaznilfgif. 
corn cob, dd'atsiin. 
corner, nastt'ah; nahastt'ah. 
cornfield, daakeh. 
Cornfield, Ariz., k'iittsoiitah. 
corn husk, da'at'qq*. 
corn leaves, da'at'qq*. 
corn meal, 'ak'aan dich'izhi. 
cornsilk, noodqq bitsiigha*. 
cornstalk, daakaz. 
corn tassel, 'azool. 
corpuscle, dit bighi* naa'eeti. 
corral, (sheep) dibe bighan; 
(horse) +££* bighan, 
corral chant, 'it nash jingo ha- 

correct, to (correcting, corrected, 
corrected), lift 24. I corrected it, 
hasht'enashdlaa. It is not cor- 
rect, doo akot'6e da. 
corrugated, noojf; honooji. 
cost, to (costing, cost, cost), leet 
30. How much does it cost, di- 
kwifshq' bqqh 'fl[? 
cot, bikaa* dah 'anitehi 'atts'oo- 

cotton, ndik*q\ 
cotton cloth, naak'a'at'qhi. 
cottontail (rabbit), gatbahi. 
cottonwood, t'iis. 
cough, to (coughing, coughed 
coughed), kos 1. I started tc 
cough, hadeskeez. I cough at 
night, tt'ee'go diskos teh. I have 
a cough, diskos; dikos shidool- 
na\ 1 cough until I choke, 'an- 


cough syrup, dikos 'azee'. 
could, (dooleet) at e. But they 
could mine a lot of it, Iq'igo ha- 
deigeed dooleet ndi 'at'e. 
could, haz'q. It could rain today, 
d\\ ji nahodoo+tii+go haz'q. I 
could make a stone house, tse 
bee kin 'ddeeshtfitgo haz'q. It 
could be that the car will not be 
able to make the grade, chidf 
niinahji* ch'eeh 'adoot'ijtgo haz- 

count, to (counting, counted 

counted), tah 1 , 2. I am counting 
them, yfnfshta'. I know how to 
count, 'nnfshta* beehasin. 
counting (it), bit 'olta'go The 
man has five children counting 
the little baby, hastiin 'ashdla' 
ba'atchmi, 'awe£' atts'nsign 
*atdo' bit 'olta'go. 
country, keyah. 

coupling pin (on a wagon), tsi- 
naabqqs bffshghdan bit "ff'ahf. 
coupling pole (of a wagon), tsi- 
naabqqs biishghaan. 

courthouse, 'aa hwiinft'f ba hoo~ 

cousin, 'azeedi; 'alah; 'it naa- 
'aash; 'ak'is. 

Cove, Ariz., k'aabizhii. 
covered, to be (being, was, been) 
kggi 3> It is covered with ice, 
tin bik'idiilkg*. 

cover, to (covering, covered, cov- 
ered), got 9. I covered it with 
dirt, teezh bik'iigeed, tih 1. I 
will cover you with a blanket, 
beeldlef nik'fdeeshtih. zit 2. I 



covered it by raking snow on it, 
yas bik'iiziid. jot 1. I will cover 
it with wool, 'aghacT bik'iideesh- 

covet, to (coveting, coveted, cov- 
eted), n\\i 1. I coveted it, bida- 
cow, beegashii. 
cowboy, 'akat bisttee'ii. 
cowboy boots, ke biketal dani- 

cowboy boot-shoes, ke ndoots'o- 
sii biketal nineezf. 
cowpuncher, *aka+ bist+ee'ii. 
coyote, mq'ii. 

Coyote Canon, N, M„ mq'ii teeh 

crack, to (cracking, cracked 
cracked), dlat 1 . It cracked, yiz- 
dlad. k'is 1. It cracked, yisk'is, 
cracked, yizdlad. 
cracked, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), dial 5. My lips will get 
cracked, shidaa' ndoodlat, 
cracker, badh da'aka'f. 
crackling, dilch'ii. 

cradle, 'aweetsaal; *awe6* bi 

cramp, 'adoh dah diik'qqd. 
cramped, to be (being, was, 
been), k'aash 2. I am cramped 
from sitting this way so long, ko- 
t'eego nfzaadgoo sedaago binii- 
naa ndashishk'aazh. 
cramps, to have (having, had, 
had), k'qqt 2. I have a cramp in 
my leg, shijaad dah diik'qqd. 
crane, toohji* nootnahii; ddti. 


crane, to (craning, craned, cran- 
ed), tsV 6. I craned my neck to 
see him, yideestseet biniighe ni- 

crave, to (craving, craved, crav- 
ed), leet 13. I crave tobacco, na- 
t oh bidinisNi 

crowded, to be (being, was, been) 
kah 1. It is crowded here, kwii 

crawl, to (crawling, crawled 
crawled), 'nan 1, 3, 5, 9, I crawl- 
ed out from under my blanket, 
shibeeldlef biyaadge' hasis'nc' 
i am crawling along, yish'nah. 
He crawled to the brink of the 
precipice, tsedaa'ji* nifna\ I 
am crawling about, naash'na' 
The baby crawled into the house, 
'awee* kin gone* yah 'ee*na\ 
crazy, to be (being, was, been), 
gis 4. I am crazy, t'66 diisgis. 
cream colored, dinilgai. 
cream of wheat (cereal), 'oWaan 
credence, 'oodlq. 
crescent (moon), dah yiitq. 
crevice (in rock), tsek'iz. 
crib, 'awee' yii* nitehi. 
cricket, nahak'izii. 
crime, bqqhagi 'ahat'i. 
crooked, naneeshtt'iizh; digiz. 
crooked, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), gis 3. His arm got crooked, 
bigaan diigeez. 

Cross-eyed, binaa 1 digiz (he is 


crow, gaagii. 

crown (of the head), 'atsiifaad. 



Crown point, N. M„ t'iists'ooz n- 


crossbeam (of c loom), 'asitq (lo- 
wer); 'adah sitq (upper). 
crotch (of the legs), 'ati'eh. 
crumble, to (crumbling, crumb! 
ed, crumbled), sef 1 . I crumbled 
the bread, baah difsei. zef 1 . 
The rock crumbled away, tse 'at- 
tso difzei. 
crumbly, dizei". 

crush, to (crushing, crushed, 
crushed), j[sh 1. I crushed the 
tin can, yaadiizfnf shetjjzh. 
crushed, shij[zh. 
crutches, tsin bee na'adahf. 
Crystal, N. M., to nitts'fli. 
crystal (rock — ) ,tseghadi'nfdi- 

crystalline, nMtolf; nitts'flf. 
cry, to (crying, cried, cried), 
chah. I am crying, yishchah. 
What are you crying about, ha*- 
at'ifshq 1 baa nichah? 
cub (bear), shash yaazh. 
cucumber, ta*neesk*ani 'atts'66- 

cuff, (shirt) latsifn nazt'i'f; t'qq* 
anat e. 

culinary arts, cIViyaan f aP[. 
cultivation, k'ee'dflgheeh. 
cup, bqqh ha'ffzhahf. 
cured, yilzqq* 

cure, to (curing, cured, cured) 
taat 2. I cured him, nfnadiisa. 
curl, to (curling, curled, curled) 
chut 1,2 It curled up, ylilch'iil. 
I curled his hair, bitsii' yiitch'iil. 
curly, yishch'il. 


-—■ "■ » " ■■■■■ » — i » ii ,, . i ,.,i. . n— ..I. i 

curly haired, chishch'ili. 
currant, k'ini jiTahf. 
curriculum, bihwiidoo'aiigii bi- 


curry comb, +[i' bee yilzhdhi. 
cut, to (cutting, cut, cut), gish 1„ 
2, 3. I'll cut into it, deeshgish. 
I cut it in two, 'ahanfgizh. I cut 
it up; I cut it to pieces, nihe+gizK. 
niit 2. I cut it in two with an ax r 
tsenit bee k'ini+ne\ t'qs 1 I cut 
the melon spirally, ta'neesk'anf 
nahinett'qqz. shih 1. I will cut 
your hair for you, nitsiigha no 

dam, da'deest+'in. 
damage, to (damaging, damag- 
ed, damaged), chg^t 1 2. I da- 
maged my car,, shichidf yf+chg'. 
damp, yishzhoh. 

dampen, to (dampening, damp- 
ened, dampened), t+'ish 1. f 
dampened it, diniiWiizh. ttoh 
3. I dampened the rag, 'anilf nf- 

dance, to (dancing, danced 
danced), zhish 1. I will dance 
with you, nit *adeeshzhish. 
dandruff, tsiitah 'aba\ 
danger, nahadzid. 
dangerous, bahadzid; t'66 bac 
hasti*. That leaning rock is 
dangerous, tse naaniigo dfnee- 
'anfgif t'66 baa hasti*. 
daring, t'aadoo yinaldzidii. 
dark, to get (getting, got, gotten) 
hif 4. It has started to get dark, 



chaho'niiiheel. It got dark 
chahoo+heel. It is dark, chahat- 

dork colored, di+hit. 
darkness, chaha+heet. 
dart, to (darting, darted, darted) 
not 2. The lizard darts about so 
fast that it is not vizible, na'a- 
shQ'ii naanaalno+go biniinaa 
doo yit*[i da. 

dash, to (dashing, dashed, dash- 
ed) tat 9 I dashed off after him, 
bikee' yaashtaal. tas 3. Dash 
after my knife, shibeezh bfka 
yiitas 1 

date, hashk'aan (fruit). 
daughter, ache'e; atsi\ 
dawn, to (dawning, dawned, 
dawned), kaat 1. It is dawning, 

day, jl; day before yesterday, 'a- 
tse 'adqqdqq*; on the next day, 
biiskani; on that very day, t'aa 
ei biff.. 

daybreak, to become (becoming, 
became, become), kaat 1 . It has 
become daybreak, hayfftkq, 
daylight, to become (becoming 
became, become), '[jt 10, Be- 
fore long it will become daylight, 
t'aadoo hodina'i *attso hwndool- 
Mit. It became daylight, hoos- 
'jjd; 'attso hoos'jjd. It is day- 
light, hooPin. 
day school, jt'olta' 
dead, daaztsq. My father is 
dead, shizhe e y$$ daazts^. 
deaf, bijeehkat. 
debt, 'qqh haa a. 


decay, dfttdzid. 
decayed, dif+dzid. 
decay, to (decaying, decayed 
decayed), dzit 5. This meat has 
started to decay, dii 'atsi* bidi'- 

decease, 'azee* hazl[[\ 
deceased, bizee' hazlft'ii. 
deceive, to (deceiving, deceived, 
deceived), 'ah 1 . I deceived my 
father, shizhee niPaa'. 
December, nftch'itsoh. 
deception, 'inot'aah. 
declaration of war, 'it 'anaa' 
hazl[P; 'anaa' hwiiniiz[[\ 
declare war, to (declaring, de- 
clared, declared), tee+ 2. We 
declared war on the Japanese, 
binacTadaatts'ozf bit *anaa* da- 

decorate, to (decorating, decor 
ated, decorated), ch'qh 1. I am 
decorating it, naashch'qqh. 
decorated, naashch'qq*. 
decoration, na'ach'qqh. 
decrepitude, sq. 
deep, 'ndeetqq'; ditq. 
deer, bj[h 

defeat, 'ak'ehodeesdljf . 
defeat, to (defeating, defeated, 
defeated), dleet 3. We will de- 
feat our enemies, nihe f ena*f bi 
k edadidiidleet. 

defecate, to (defecating, defec- 
ated, defecated), ch[jt 1. I defe- 
cated, *ashechqq\ 
defecation, 'ach[\ 

defense attorney, 'agha'diit'aa- 




deflated, nittsgz; nii+tsQQz. 
defraud, to (defrauding, defrau- 
ded, defrauded), loh 3. You de- 
frauded me, shi'dini'lo* 
dehair, to (dehairing, dehaired, 
dehaired), dzeet 1,2. I am now 
dehairing it, k*ad yisdzeeh. I 
know how to dehair, 'asdzeeh 

delay, honeeztTah. 
delayed, to be (being, was, been) 
tf'ah 4. i was delayed by the 
rain, nahattin shineestt'ah. 
delay, to (delaying, delayed, de- 
layed), tt'ah 4. What delayed 
you, ha'at'nshq' nineest+'ah? 
demise, 'azee' hazl[i\ 
den, tse'aan. 

Denehotso, Ariz., deinihootso. 
dense, di+ch'il; hoditch'il; difin. 
dentist, 'aghoo* yinaalnishf. 
depend on, to (depending, de- 
pended, depended), \\\t 5. I am 
depending on him, ba*ifnfsrvK. 
I cannot depend on you, ch'eeh 
na'finfsrvK (doo naa josh+fi da). 
dependibility, ba'hodli. 
descend, to (descending, des- 
cended, descended), gaa^ 29 
I descended the mountain, dzit 
bqqh hadaaya. 

descent, hada'oodza. 
desire, 'adaahdnf. 
desire, to (desiring, desired, de- 
sired). z\\t 1 . Do you desire wat- 
er, da f to nfnfzin?. 
despondent, to become (becom- 
ing, became, become), \r\66f 6. I 


became despondent, ch'ifnaii 

dessicate, to (dessi eating, dessi* 
cated, dessicated), gqq+ 2. I des- 
sicated the berries, didze setgaru 
dessicated, sigan; daazgan. 
dessication, 'azgan. 
destroy, to ( destroying, destroy- 
ed, destroyed), +aa+ 1 . I destroy- 
ed it, nabisesa. 
destruction, na'e esdza. 
determination, 'mi' niliinii. 
detour, 'ak'ee *qq 'aheehonftY. 
detour around, to (detouring, de- 
toured, detoured), daat 1 . I de- 
toured around it, bik'ee qq 'a- 
devil, ch'[[dii. 
dew, dahtoo'. 
dewdrop, dahtoo*. 
diaphragm, 'achashjish. 
dice, tsidit. I am playing stick 
dice, 'adishdit. 

die, to (dying, died, died), tsaat 
1. I am dying, shi'niitsq. My 
father died last night, ft eedqq' 
shizhe'e daaztsq. 
different 'at'qq; 'attah. 
different kinds, 'al'qq adaat*eii; 

difficult, to be (being, was, been) 
r-Tah 3. The English language is 
difficult for me, bilagaanaa bi- 
zaad ayoogo shit nanitfah. 
difficulty, 'it nanit+'ah; adei a- 

dig, to (digging, dug, dug), gof 
1, 3, 7. I am digging a hole, ha- 
hwiishgeed. I am digging a ditch 



to yishgot. 1 am digging out 
coal, Jeejin haashge^d. 
digging stick, gish. 
diligently, yeigo; haahg66sh[[. 
dime, t aa+a 1 ? doot+'izh. 
dip out, to (dipping, dipped, dip- 
ped), 'aat 1 . I dipped out the 
water, to haakq. 
dipper, 'adee 1 . 
dirt, teezh. 

dirty, t*66 baa'ih; t'66 baa hoo'ih 
disappearance, 'e'esdijd. 
disappear, to (disappearing, dis- 
appeared, disappeared), d[H 1 
I am in the process of disappear- 
ing, 'aashdii+. The water has all 
disappeared, to 'a+tso 'asdijd. 
disappointed, to be (being, was, 
been), kat 6. I was disappointed 
because you did not come to see 
me, t'aadoo shaa yinfyaagoo bi- 
niinaa shqqh nahookaad. 
disappointment, *qqh nahoo- 

discharge, to (discharging, dis- 
charged, discharged), fee* 15. I 
discharged him, *ats'aanfttV 
He was discharged, 'ats'aabi* 
deeltV. dQQi 1. The gun dis- 
charged, bee'eldpph deesdQ9h. 
discontinuation, bikYdeesdza, 

discover, to (discovering, discov 
ered, discovered), gaat 18. Co 
lumbus is the man who discover- 
ed America, hastiin lei* Colum- 
bus gholghehfgff America yik'f 
discovery, 'akTidza; ha'deeP[i\ 


discuss, to (discussing, discussed 
discussed), t'jjt 1. I am discus- 
sing sheep, dibe baa yinisht*[. 
discussion, aa nahat'j; 'aa na 

disease, 'qqh dahoyoo+'aa-fri. 
disgusted to be (being, was, 
been), '|jt 1. I am disgusted 
with whiskey, todithit se'ijd. 
dish, 'asaa'; feets'aa'. 
disinfectant, ch osh doo yit'iinii 
bee naatseedf, 

disintegrate, to (disintegrating, 
disintegrated, disintegrated) 

tah 1. It disintegrated, diitaa*. 
disintegration, *adiitaa\ 
dismount, to (dismounting, dis- 
mounted, dismounted), gaat 29 
I dismounted from the horse, t[f 
bikaad§e* hadaaya. 
disobedience, doo , ak > eh6l'[j da 
disobey, to (disobeying, disobey- 
ed, disobeyed), '[jt 7. I disobey 
him, doo bik'eh honish*[[ da. 
disperse, to (dispersing, dispers- 
ed, dispersed), dah 2. They dis- 
persed, taa'oosdee\ 
distance, 'anfzah. 
distinct, yit*[; 'a+'qq 'at'e. 
distribute, to (distributing, dis- 
tributed, distributed), nih 9, 10. 
I distributed sheep on the Nava- 
ho reservation, naabeeho bik£- 
yah bikaa*gi dib6 nisenii', I dis- 
tributed sheep among the Nava- 
ho, dibe naabeeho bitaasenii*. 
distribution, naVniih 
disturb the peace, to (disturbing, 
disturbed, disturbed), I disturbed 



the peace last night, tt'eedqq' 

disturbance of the peace, tsi'ha- 

ditch, to yfgeed. 

dive, to (diving, dived, dived), 
not 1 , I dived into the water, tdt- 
tt'ddh yishndod. 

divide, to (dividing, divided, di- 
vided), 'ddt 14. I will divide it 
in two equal parts, 'atts'ddeesh- 
*ddt. I will divide them up, 'at- 

d» ■ • t L. t * » ■* » 9*1. 

■vision, atts a ii nut. 

divorce, to (divorcing, divorced, 
divorced), gddt 45, 46. We di- 
vorced each other; we got divor- 
ced, atts'dndniit'ddzh. I divor- 
ced my wife, she'esdzddn bits'd- 

dizziness, "it ndhodighddh; "H 
dizzy, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), gddt 48. I am dizzy, shit 
ndhodeeyd. I always get dizzy, 
t'dd •dtaji 1 shit nindhodighddh. 
do, to (doing, did, done), nift 1 . 
I will do whatever you tell me to 
do, t'dd 'dshidinmfgif 'ddeesh 
niit. What are you trying to do, 
haald 'dnmeeh?! gddt 33. I am 
doing my work, shinaanish baa 
naashd. What are you doing 
ha^dt'ifshq' baa nanind? t'ih 8. 
I have nothing to do with it, doo 
shfdeetV da. lift 4. I did it that 
way; I did it right, 'dkwfishtaa. 
doctor, *azee •fit'inf. 
dodge, to (dodging, dodged 


dodged), ghis 3. I dodged when 

he threw the stone at me, tse yee 

shiiniitne'go desghiz. 

doe, b|jh tsa'iL 

dog, teechqq'i, 

dog lice, feechqq , i biya'. 

doll, 'aweeshchim. 

dollar, fddtd'f beeso. 

domestication, 'azhpph. 

donation, aa yflydii; Vilghe. 

done, to get (getting, got, gotten; 

t*is 2. The meat is getting done, 

'atsi* k*ad§£ yit'ees. The meat 

is done, 'atsi 1 sit'e. 

don't, t aadoo. Don't talk, t'da 

doo vdmttPf! 

door, ddddflkat. 

doorway, ch'e'etiin. 

dooryard, ch'e'edqq*. 

dormitory, da'njah. 

dot, dah 'alzhin. 

double tree, *att*eeyah dah sinil* 

bd ni'ahfgfi. 

dough, taos'nii'. 

doughnut, bddh tikanf. 

dove (mourning, or turtle), has- 


down, (bird) 'ats'os. 

down, hadah; bidah. 

down here, koyaa. 

down there, 'd koyaa. 

dozen, naakits'dadahgo. 

doze, to (dozing, dozed, dozed), 

ghit 4. I dozed (off), *aneesh- 


drain off. to (draining, drained, 
drained), got 4. I drained the 
water off of my land, shikeyah 
bikdd'doo to deegeed. 



dragon fly, tan ii Tail. I drive, to (driving, drove, driven), 

drag, to (dragging, dragged,/ bqs 1, 2,4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10. I drove 

dragged), shot 1 , 2, 6. I am go- 
ing to drag it, deshood. I am 
dragging it, yishshot. I dragged 
the road, 'atiingoo ni'sheshood. 
drawn back, jq\ I am sitting 
with my legs drawn back, *aha- 
dfmfshjq'go seda. 
dribble, to (dribbling, dribbled 
dribbled) sds 1 . 1 dm dribbling 
sand along, sef yissas. 
dreadful, haghee*; be6hadzid 
dream, na'iigeet; na'iidzeet. 
dream, to (dreaming, dreamed 
or dreamt, dreamed), ghit 1. I 
dreamed (dreamt) about you 
inaa naisegheeL 
dress, tt'aakat 

dress, to (dressing, dressed, dres- 
sed), 'nfft 17. I am dressing, 
'haadfslVneeh gaat 44. I dres- 
sed (I got back into my clothes), 
she'ee' biih naasdza. 
dried, sigan. Cut and dried me- 
lon, ta'neesk'anf nahineest'qqz 
doo sigan. 

dried wp, sigan; yfttseii. 
drift, to (drifting, drifted, drift- 
ed), doh 6. The clouds are drift- 
ing along, k'os defldoh. zhot 3. 
The cloud is drifting along up 
above, k'os ghodahgo yilzhot. 
drink, to (drinking, drank 
drunk), dl[R 1, 2. I drank the 
milk, *abe' yishdlqqV I do not 
drink, shf doo 'ashdlqq da. 
drip, to (dripping, dripped, drip- 

the car up the mountain, dzit 
bqqh chidf haatbqqz. I drove 
off in the car, chidf dah diitbqqz. 
I will drive the car out of the gar- 
age, chidi ba hooghand|#' ch'f- 
deesbqs. I am driving along in 
a car; I am driving the car along, 
chidf yisbqs. I drove the car into 
the garage, chidf chidf ba hoo- 
ghan gone* yah 'iftbqqz. I drove 
to Gallup and back, na'nizhoo- 
zhigoo ni's£tbqqz. Where are 
you driving, haagoosh 'adinft- 
bqqz. cheet 1 . I drove the horse 
out of the corral, t{[* t[[' bighan- 
d§§ crTfninftchqq*. yot 1. I am 
driving the little group of cattle 
around, beegashii nanisood. 
kat 1 6. He drove the wolves off 
with his gun, bibee'eldggh yee 
mq'iitsoh 'ak*iinoolkaad. (cheeJ 
3. I drove the wolf off, mq'iitsoh 

drizzle, to (drizzling, drizzled 
drizzled), zhot 4. It is drizzling, 

drill, bedsh bee bighada'a'nili. 
drop, to (dropping, dropped, 
dropped), 'at 1; dit4; ;jor 3; kat 
4; nit 11; niit 5; ttoh 4; feet. 
I arn in the act of dropping it, 
naash*aad; naashdeet; naash 
joot; naashkaad; naashnfft 
naashne'; naashtteeh; hadaash- 
drown, to (drowning, drowned 

ped), cWqt 1 Water is dripping drowned), h66t 4. He nearly 
in here, k6ne' t6 nahfdilch'q^t. 'drowned, k'asd^q* to biisxf. 



ghqqt 3. k'asdqq* to biighqq 

they nearly drowned. 

drowsiness, bit. 

drowsy, to be (being, was, been), 

zjj* 2. I am drowsy, bit nisin. 

drug, 'azee*. 

druggist, 'azee' nayiitniihi. 

drugstore, 'azee* ba hooghan. 

drum, 'asaa* dadeestt*6nigii. 

drumstick, 'asaa* bee yiltqzhi. 

drunk, to make (making, made, 

made), taat 3 It made me drunk, 


drunk, to be (being, was, been), 

he is drunk, 'oodl<54*; tsfnao- 


drunkard, 'adldanii. 

dry, yfttseii; hoottseii; sigan; 


dry, to (drying, dried, dried), 

gqqt 1,2 I dried the meat, 'atsi' 

setgan. The meat dried up, 'atsf 

sigan. tsih 1, 3. I dried my shirt, 

she'ee* nadftseii. 

dry, to get (getting, got, gotten), 
gqqi 1. It will get dry, doogqqt. 
tsih 1. I will get dry again, n- 
deestsih. I am dry yfnfstseii. 
duck, naal'eeif. 

duck, to (ducking, ducked, duck- 
ed), nfft 14. I ducked when he 
threw a stone at me, ts6 yee shff- 
nfitne'go yaa 'asdzaa. 
dumpling, k'fneeshbfzhii. 
duodenum, 'abid dfkinf; 'abid 

durability, f adina\ 
dusk, to become (becoming, be- 


came, become), ji[t 4. It has be- 
come dusk, hitiij[{\ 
dutch oven, 'asaa' ditani. 
dwell, to (dwelling, dwelt, dwelt), 
t'iit 5. I dwell in Gallup, na'ni- 
zhoozhfdi kSehasht'i. The Na 
vaho dwell in hogans, naabeeho 
hooghan bii* dabighan. 
dwindle, to (dwindling, dwindled 
dwindled), dijt 1 . My money is 
dwindling, shibeeso 'aadiit. My 
money has all dwindled away, 
shibeeso 'attso '6sd[id. 


each, taa 'akwff. Each day, t'<te 

'akwii ji. 

eagle, *atsa. 

eagle trap, 'ood. 

ear, 'alaa*. 

ear (inner — ), 'ajaaghi'. 

earache, 'ajaaghi* hodiniih. 

eardrum, 'ajaaghi* daadinfbaalf 

ear lobe, 'ajaa\ 

earring, jaatt'oot. 

earth, nahasdzaan; ni\ 

earthenware, teets*aa\ 

earthquake, ni' ndaha'nanfgff. 

east, ha'a'aah. 

easterly, ha'a'aahdle'go. 

eastern, ha a'aah biyaajfgo. 

easterner, ha'a'aah biyaad^#' 


eastward, haVaahjigo; ha'a'- 

aah bich'ijigo. 

eat, to (eating, ate, eaten), gh[{l 

1,2, I am eating it, yish<$. I 

have eaten, *ffy<5<$\ at 1; chosh 

1 ; ghat 8; kit 9; ts'ah 1 . I ate it, 

yf'aal; yftchozh; yishghal; yish- 



kid; yitts'ee*. dit 1. f ate them, 

eclipse, johonaa ei daaztsq ( — 
of the sun); 'ooljee* daaztsq ( — 
of the moon). 

economize on, to (economizing 
economized, economized), x\\\ 
5. I am economizing on it, t'aa 
bqqh hqqh nisin. 
economy bqqh hqqh hasin. 
education, 'ihoo'aah. 
even though, 'azhq — ndL 
effort, to make an (making, 
made, made), dzit 1 I made an 
effort, desdzil. tah 1 . I made an 
effort, nabfnetqq*. 
effect on, to have an (having, 
had, had), That has no effect on 
me, 1 ef doo shid^etnfi da. The 
file has no effect on the ax, tse- 
nit bee'ach'iishi doo bid^etnii da 
effervescent, dilchxosh. 
«99/ ayeezhiL 
egg shell, 'ay^zhii bits'iil. 
egret (snowy — ), toohjP ndii- 
gaii; toohk*indiigaiL 
ewe, dib6 tsa'ii. 
elbow, 'ach'oozhlaa*. 
electricity, 'atsiniltt'ish 
elk, dz6£h. 

elusive, he is — , nanit'in. 
embarrassment, ya hasin. 
emergency, nisihwiinfd6£l. 
employ, to (employing, employ- 
ed, employed) 'aa+ 15. I employ- 
ed him, naanish baa dinPq 

employment, naanish; naanish 
*aa deet'aah. 

enchantment, 'adigqsh 


encountering him, bidaah. 
encourage, to (encouraging, en- 
couraged, encouraged), Iff* 7. I 
will encourage you, t'aa nit ha- 
sihgo 'adeeshtift. 
encouragement, t'da *i+ hasih. 
encounter, to (encountering, en- 
countered, encountered), gaaJ 
12, 13,27. I encountered him, 
bidaah nfya. I encountered him, 
bit 'ahidiit aazh. 
end, to (ending, ended, ended), 
t'ih 13, 14. I ended it, ninfttV. 
It ended, ninftV. zhish 5. The 
cold weather ended, deesk'aaz- 
go nihoolzhiizh. 
endless, doo ninft'i'f. 
endurance, Tnftdzil. 
enemy, 'ana'f, 
energy, 'ahoodziil. 
engine (of a car), chidi bitsii- 

enjoyment, 'it honeeni. 
enjoy, to (enjoying, enjoyed, en- 
joyed), mil 1. I enjoy reading, 
'finfshta'go baa shit honeeni. 
ennui, 'adahodeedla; k'fhodi- 

enter, to (entering, entered, en- 
tered), gaat 30. I entered the 
house, kin gone* yah *ffya. gaat 
27. I entered the boat, tsinaa- 
'eet biih yfya. 

entry, yah Voodza; *iih 'oodza; 
'atah 'fdza. 

envious, to be (being, was, been), 
ch'ffd 1,2. He is envious of my 
car, shichidf yootch'ud. He is 
just envious, t'66 'oofd-THd. 



envy, to (envying, envied, en- 
vied), ch'Ud 1,2. He envies me 
my car, chidi biniinaa shoot- 


envy, 'oolclV[[d. 
epidemic, na'atniih. 
epiglottis, *addjoozh. 
erase, fro (erasing, erased, eras- 
ed), chgpt 3. I erased it, k'ee* ni- 

eraser, bee k'ee'dlchxQQhi. 
erasure, k'ee'oolchQ*. 
erect, to (erecting, erected, e* 
rected), lift 1 . I erected a home, 
kin 'ifshtaa. 

evidently, t'dadoo bahat'aadi, 
erode, to (eroding, eroded, erod- 
ed), zhash. The rock eroded a- 
way, tse ninfzhaazh. 
erosion, to doo nfyol 'ooshashfgff 
esophagus, *azagf. 
ether, 'azee* bee 'iilghdshf. 
evening, to become (becoming, 
become, become), 'dd+ 8. It has 
become evening, yaa 'adeez'q 
evening star, SQ'tsoh. 
evening twilight, nahootsoii. 
every, t'dd 'dkwff. Every day, 
t'dd 'dkwff ji. 

every once in a while, t*66 ndho- 
di'naahgo; tdhdda. 
everything, t'dd *attsonf. 
everywhere, t'aa 'attsogo. 
t'dd 'ffshjdnf. 
evil, doo ya'ashgp da. 
eye, *andd\ 
eyebrow, 'anats'iin. 
eyeglasses, nak'eesinilf. 
eyelash, 'anddiz, 


eyelid, 'andziz. 
eye socket, 'andk'ee. 
eyetooth, 'aghdzhah. 
examine, to (examining, exam- 
ined, examined), sit 1, i exam* 
ined it, hddsid. 

examination, haalziid; 'eehoo- 
z[[h; nN'i; naalkaah. 
excavation, hahwiigeed; ha* 

excessive, 'adei'dn^elqq'. 
exceedingly, 'ayoigo; 'ayoogo. 
excel, to (excelling, excelled, 
excelled), yoi. I excel at it, ho- 
nishyof. I excel at running, 
t'aa hayof dinishgho 1 . 
excellent t'aa 'fighisff yd'dt'eeh; 
'aghdadi yd'dt'eeh. 
except, t'dd hazho'6. 
excess, *adeMt*eii; ch'fnntna'f- 

w r 


excited, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), diit 8. I got excited when t 
saw the airplane fall, chidf naa- 
tVi hadah 'eelts'idgo yiittsqq 
nt*e?' shit 'dhdsdljd. chah 6. \ 
got sexually excited, ri'dishcha' 
excitement, yfnf *ddin. 
excrement, chqq\ 
exhale, to (exhaling, exhaled 
exhaled), dzih 2. Exhale, hddnf 

exhalation, hdd'iidziih. 
exhibition, danfl'mfgii. 
exhumation, hdd'ditV 
exhume, to (exhuming, exhurrr 
ed, exhumed), teet 14. I ex 
humed the body, ats'ffs yee ha 
nddttV. got 2. My father's bo 


^ EXI 

dy was exhumed, shizhe 6 bits'iis 
y§§ hanabi'doogeed. 
exist, to (existing, existed, exist- 
ed), lee+ 7. I exist, honishlQ. 
There is (there exists) water, to 
holg. There are many races of 
men on earth, nahasdzaan bi- 
kaa'gi dine'e t'66 'ahayoi 'a+'qq 
'adaat'eego daholp. 
existence, hodlg. 

existence, to come into (coming, 
came, come), leet 1,19 It is said 
that the world started to come 
into existence countless years 
ago, doo joo+ta' 'aneelqq' naa- 
haiidqq' nahasdzaan hodeezl[[\ 
jini. A baby came into exist- 
ence, 'awee' hazl[[\ There will 
be war, anao' hodooleet. 
expand, to (expanding, expand- 
ed, expanded), nff-t 1.3. The 
horned toad is expanding, na*a 
shg'ii dich'fzhii 'qq kwaaniif. 
expansion, 'qq 'e'edzaa. 
exit, ch'e'etiin. 

expect him, to (expecting, ex 
pected, expected), Mil 4. I am 
expecting him. nemfshtf. 
expectant, to be (being, was, 
been), liit 3. I am expectant; I 
am expecting someone, na'ff- 
nfshtf. I am expectant; I am an 
expectant mother, yistsq. 
expectation, na'olnf. 
expectoration, dijah. 
explain, to (explaining, explain- 
ed, explained), nih 4. 1 will ex- 
plain the war to you, 'anaa' ha 
zho'6 bee nil hodeeshnih. 


explanation, hazho'o baa hone' 
explode, to (exploding, exploded, 
exploded), d99+ The gun powder 
exploded, bee'eldgeh bikQ* dees- 

explosion, 'adeesdQph. 
extend, to (extending, extended, 
extended), 'a. It extends (verti- 
cally), haa'a; (perpendicularly) 
yaa'a; (in), 'ifa; (horizontally), 
nTa; (downward), deez'a; (a 
cross), nanfa. zhosh 1.1 sat 
down and extended my legs, ne- 
da doo k'fdeshzhoozh, 
extension, ha'ff'a; 'aneel'q- 
extinct, *adin; 1 asdj[d. 
extinct, to become (becoming 
became, become), di[i l. The 
bighorn sheep became extinct in 
the Navaho country, naabeehc 
bikeyah bikaagi ts£tah dib6 'af- 
tso 'adaasdjid. 

extract, to, (extracting, extract 
ed, extracted), 'adt I . He ex- 
tracted my tooth, shighoo' ha- 

extraction, ha'oot'q. 
extreme, 'aghaadi; *dlatah. 
exudation, na'fflf. 


face, 'anii\ 

face, to make a (making, made, 

made), 'nih 5. The girl made a 

face at me (blinked at me), a- 

t'eed shidees'nih. 

factory, t'aadoo le'e 'adaal'ugi. 

fail, to (failing, failed, failed) 

, [K2. I failed of it, ch'eeh Tff ||d. 

t'ijt 4. I failed, ch'^h 'ift'ijd. 



failure, ch'eeh 'e'el'L 
fall, 'aak'eed; 'aak'eego. 
fall, to (falling, fell, fallen), das 
2; dah 2; dit 2; h^sh 1; jot 2; 
kgs 1; ts'it 1. It fell down, 
ndatdaaz; naadeel; naa+h^zh; 
naajool; naak§£z; naalts'id 
They are falling, nanideeh. The 
hogan fell in, hooghan 'ahiih 
ndatdaaz. das 1 ; dah 1 ; kps 3; 
nah 14; ttish 1; ts'it 2. It fell out 
of my hand, shfldk'e hddtdddz; 
haak^z; haana'; hddttizh, 
naalts'id. kgs 2. The pole fell 
over sideways, tsin naa*nk££z 
chit 5. I fell on him hands first, 
bik'idiishchid. goh 3, 5, 6. I fell 
down, hadddgo', I fell into the 
water, to biih yfgo\ I fell down 
and hit the ground, ni'jT nikfd£- 
goh, ttish 11. I fell down, ha- 
dddttizh. I fell out of the car, 
chidi bighi'd§f ch'fnfttizh. I 
fell into the water, to biih yfttizh. 
I fell under the power of an evil 
man, dine doo yd'dshoonii biyac 
'ffttizh. The French people fel* 
under the power of their ene- 
mies, French dine'e be'ena'i yi~ 
yaa 'an (idee*. 

falsehood, yooch'ud; ghooch'ud 
fame, 'eeho'dflzin. 
family unit, t'ddtd'i hooghanfgff. 
famous, to become (becoming, 
became, become), z[[t 12. It be- 
came famous, beeho'doolzijd. It 
is famous, heeho'dflzin. 
far, nizaad; doo deighdnigdo 
farm, to (farming, farmed, farm- 


ed), leet 6. The Pueblos farm> 

(are farmers), kiis'aanii k'eeda'- 


farmer, kee'didlehi. 

Farmington, N. M., tota\ 

farther, bilddh 'dmzddd. 

farther on, yowehedi; t'ah naasf* 

di; nowehedi. 

farthest, 'aldahdi; 'alddh 'ani- 


fat, 'ak'ah. 

fat, to get (getting, got, gotten),. 

k'ah 1. I will get fat, dfneesh- 

k'ah. I am fat, neshk'ah. 

father, 'azhe'e; ataa\ 

fatigue, ch'eeh 'adeesdzd. 

fatten, to (fattening, fattened^ 

fattened), k ah 3. I have fatten* 

ed my sheep, shidibe 'attso n6t- 


fattening, 'anilk'ah; bee anil- 


faults, (his — ), ba'dtV. 

faultless, ba'dtV 'ddingo. 

favorite, 'aghaadi. 

fawn, bjih yddzh. 

fear, nd'ddzid. 

fear, to (fearing, feared, feared),, 

dzfit 1 . I do not fear you, doo 

nindsdzid do. 

fearful, to be (being, was, been), 

dzfft 2. He is very fearful, 'ayda 


fearless, t'aadoo yinaldzidii; doo 
bit ghee'ii. 

feather, atV; 'ats'os. 
February, 'atsa biydazh, 
fecal matter, chqq\ 
feces, chqq\ 



feed bag, \]\ yii' Vaati. 

feed, to (feeding, fed, fed), s(i+ 1. 

1 fed the baby, 'awee 1 bi'iissq. 

tsot 3. I will feed you; I will give 

you food, na'deestsot. 

feel, fro (feeling, felt, felt), nih 3. 

I felt his face, binii* bideshnii*. 

ts'ffd. I do not feel well, shitah 

doo hats'iid da. I feel well now, 

k'ad shitah ya'ahoot'eeh. How 

do you feel, haa nft*6? 

feet, akee*. 

felloes (of a wagon wheel), tsi- 

naabQQS bijaad tsin bin6z'ahf- 


femur, 'ajaad bita* sitani. 
fence, 'anitT. 

fence, fro pufr up a (putting, put, 
put), t'ih 5. I am putting up a 
fence, 'eesht'ih. 

fertilize, fro (fertilizing, fertiliz- 
ed, fertilized), lift 16. I am fert- 
ilizing the field, nanise* bich'i- 
yq' da ak'eh bqqh *asht<§eh. 
fertilizer, nanise* bich'iyq*. 
few, faa dikwu; Wch'tfdf- 
fifteen cenfrs, gfinisi. 
fig, hashk'aan. 

fighfr, fro (fighting, fought 
fought), ghat 19. I fought with 
him, bit 'atk'iishghod. gq^t 2. 
I fought with him, bit 'aheesh- 

gqg • 

file, bee 'ach'iishf. 
file, fro (filing, filed, filed), ch'ish 
1,2. I will file it, deeshch'ish. I 
filed the nail in two, 'it adaal- 
kaatf k'fnich'iizh. 


fill, fro (filling, filled, filled), b||t 
2. I filled it with water, to b\V 

filthy, t*66 baa'ih; t*66 nichxg 1 !; 

find, fro (finding, found, found), 
aat 5. I found a dollar, t'aata'i 
beeso ridii'q. gaat 18. I found 
a cave, tse'aan ta' bik'iniya. 
chit 5. My hat was lost, but I 
found it among the clothes, shi- 
ch ah yoo' 'eelts'id nt '##' 'ee' bi- 
tahgi bikVnich'id. '[[t 5. He 
stole my horse, but I found him 
out, shil[{' yineez'if ndi hadi- 
nish'u. zijt 13. I will find out 
for you, na shit beehodoozjit. 
kah 2. I found out about the 
stars, sg' nisetkaa'. 
finish, fro (finishing, finished, fi- 
nished), t'ih 13. They have not 
yet finished the song, sin t*ah 
doo ndayftt'eeh da. I have fi- 
nished eating, 'attso *nyqq*. I 
have finished building my house, 
shikin 'attso 'ffshtaa. 
fingernail, *alashgaan. 
finger, 1 ala'; 'alazhoozh. 
fire, kg*. 

fire, fro make (making, made, 
made), k'qqt 1 . I made fire with 
a firedrill, *asetk*q. 
fire, fro build a (building, built, 
built), jah 3, 4. I built a fire, di- 
di'ftjee*. I built the fire back up, 

fire, fro sefr (setting, set, set), ttit 
4. I set fire to the paper, naal- 
tsoos diitttah. 



firearm, bee'eldggh. 
firecracker, naa Itsoos dadildon- 

fire engine, kg 1 yinitts£si. 
fire extinguisher, kg* bee nilts&i 
fireplace, kg'k'eh. 
fireside, honibqqh, 
firewood, chizk 
firm, nitdzil. 
first, 'atse; 'atts£. 
first aid, 'atse choo'ijhii. 
fish, too*. 
fit, 'ashch'qh. 

fix, to (fixing, fixed, fixed), If ft 
24. I fixed my car, shichidf hash- 
flagellation, n6'nfltsxis. 
Flagstaff, Ariz, kin t6nf. 
flake off, to (flaking, flaked, 
flaked), ch'it. My skin is flak- 
ing off, shikagf telch'iit. 
flash, 'anahata'; jishgish. 
flash, to (flashing, flashed, 
flashed), 2. The lightning is 
flashing, *an6hata\ chih 4. It 
flashed red, dah yiichii'. tfish 
8. It flashed blue, dah diitt'iizh 
flashlight, bee n'dildlaadf. 
flat, niteel; (tire) nittsgz, niit- 

flat iron, bee k ee'aldpphf. 
flatulence, 'atsq na'alyol. 
flatulent, to be (being, was, 
been), ft* it. I am flatulent, 'ash- 

flatulent expulsion, tt*id. 
flax, latah 'adijoolf. 
fleece, *aghaa\ 
fleet lizard, naalnoodf. 


flesh, ats[\ 
flexible, naat'ood. 
flexibility, naat'ood. 
flint, tse 'aghozi. 
flint (igniter — - )/ tsett'eet. 
flip, to 'flipping, flipped, flip- 
ped), tqsh 1. I flipped the mar- 
ble, madzo shettqsh. 
flirtation, 'a I jit. 

float, to (floating, floated, float- 
ed), ot 1. I am floating about, 
dah naash'eet 
flour, 'ak'aan. 

flow, to (flowing, flowed, flowed) 
goh 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. It 
will start to flow along, didoo- 
goh. It is flowing along, yigoh. It 
flowed up out, haago'. It stop- 
ped flowing, ninigo'. It flowed a- 
way, yoo* 'ffgo'. It flowed over, 
gho'qqgo'. If. It is flowing a- 
long, nflf. It is flowing out, ch'f- 
nflf. I am making the water flow 
(along), to yfnfshtf. 
fluffy, yilzhoir 

flutter, to (fluttering, fluttered, 
fluttered), d!o\ My eye flutter- 
ed, shinaa' dahadlo*. 
fly, tse'ed^ii. 

fly, to (flying, flew, flown), t*ah 
1,3,4,5,6,7,8. The bird flew 
off, tsfdii dah diitV (tsfdii yoo' 
'eet'a'). I am flying along, yish- 
t'ah. I will fly to Washington, 
waashindoongoo shit 'adoot'ah. 
The bird is flying about, tsfdii 
naat'a\ I flew the airplane a- 
bout, chidf naat'a'f nisett'a . 
fog, 'ahf. 



f°99y* 'ohi bee chahatheet; 'ahf 
dah *oojot. 

fold to (folding, folded, folded), 
lift 6. I folded the paper, naal- 
tsoos atchY 'ifshtaa. ieet 2. I 
will fold the blanket, beeldlei *a- 
hqqh dineeshteet. 
-food, cfViyaan; ch*iyq\ 
fool, to (fooling, fooled, fooled), 
'ah 1. I fooled him when I told 
him I had no money, shibeeso *a- 
din bidishnfigo nffaa'. 
foot (linear), *adees*eez. 
foot, 'akee\ 
footprint, kek'eh. 
for (him, it), ba; bideena; bik*6; 
biniighe; bfka; biba*. 
for (because), haala. 
for rent, bik'e ni'iitgheego 'a'f- 
t'aah biniighe. 
for sale, na'iini' biniighe. 
forbidden, doo bee haz'qq da. 
Smoking is forbidden in church, 
sodizin ba hooghan gone* na'a- 
t'oh doo bee haz'qq da. 
forego, to (foregoing, forewent, 
foregone), 'aah 19. I have fore- 
gone the pleasure of smoking be- 
cause it is not good for me, na*- 
asht'ohgo baa shit honeeni nf- 
r& yoo 'adffq, haala doo sha 
ya'at'eeh da. 
forehead, ataa\ 
forever, hooPaagoo. 
forget, to (forgetting, forgot, for- 
gotten), nah I. I have forgotten 
him, baa yisenah. Don't forget 
about it, t'aaka baa yooneeh! 
forgotten, to be (being, was, 


been), 'nah 1. I will be forgotten, 
shaa hodiyoo'nah. 
fork, bila' taa'ii. 
formerly, clV66shdqqdqq\ 
fornication, 1 ak'eed; 'asht^ezh. 
Fort Defiance, Ariz., tsehootsooi 
Fort Sumner, N, M., hweeldL 
Fort Wingote, N. M., shash bitoo 
forward, ndas. 
foxtail grass, zee'iilgho'ii. 
fracture, k'e'eltp'; k'idi'nfdeel. 
fracture (compound — ), k'fdP- 
nideel doo binaa tidiilyaa. 
fracture (compression — ), shi- 
jizhgo k'e'eltQ'. 

fracture (epiphyseal — ), oosh* 
g££zh bee tsin 'aheshjee* gonaa 

fracture (longitudinal — ), naa- 
see ts'in 'atk'fniizhoozh. 
fracture (multiple — ), ts'in n\- 

fracture (oblique — ), 'atnahac- 

fracture (transverse — ), naanii- 
go k^e!to\ 
fragile, dit*6df; di'fdf. 
fragility, 'aa hasti*. 
fragmentation, *adiitaa*; *azts*il. 
fraud, 'Pdeesdlo*; 'ina'adJo'. 
free (gratis), faa jffk'e; t\56 nfi- 
k'e. He gave it to me free, t*a<5 
jfrk*e shaa yinPq. 
freeze, to (freezing, froze, froz- 
en), t[it 1, 2. I froze, sistin. ! 
froze it, sett in. 
frequently, t aa *ahqqh. 
Friday/ 'ashdla'ajf nda'anish. 
friend, *ak*is. 



friendly, lo be (being, was, been) 
nih 1. I am very friendly with 
him, 'ayoigo k'e ghosh'm. 
friendship, k'e *aho ni. 
frigidity, hak'az. 
fringe, 'ajanil (of a shawl); 'qqh 
haatY (of a saddle). 
Fruitland, N. M., niinah nfzaad. 
frog, ch'at nineezf; ch'at. 
from, -d§§'; -doo. 
from now on, kodoo naas ho- 

from there, 'aad§§'; 'aad66; 'aa- 
d§&; 'aadoo; ghonaasdoo. 
from there on, *aad66. 
frost, sho. 

frost, to (frosting, frosted, frost- 
ed), gah 3. It frosted last night, 
tt*e6dqq* sho yiigaii. 
fruit, tsin bineest'q'; dried fruit, 
tsin bineest'q' daazganfgn, 
fresh fruit, tsin bineest'q* 'adaa- 

frying pan, tsee'6. 
full, to get (getting, got, gotten), 
b[{t 1 . My shoes got full of sand, 
shikee' s6i bii' hadeeb[[d. It is 
full of water, to bii* hadeezbin. 
chat 4. I got full; I am full, na- 

full moon, hanffbqqz. 
fumble for, to (fumbling, fumbl- 
ed, fumbled), zii 5. I am fumbl- 
ing for money in my pocket, si- 
za'azis gone' b6eso hahassffd 
I fumbled for it, hahosezffd. 
fun, to have (having, had, had), 
niit 5. I am having fun, baa shit 


function, to (functioning, funct* 
ioned, functioned), nish 2. My 
car doesn't function well, shichi- 
d\ doo ycTdt'eehgo naalnish da. 
funny, baa dlo hasin, 
furthermost, 'alaahji. 
furrowed, yildzis. 
furuncle, yilch'ozh. 
futilely, ch'eeh. 


gain weight, to (gaining, gained. 

gained), k'ah 2. I am gaining 

weight, shTniilk'aii. 

gall, 'ati'izh. 

Gallup, N. M., na'nizhoozhf. 

galoshes, ke'achogii. 

game corral, needz[[\ 

gamble's oak, chech'il. 

Ganado, Ariz., lok'aahnteel. 

gapped, deeshgizh; ndeeshgizh 

garbage, ch'iyaan doo bidi'ni- 


garble, to (garbling, garbled, 

garbled), tih 3. He garbles his 

speech, doo hats'if yatti* da, 

garden, da'ak'eh. 

gargle, to (gargling, gargled, 

gargled), dzit 1, 2. I am gargling 

the water, to shidaghi' nanis- 

dzid. I am gargling, shidaghi' 


garter, yistteett'ool. 

garter (sash — ), jan^zhf. 

gasoline, chidf bitoo*. 

gate, dandft(hf. 

gather, to (gathering, gathered, 

gathered), lift 14. I will gather 

them together, *a+ah 'adeeshtfft 

leet 15. The Navaho gathered 



at Gallup, naabeeho na'nizhoo- 
zhfdi 'dtah si lit*. 'oh 1- ' om 
gathering firewood, chizh nd- 
gelding, t[i bikq'ii, 
generate, to (generating, gener- 
ated, generated), naat 1. We 
generate electricity by means of 
water, to bee 'atsiniltt'ish dahiil- 

generation, ndds 'oochftigfi (ge- 
neologic); 'atsiniltt'ish hiilnaaH 
(of electricity). 

genitalia (male), 'acho'; (female) 

genuflection, ntsi'deesgo'. 
germ, ch'osh doo yit'finii. 
gesticulation, na'achid. 
gesture, to (gesturing, gestured, 
gestured), chit 3. I am talking 
by means of gestures, naash- 
chidgo bee yashtP. 
get, to (getting, got, gotten), 
t'eet 9. I got this horse from a 
Navaho, dii t{{' naabeeho bi- 
ts'<5qd#f shofsettV. get out, 
'dat 1. He got out his knife, bi- 
beezh hayfi q. gaol 2. I will get 
out of here, kodoo ch'fdeeshddt. 
djjt 1 . I got out of money, shi- 
beeso 'dsdyd. gddt 29 I got out 
of the car, chidi bighi'd##' ha- 
dddyd, getaway, ghot 10. The 
horse got away, t[f y66* *eel- 
ghod. 'ddt 1.1 got his wife a- 
way from him, be'esdzaan bi- 
yaa hddttf. get down, gh£6t 1 . 
I got the pack down, h6et 
n'diighf. gddt 29. Get down off 


of the horse, Iff bikddd§f hada- 
ninddh! get even, 'niit 15. I will 
get even with you, nit k'eedi- 
deesh'nfit. get lost, gddt 30. I 
got lost, yoo' 'ifyd. get skinned, 
kit 10; t'ot 11. My hand got 
skinned, shila* tsiih ndlkf; shi- 
la' tsiih ndtV. get up, gddt 1 1 . 
I will get up, ridideeshdddt. 'nah 
4. I got up, ndiish'na*. 
ghost, ch'tidii. 
giant, ye'iitsoh. 
gift, 'aa yflydii. 
gila monster, tinfl£L 
giraffe, tsinldtah 'aydnii. 
girdle (for a horse), 'achxosh- 

girl, 'at'eed. 

give, to (giving, gave, given), 
'ddt 7. I will give it to you, naa 
deesh'ddt (deeshgheet, deeshjot 
deeshkddt, deeshteet, deeshteet 
deeshtftt, deeshttoh, deestsos) 
I will give them to you, naa 
deeshjih (deeshnit) lift 29. I 
will give him another chance, 
bd 'ashja ndd'deeshdlfft. I gave 
him a chance (an opportunity), 
bd 'ashja 'iishtaa. *££+ 4. The 
Mexican gives whiskey to the 
Navaho on the sly, naakaii t6- 
dithi-f naabeeho yaa n6init'[ih. 
give up, to (giving, gave, given), 
'ddt 19. I will give up smoking, 
nd'dshfoh yoo* 'adideesh'ddt 
gddt 9. I have given up drinking, 
'ashdldn^ bik'ideyd. 'ddt 16 
He overcame me, so I gave up, 
shik'ehdeesdlfj'go biniinaa t*dc 



baa dinfq. t'ijt 3. Our enemies 
have given up, nihe'ena'f 'ddda- 
hoost'i[d. t'ddt 7. I gave up to 
him, t'66 baa 'ddinisht'q. 
glance, to (glancing, glanced, 
glanced), tat 5. The bullet glan- 
ced from the rock, bee'eldg^h 
bik'a' tse yits'dndltddl. 
gland, 'akddz. 

glacier, tin 'ak'idilkgph ghol- 

glaciation, tin 'ak'idilk^Qh ghol- 

glass (tumbler), tdzis. 
glass, tses^*. 

glitter, to (glittering, glittered, 
glittered), sxps. The stars are 
glittering, sq' dadisxgs. 
glittering, disxQs; bits'adi'nfliid. 
glottis, 'addziz. 
glossy, bfzdilid. 
glove, Idjish. 

glow worm, ch'osh bikg'ii. 
glue, bee 'ahfda'diiljeehi. 
glue, to (gluing, glued, glued), 
jah 2. I glued them together, 'a- 
gnat, tsTii. 

go, to (going, went, gone), gad* 
18. I went to Gallup, na*nizhoo- 
zhfgoo niyd, go among, 37. I 
went among the Mexicans, naa- 
kaii bitaaseya. go after, 38. I 
am going after water, to hdd- 
shadf. go back 43. When will 
you go back, hahgoshq* ndif- 
dddt? go on horseback, 50. I 
went on horseback, t[[' shit nfyd. 
go out, 2 I will go out of the 


house, kin bighi'd^* ch'idee- 
shdd+. tsis 1. The fire went out, 
kg' neeztsiz. go up, 4. I went up 
the mountain, dzil bqqh haseyd. 
goat, tt'fzf; tf fzi chggh (billy). 
gobble up, to (gobbling, gobbled 
gobbled), mat 1, 2. The dog gob- 
bled up the meat, teechqq'i 'atsf 
'a+tso *ayiizmal. 
goiter, 'ayaayddh dah *iighe\ 
gold, 'oola. 
goldfinch, tsidiittsoof. 
good, yd'dt'eeh; tikan; nizhonL 
good looking, biighis. 
goods, naalghehe. 
goose, naal'eetf. 
gopher, na'azfsf. 
gopher-snake, diyodsh. 
gorilla, magftsoh; mogftsoh. 
gorge, tsekooh; bikooh. 
goshawk (western «-— . ), ginilbdht 
gossip, 'aseez[. 

gossip, to (gossiping, gossiped, 
gossiped), dzin. I gossip, asee- 
ziri nisdzin. 
gourd, *adee* 

govern, to (governing, governed, 
governed), *aat 4. I govern 
them, bd nahash'd. 
government, 'a nahafdii; *d na- 
ha'dii; 'd ndaha'dii. 
governor, *d naha'dii. 
governing body, *d ndaha'dii. 
grab, 'ashjih. 

grab, to (grabbing, grabbed^ 
grabbed), jih 1. I grabbed it, 
shejik sit 1. I grabbed it, s6- 

grama gross, tfoh ndstasf. ; 



Grand Canon, Ariz., bidaa' ha'- 
ozt I . 

grandoddy long legs, na'ashje'ii 
bijaad danineezi. 
grandchild, 'atsoi. 
grandfather, 'acheii; anal?. 
grandmother, 'amd sani; 'analf. 
grape, cIVil na'attVii. 
grape (Oregon — - ), chech'il ni- 
tt'izi yilt'qq'f. 
grapevine, ch'il na'attVii. 
grate, to (grating, grated, grat- 
ed), ch'ish 1 . I grated the cheese, 
geeso yfch'iizh. 
grave, jishchaa*. 
gravel, tsezef. 
graveyard, jishchaa*. 
gravy, *atoo\ 
gray, tiba; halb6. 
gray lizard, na'ashQ*iitbahf. 
graze, to (grazing, grazed, graz- 
ed), chosh 2. The sheep are gra- 
zing, dib6 da atchozh. 
grease, *ak*ah. 
grease (axle — ), *aj66\ 
grease, to (greasing, greased 
greased), jah 1. I will grease my 
car, shichidf rideeshjah. 
grease gun, bee na'djeehf. 
Greasewood, Ariz., d6gh6zhii 
bii* t6. 

greasewood, d6gh6zhii 
great grandmother, 'ach6. 
green, doott'izh; hodootlMzh. 
green lizard, na'ash^ii doott'i- 

greenish, dinooltt'izh. 
griddle, tsdt'ees. 
grime, chin. 


grimy, chin bqqh t*66 'ahayoi. 
grind to (grinding, ground, 
ground), k'aat 1. I ground the 
wheat, tt'oh naadqq' yfk'q. 
k'ash 1. I ground the ax, tsenit 

grinding sound, k'azh. 
grindstone, tse bee 'ak'aashi. 
gristle, *ooshg§§zh. 
grizzly bear, shashtsoh. 
grope, to (groping, groped, grop- 
ed), sit 5. I am groping in my 
pocket for money, siza'azis go- 
ne* beeso hahassiid. sit 4. I gro- 
ped my way out on account of 
the dark, chahatheetgo biniinao 
hweessitgo ch'infya. I am grop- 
ing my way along, hweessit. 
ground, ni\ On the ground, nP- 
jP; nPg66. Close to the ground, 

ground lichen, nP hadlaad. 
grow, to (growing, grew, grown), 
seet 1 . I am growing, neess6et. 
I grew up, nirjinfsq. t'[[t 2. I 
grew some corn, naadq^' *a' na- 

grasp, to (grasping, grasped, 
grasped), jih 1 I grasped it, she- 
jih. sit 1. I grasped it, s6sit. 
tsah 1. I grasped it with my 
teeth, s^tsah. 
grass, tt'oh. 

grasshopper, nahachagii. 
guano, tsfdii bichaan. 
guidance, 'a hoot'[. 

guide, to (guiding, guided, guid- 
ed), loh 8,9, 10. I am guiding 
the car, chidf yishtoh. I am 



guiding, 'eeshtoh. *iH 6. I am 

guiding him; I am acting as 

guide for him, ba hweesh'i. 

gullet 'azagi. 

gullibility, taa bfholnihigii 


gullible, t'aa biholnihigii yoo- 


gully, chashk'eh hats'ozi. 

gum (of teeth), 'aghotsim. 

gun, bee'eldpgh. 

gunny sack, t+'oh yishbizh. 

gun sight, bik'eh 'adilt'ohf. 

gunsrock, bee'eldggh bitsiin. 

gunpowder, bee'eldpgh bikg*. 

gyp, ro (gyping, gyped, gyped), 

loh 3. He gyped me out of a 

dime, t'aata'i doot+'izh yee shi*- 


loh 3. I was gyped, shi*deesdlo\ 


hail, nflo. 

hail, to (hailing, hailed, hailed), 
t[[t 6. It is hailing, nilo naattin. 
hailstorm, mlo naa-rtin. 
hair, 'atsii'; 'atsiigha. 
hairbrush, be*ezh66\ 
hair-cord (for tying up the hair), 

hairy, ditt'o; dits'oz; disho; di'il; 

half dollar, d[[ yaal. 
half moon, atnii' beS+heel. 
halo, (around the sun) johonaa- 
'ei bina'ast-ree*; sha bft-Kdji it- 
ch ii 1 ; (around the moon) 'ool- 
ite 1 bina'asttee*. 
halter, 'anik'ide'ani. 
homes (of harness), *az£6d6eni!i 


hammer, bee 'atsidi. 
hamper, to (hampering, hamper- 
ed, hampered), tt'ah 4. The rain 
hampered me, naha+tin shinees- 

hand, *ala\ 

handicap, honeezt+'ah, 
handicapped, to be (being, was, 
been), t-Tah 2, I am handicap- 
ped by my baby, she'awee* baa 

handle (of a pitcher, or water 
bottle), bitashja. 
handle, bitsiin. 
handsome, blights. 
hang up, to (hanging, hung, 
hung), ch'qqt 2, I am hanging 
suspended, dah naashch'qqf 
*aar 16. I hung up my hat, shi- 
ch'ah dah hidii'q. bat 1. I will 
hang the cloth, naak'a'at'qhf di- 

hanged, to be (being, was, been) 
dloh. The criminal was hanged, 
dine doo ya'ashoonii dah bi'dii- 

handmade, t'aa yfla bee 'alyaa. 
happen, to (happening, happen- 
ed, happened), nfif 9, 10. What 
happened to you, haala yini- 
dzaa? What is happening, haa- 
da hat'i? What happened, haa 
h66t*i[d? It happened thus, ko- 

happiness, 'i+ hozhp. 
happy, to be (being, was, been) 
zhooi 1 . I am happy about it ; 
baa shit hozhp. 



happy, to become (becoming, 
became, become), zhggt 1 . I be- 
came happy about it, baa shit 

hard/ nitt'iz; nanitt'ah; yeigo. I 
am hard to beat, doo ts*ffd 'a- 
■nfsht'ee da. 

hard, to get (getting, got, gotten) 
tt'is 1 . The ground will get hard, 
nf hodoott'is. 

harden, to (hardening, harden 
ed, hardened), tt'is 2. It is hard- 
ening, yitt'is. I hardened it, set- 

harm, to (harming, harmed 
harmed), I fit 30. I harmed him, 
'atiishtaa. neet 3. Don't harm 
me, t'aadoo shee naninehi! 
harmful, to be (being, was, been) 
Hit 32. Whiskey is a harmful 
thing., todithit ate'et'finii 'at'e. 
harmfulness, 'ate'et'finii. 
harness, 'ak'inaazt'P. 
harrow, 'ak'inaalzhoodf. 
1*at, ch*ah. 

hatband, cfVah binaztVf. 
hatchet, tsenit yazhf. 
hate, to (hating, hated, hated), 
Jaat 1 . I hate him, jooshta. I 
came to hate him, jiisetaa'. 
hated, to be universally, din. He 
is universally hated; he is held in 
contempt, doo yildin da. 
hatred, joodla. 

have, to (having, had, had), leet 
23. I have a knife, beesh shee 
ho!6. I used to have it, shee ho- 
1ppnt'^\ gh[[#l. I had fish to 
eat too' bit *nyqq\ niit I have 


fun swimming, na'ashkQQ'go 
baa shit honeeni. 
hawk (western red tail — ), *a~ 

hay fork, tt'oh bee noaljooti. 
head, 'atsiits'iin. 
head off, to (heading, headed, 
headed), gaat 24. I headed off 
the sheep, dibe bidaah ninfya. 
hendband, tsiinazt'u. 
heald sticks, "\V sinil. 
health, shanah. 

healthy, to be (being, was, been), 
leet 5. I am healthy, shanah 
nishtt. t'eet 8. He is healthy, 
bitah ya ahoot'eSh. 
hear, to (hearing, heard, heard), 
ts'jit 6, 7. I heard it, disets'qq'- 
I heard, 'adisets qq\ 
hear about, to (hearing, heard, 
heard), nih 1 . I heard about the 
Ye: Bichei, na'akaigo yfnii\ 
heart, 'ajei dfshjool. 
heartburn, 'aghi* hodilid. 
heart shaped, heets'ooz. 
heat, hado. 

heat (sexual), na'acha*. 
heat, to come into (coming, 
came, come), chah 6. The ewe 
has come into heat, dibe tsa'ii 

heat, to (heating, heated, heat- 
ed), doh. 7. I heated the water, 
to niitdoii. doh 8. I heated my 
home, shighan gone* honiitdoii. 
gah 9. I heated the iron, beesh 

heaven, ya'qqsh. 
heavy, nidaaz. 



heavy, to be (being, was, been), 
daaz, daas. I am heavy, nis- 
dqaz. I am heavier than you / 
nilaan anisdaas. 
heel bone/ *ak6taL 
held, bock, to be (being, was, 
been), tt'ah 2. The rain held 
me back, nahattin shineestf'ah 
held, to be (being, was, been), 
leel 28. A meeting was held, 'a- 
tah azlif. 

help, *aka Velgheed. 
help, to (helping, helped, help- 
ed), ghof 11.1 will help you, nf- 
ka 'adeeshghot. doh 9. My 
education helps me, 'nnfshta'gc 
bee shich'f nahaldoh. 
hem, t'qq* 'anat'6. 
hemorrhage, *aghi*d£6' di+. 
hen, naa'ahoohai bi'aadii. 
herd, to (herding, herded, herd- 
ed), kat 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. 
I will herd them out, ch'fdfneesh- 
kai. I am herding them along, 
neeshkat. f herded them back, 
ndfne+kaad. I am herding them, 
nanishkaad. I am herding, na'- 
hereabout, kwii; kg£; koonf. 
here and there, 'okgg. Here and 
there stands a tree, *6kgQ tsin 

here inside, k6ne\ 
heron (blue — ), tatti'aah 'aleeh. 
hesitate, to (hesitating, hesitat- 
ed, hesitated), leel 6. Don't hes- 
itate about speaking to her, t'aa- 
doo bich'j' ni* nflfnf, bich'i' ya- 


hesitant, to be (being, was, been) 
leel 6. I am hesitant about it, 
bidVj* ni' nish+f. tii+ 1. I am 
here, kwe'e; kwii; kodi; dzqqdi; 
na f ; haah; gh6shd§§\ 
hesitant, yishtiih. I wanted to 
ask him for a quarter, but I felt 
hesitant about doing so, naaki 
yaal bfideeshkit nisin rit §§', t'66 
bich'i* yftiid. tih 5. He is hesi- 
tant in speech, doo hah ya+ti* da. 
hesitation, ni' *idl[. 
hiccough, to (hiccoughing, hic- 
coughed, hiccoughed), nah 3. I 
am hiccoughing; I have the hic- 
coughs, na'nfshnah. 
hide, 'asgq'; 'akagf. 
hide, to (hiding, hid, hidden), 
t'i[H. I am hiding (hidden) 
from him, bits'qq nanisht'in. "$ 
3. I will hide it from you, nits'qq 

high top shoes, ke ndoots'osii. 
hill, deesk'id; dah yisk'id. 
hip, ak'ai*. 

hire, to (hiring, hired, hired), 'aat 
15. I hired him, naanish baa di- 
ni q. 

hirsute, ditt'o; disho. 
hit, to (hitting, hit, hit), ts*i[t 1. 
I will hit him with my fist, ndi- 
deests'ip (once); ridfneests'iJJ 
(many times), haf 3. I hit him 
with a club, ndfflhaal. I am hit- 
ting him (repeatedly) with a club 

hitch, to (hitching, hitched 
hitched), nit 18. I hitched the 


t r 



horses to the wagon, \\( tsinaa- 
bqqs bighqqh deenil. 
hitched to, bighqqh. 
hoax, to (hoaxing, hoaxed, hoax- 
ed), 'ah 1 . I hoaxed him, nn'aa*. 
hobbles, t[f bihetfaol. 
hoe, beehagod. 

hoe, to (hoeing, hoed, hoed), gof 
10, I am hoeing, nahashgod. 
hog, bisoodi. 
hogan, hooghan. 
Holbrook, Ariz., t'iisyaakin. 
hold, to (holding, held, held), 
2. I am holding the stick out, 
tsin haai'a. *a 3. I am holding 
the stick up (vertically), tsin 
yaa+*a. 'a 4. I am holding the 
stick out (horizontally), tsin del- 
*a (ch'init'a). 'a 6. I am holding 
the gun pointed at (against) him, 
bee'eldggh bidiit a. faat 5. I 
am holding my head against it, 
bidmfish'q. bat 2. I am holding 
up the cloth, naak'a'at'qhi yi- 
nishbaal. ch'ah 2. I am holding 
my mouth open, dfnishch'ah. 
ta* I am holding it; I am hold- 
ing on to it; I have ahold of it, 
yinishtq*. tt'ah 2. I will not hold 
you back, shf doo ndfneeshtt'ah 
da. tsah 2. * I am holding it in 
my teeth, yfnistsa*. ts'ih 2. I 
am holding it with my nails, yf- 
nfstsY. sjjt 6. I am holding it 
down, yaa 'ifnfsin. s[it 5. I am 
holding my breath, shfyol t'qq' 
'ffnfsin. I am held in contempt 
by everybody, doo yishdin da. 
hole, Vaan, bfghahoodzanfgff 


hollow, bii* haltsW; bif hoodzq 
holster, bee'eldgQh bizis. 
home, hooghan. 

homeless, to be (being, was, 
been), gaa+ 52. I am homeless, 
t'aa bita'igi naasha. 
homelessness, t*aa bita'igi na*a- 

honey, tsfs'na bitt'izh. 
hoof, 'akeshgaan. 
hoop, tsibqqs 

hop, to (hopping, hopped, hop- 
ped), chah 1 , 2, 3, 4. I am hop- 
ping along, heeshchah. I am 
hopping about, nahashcha* 
t'eet 1 8. I am hopping about on 
one foot, nahashtV. 
horned toad, na'ashg'ii dich'f- 

horn, *adee\ 

horse, nF; *[[ +ffg"- Blue gray 
horse, +{[* dootfizhii; bay horse, 
t[[* tichfrii, black horse, t[[sh- 
zhiin; brown horse, tjishttizhii; 
buckskin, tsiigha* Jizhinii; dark 
bay horse, t[[' dinilzhinii; mouse 
colored horse, +[[#hinii; paint 
(pinto), tipkiizh; palomino, tsii 
gha* tigaii; roan horse, k\\ tibaii; 
roan with red mane and tail, tsii- 
gha* fichiVii; sorrel, t[f titsoii; 
spotted horse, ♦{(sttMnii. 
horsefly, t{f bitsfs'na; tfSzhii. 
horseshoe, -ffX* bikee\ 
horseshoe shaped, nazhah. 
hot, to be (being, was, been), si- 
do; dich'ff. doh 3. I am hot, 
shit deesdoL It is hot (weather), 
deesdoi. gah 5, 8. It is hot (wea- 



ther), honeezgaL The iron is hot, 
beesh neezgai. 

hot, to become (becoming, be- 
came, become), doh 2. It will 
become hot (weather), hodfnoo- 
dok gah 8. The iron became 
hot, beesh niigaii. gah 5. It will 
become hot (weather), hodfnoo- 

hotcake, tse ast'ef. 
hotel, da'njah. 
hour, 'ahee'ilkid. 
house, kin. 

how, haa; haashq'; haash; daa; 
haait'eegoshq'; hait'ao; ha'a- 

how long ago? hadqq'shq'? 
how much? how many? dfkwff- 
shq'; dfkwifsh; dfkwff; haa nfel- 
tV ; haa neelqq? 
hub (wagon), tsinaabqqs bija<5d 

Huerfano, N. M., han<56dl[. 
hug, to (hugging, hugged, hug- 
ged), tq\ I am hugging her, shi- 
jef bnnfshtq*. 

humerus, 'agaan bita* sit6nf. 
humid, ditte£\ 
humidification, na'altteeh. 
humming bird, dah yiitfhf. 
humor, to regain one's good (re- 
gaining, regained, regained) 
IQQi. I have regained my good 
humor; I am back in a good hu- 
mor, shit nahoojggd. I am re- 
gaining my good humor; ! am 
getting back in a good humor, 
shit nahoojegt. 


hunchback, chooghmf. 
hunger, dichin; hodichin. 
hungry, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), leet 11. I will get hungry, 
dichin deeshteet. I am hungry, 
dichin nisht[. 

hurt, to (hurting, hurt, hurt), 
niih 2. My hand hurts, shila 1 di- 
niih. gah 7. My tooth hurts me, 
shighoo* shit honeesgai, niit 2. 
I hurt myself, tfadiishyaa. Don't 
hurt yourself, t'aadoo ti'idfrini! 
hurt, to get (getting, got, gotten) 
nih 1. I got hurt, 'adadenih. 
hunt, to (hunting, hunted, hunt- 
ed), zhah 1,2.1 went hunting, 
nisheshzhee\ I went hunting 
deer; I went deer hunting, bjjh 

Hunter's Point, Ariz., tsenash- 
hysteria, 'ashch'qh 


ice, tin. 

Ignacio, Colo., bfina. 
ilium, 'ak'aashjaa*. 
ill, to be (being, was, been), 'adt 
8. I am ill, shqqh dahaz'a. tsaat 
1. I am ill, daastsaah. 
illness, 'qqh dahaz'q; da'atsaah. 
imagine, to (imagining, imagin- 
ed, imagined), nut 11. He just 
imagines it, t*66 bit 'off. I 
thought I saw a coyote, but I just 
imagined it, mq'ii yiittsq nisin 
nt'!£, t'66 shit 'adzaa la. 
imagination, t'66 'it 'at*[. 
immunity, bee 'adighin. 



impossibility, doo 'ihoneedzqq 

impossible, doo bihoneedzqq da. 
in, bii 1 ; bighi'. 
in addition, ba'aan. 
in a little while, 'at'ahfgo. 
in front of it, bidaahgi; bich'qqh; 
bilqqjP; bighqqh. 
in his way, bich'qqh. 
in many ways, t'aa fqqgoa 
in many places, t'aa tqqg66. 
in several directions, da'nft- 
ts qq goo. 

in some places, fahgoo. 
in other places, tahgoo. 
in the direction of, -jfgo; -jigo. 
in vain, dVeeh. 
incapability, 'a'oh honee'q. 
incense, 'ayah didi'nit. 
inch, 'asdzoh. Six inches, has- 
tqqdi 'asdzoh. 

incise, to (incising, incised, in- 
cised), gish 1. I made an incision 
in it; I incised it, shegish. 
incision, yishgish; 'ashgish. 
incorrect, doo 'akot'ee da. 
increase, to (increasing, increas 
ed, increased), lqq+ 1 . We ore 
increasing (in number), yiidlqqt 
iqq\ 1. I increased (the number 
of) my sheep, shidibe yftqqd. 
nut 13. I am increasing my size, 
'qq kwaashnfit. 
incubator, bighi 1 'iilnaahi. 
Indian paint brush, dah yiit[hf- 

individual, faatf 'f sizmigff; t'd6 
ta*f nPanfgo; t'aata'f nfzfnfgo. 


infantile paralysis, — sigan. He 
had infantile paralysis in the leg, 
bijaad sigan. 
infection, Vniiyqq'. 
infirmity, da'atsaah; 'qqh da- 

inflammable, tikon. 
influenza, tahoniiga6h ntsaaign 
inhabit, to (inhabiting, inhabit- 
ed, inhabited), t'Y\\ 5. The Ne- 
groes inhabit Africa, Africa bi- 
kaa'gi naakaii -Hzhinii keedaha- 


inhabitants, keedahat'iinii. 
inhalation, Yiidziih. 
inhale, to (inhaling, inhaled, in- 
haled), dzih 1. I inhaled the 
smoke, fid bit 'eesdziT. Inhale, 

injection, 'ii' 'alt'ood. 
injured, to be (being, was, been), 
nih 1. I was injured, 'adadenih. 
injurious, to be (being, was, 
been), I ill 32. Tobacco is not 
really injurious, nat'oh doo ts'i- 
da 'ate'ei'fj da. 

injury, tfiilyaa. 

inquire, to (inquiring, inquired, 
inquired), kit 2. I will inquire of 
him, nabfdideeshkit. 
inquiry, na'fdfkid. 
inquisition, na'fdfkid. 
insanity, diigis. 
inscription, f akVeshch[. 
inside, yah; gone*; gh6ne\ 
inspect, to (inspecting, inspect- 
ed, inspected), sit 1 . I inspected 
it, haasid. 



inspection, haalziid; niTi; naal- 
kaah; *eehoozj[h. 
inspector, ha'asidf 
instruction, na'nitin, 
insufficiency, 'a'oh neelq, 
insufficient, to be (being, was, 
been), *qq+ 5. The rain is insuf- 
ficient for the corn, naha+tin 
naadqq' yi'oh neel'q, 
interest, '6honeedl[; (on a debt) 
inaoltq i. 

interested in, to be (being, was, 
been;, I am interested in the war, 
'anaa 1 bmeeshdli. 
interesting, to be (being, was 
been), z[\i 8. It is interesting to 
me t'66 baa na nisin. What is so 
interesting, ha'at'Jf la baa na 

interment, te'alteeh. 
interminable, doo ninft'i'f. 
interpret, to (interpreting, inter- 
preted, interpreted), nih 2. I will 
interpret for you, nihita' ho- 

interrelated, to be (being, was, 
been), t'ih 7. Fire and smoke are 
interrelated, kQ T doo tid 'ahidee- 

intestine, 'ach'fi*. 
intestine (small — ), 'ach'n' doo- 

intestine (large — ), 'ach'fidfil. 
into, biih. 

intoxicate, to (intoxicating, in- 
toxicated, intoxicated), taal 3. 
Whiskey intoxicates me, todi+hit 
tsTshidiitaah teh. 
invalid, ka naaghdii. 


investigate, to (investigating, in- 
vestigated, investigated), kah 2. 
I investigated the stars, sg' niset- 

investigation, na'alkaah. 
involved in, to become (becom- 
ing, became, become), leel 10. 
We have become involved in the 
war, 'anaa* bee 'atah dasiidl[[\ 
involvement, 'dtah 'asdlu'. 
iodine, 'azee' *adi+idf Jizhinign 
iron, beesh doot+'izh; beesh. 
iron ore, tse ndaaz. 
ironwood, mq'iidqq'; k'iishzhinii' 
iron, to (ironing, ironed, ironed),. 
kgof 2. I ironed my shirt, she'ee* 

irascibility, 'ayoo yfnf si*q. 
irrigate, to (irrigating, irrigated 
irrigated), h§sh 2. I irrigated my 
corn, shinaadqq* bitah na'ntf- 

irrigation, na'nigh§sh. 
Ssleta, N. M„ naatooho. 
isn't it? ya? It is cold, isn't it> 
deesk'aaz ya? 
sfrch, 'akaa* yih§|s. 
itch, to (itching, itched, itched), 
h^s. My hand itches, shila' yi- 

lyanbito, N. M., 'ayanf bito\ 

jabber, to (jabbering, jabbered" 
jabbered), ch'at 2. I am jabber- 
ing, ha'dishch'at. 
jabberer, ha'di+ch'ati. 
jack (auto — , ), chldf bee dah n- 



jacket, 'eetsoh 'atts'iisigu. 

jack rabbit, gahtsoh. 

jail, awaalya. 

jailbird, 'awaalyacri. 

jailer, 'awaalya yaa f ahalyani. 

January, yas nitt'ees. 

Japan, binaa'adaaJts'ozi' bike 


Japanese, binaa'adaa+ts'ozi di> 


javelin, tsin 'anahaighqhi. 

jaw, 'ayaats'iin. 

jealous, to be (being, was, been), 

z[jt 7. I am jealous, te' nisin. I 

am jealous of my wife, she'es- 

dzaan baa te* nisin. 

jealousy, te' hasin. 

jelly sake, neesdog. 

Jemez, N. M., mq'ii deeshgiizh. 

Jemez (people), mq'ii deesh- 


jerky, ditsxiz. 

jerky (dried meat), *atk'fniilgizh 

jest, nahatV. 

jet, baashzhinii. 

jet-block, dithil. 

Jicarilla Apache, beehai. 

jimson weed, ch'6hojilgh66h. 

job, naanish. 

join, to (joining, joined, joined), 

gaat 28. I joined the army, si- 

laago bfiya (or bitah nfya). 

joints, 'ahadit'aan, 

joy, 'if hozhg. 

judge, 'anihwii'aahii. 

jug, toshjeeh. 

July, ya'iishjafistsoh; Veesh- 


jump to (jumping, jumped, 

jumped), j[[t 1, 2. I jumped over 


the log, tsin bitis dah neshjftd. I 

jumped back, t'qqjf dah nesh- 

jUd. chah 5. I am jumping at 

the limb, tsin bigaan bich'i' yaa- 


jumping spider, na'ashje'ii na- 


June, ya'iishjaashchili; Veesh- 


June bug, ta+chaa', 

juniper, gad; gad nieetii. 

just, t'aa. 

just in fun, t'aa 'adzaagoo; t'66 

Kaibito, Ariz., k'ai' bii J to. 
kangaroo mouse, nahasht'e'i 
arts nsign. 

kangaroo rat, nahashtVii. 
Kayenta, Ariz., to dmeeshzhee'. 
Keam's Canon, Ariz., I6k'aa' 

keep, to (keeping, kept, kept), 
zjjf 4. I keep my car running 
well, shichidf nizhonfgo diitsV- 
go 'ffnfsin. I keep my home clean 
inside, shighan gone' hozhonfgc 
'ahwffnfsin. *qq\ 12. I keep my 
gun in the house, shibee*e!d<?Qh 
shighan gone' seJtq. nih 2. We 
kept each other by talking, 'ahit 
keg, t6shjeeh. 
kennel, te&rhqq'f bighan. 
kerchief, zSecleetdoi; ze&teef 

kernal (of corn), naad^cV bighoo' 
kerosene, 'ak'ahkg*. 
key, bee 'qq ndft|hf. 
keyhole, bee *qq hdftihf b6 'a- 



kick, to (kicking, kicked, kick- 
ed), tot 1 , 2, 3 I kicked; i let fly 
a kick, 'adzi'itadl. I kicked him; 
1 gave him a kick, setat, I kick- 
ed him one time after another; I 
gave him a kicking, naneetaal. 
kid, tt'fzf yazhf. 
kidney, 'acha'ashk'azhf. 
kill, to (killing, killed, killed), 
heet 1 I killed him, seth[. gheet 
1. I nearly killed myself, k'as- 
dqq 'adiyeshghf. ghqqt 1. I 
killed many prairie dogs, d\gg 
t'66 'ahayoi yfghqq*. tsitl. We 
killed the cattle, beegashii ni- 

in, akei. 
kind of, t'66 bfyo. It is kind of 
cold, t'66 bfyo deesk'aaz. 
kind, to be (being, was, been), 
baat 1. I am kind to animals, 
naaldlooshii baa jiinishba* teh. 
kindness, jooba*; a 'ahwiinft'f. 
king bolt (of a wagon), tsinaa- 
bqqs bits a* ba ni ahf bit 'if ahf. 
Kinlichee, Ariz-, kin dah tichiT 
Kiowa, kaawa. 

kiss, to (kissing, kissed, kissed), 
t'aat 6. I kissed her, bizonesh- 
t'g. ts*<?s 1. I will kiss you, ni- 

kitfox, mq*ii doott'izhi. 
Klagetoh, Ariz., teeghPto. 
knee, *agod. 

kneecap, 'agod dist'ani. 
kneel, to (kneeling, knelt, knelt), 
goh 8. I knelt on the ground, ni'- 
goo ntsidinigo*. 


kneeling, to be (is, was, been), 
goh 9. I am kneeling, ntsidi'i- 
knife, beesh. 

knock over, to (knocking, knock- 
ed, knocked), goh 7; niit 7; 
gheet 2; kat 5; feet 17. I knock- 
ed it over, naa'fftgo'; naa'fftne'; 
naa'ffghj; naa'fftkaad; naa'fft 
ne'; naa'ffttV. nit 3. I knock- 
ed them over, naa'ahenil. hat 3. 
I knocked him over with a club r 
knot, shaazh. 

know, to (knowing, knew, known) 
chjjh. I know how, yiishch[ih. 
zjjt 13. I know about it, shit bee- 
hozin. s[it 2. I know him, be£- 
hasin. I know how to shoot, 'a- 
dishdon beehasin. 
knowledge, bfhoo'qq'ii. 
known, to make (making, made, 
made), *aat 2. I made known the 
fact that our enemies attacked 
us, nihe'ena'f nihik'iije'fgff ch'f- 
ni q. 

knuckles, ala' ah^qh dade'dh- 

kodak, bee 'ak'inda'a'nilf. 
kotex, tt'eestsooz. 


lad, 'ashkii. 

ladder, haaz'ef. 

lake, tooh; tonteel; be'ak'id. 

Lake Valley, N. M., be'ak'id hal~ 


lamb, dib6 yazhf. 

lampwick. ak'ahkp' biih yitVf 

land, keyah. 



language/ saad. 

languish, to (languishing, lan- 
guished, languished), hee+ 6. I 
am languishing in jail, 'awddl- 
ya setijgo biniinaa ch'ffndfi shf- 

lap, 'atsek'ee. 

lap against, to (lapping, lapped, 
lapped), k'ot 2. The water is lap- 
ping against the boat, tsinaa- 
•ee+ to bidi Ik'ot. 

lap up, to (lapping, lapped, lap- 
ped), ch'at 1 . The cat is lapping 
up the milk, mosi 'abe' yi+ch'al. 
larceny, 'annf*; *agha*ilghe. 
lard, 'ak'ah. 

large, nitsaa; -tsoh; 'dnf+tso; ni- 
tsxaaz; 'dnildifl. 

large, to be (being, was, been), 
tso 1. I am large, 'dnfstso. dffl 1. 
I am large, 'dnfshdffl. tsxaaz 1. 
1 am large (fully grown), nis- 
tsxaaz; 'dnfstsxddz. 
lariat, tt'oot. 

larkspur (purple — ), tadfdnn 

lasso, to (lassoing, lassoed, las- 
soed), loh 1. I lassoed the horse, 
tit' seloh. 

last, to (lasting, lasted, lasted), 
r\aa\ 4, 5. I will not last long, 
doo shee hodidoonaat da. 1 did 
not last long, t'dadoo shee hodfi- 
na'i. The water will last, to di- 

laugh, to (laughing laughed, 
laughed), dloh 2. I am laughing 
at him, baa yishdloh. I feel like 
laughing, dlo nisin. 


laundry, da'iigis bd hooghan, 

laundress, 'asdzdni da'iigisigii. 
laundry man, dine da'iigrsi. 
lava, tsezhin; chezhin. 
law, bee haz'danii 
lawyer, 'agha'diit'aahii. 
lay, to (laying, laying, laid), teet 
3. I laid the baby on the bed, 'a- 
wee' tsdsk*eh bikda'gi bine+tj. 
*ddt 9. I laid the baby down, 'a- 
wee' ni* ninittf. 
laxative, 'aghdhwiizi'di. 
lazy, to be (being, was, been) 
ghee' 2. I am lazy, shit hoghee*. 
gis 4. I am lazy, diisgis. *aat 7. 
I am lazy; I do not follow orders, 
doo yish'da da* 
laziness, 'it hoghee'. 
lead, dilghfhi. 

lead, to (leading, led, led), 166s 
1, 3, 4. I started off leading the 
horse, \\\ dah diilooz. I am lead- 
ing it along, yis+oos. I led your 
horse to you, nilff naa nilddz. 
Msh 1 f 2, 4. Lead the horses to 
me, \\{ shaa nf'eesh. I am lead- 
ing them along, yish'ish. 
leader, naat'danii. 
leaf, 'at'qq*. 

lean, to (leaning, leaned, lean- 
ed), shosh 3. ! leaned the poles 
against the house, tsin kin bfnii- 
shoozh. The lumber is leaning 
over there, 'dadi tsin niheshjif 
kfniizhoozh. I leaned in through 
the door, ch'e'etiindod yah 'ahff- 



leaning, naanii dinee'q; naani'i 


learn, to (learning, learned, 

learned), 'actf 1. I am learning 

English, bMagaanaa bizaad bf- 

hoosh'aah. nih 1. I learned of 

the war from my brother, shf- 

naai bits'qqdoo *anaa* yfnii*. 

leather, 'akat. 

leaves, *at*qq r 

left out, to be (being, was, been), 

cheet 5. When sheep were being 

distributed amongst us I was left 

out, dibe nihitaabrdi'niihgo shf- 


left, to be (being, was, been), 

dzih 8. I am the only one left, 

shf t'eiya yisdziih. How many 

are left, dfkwffshq' yidziih? 

left, to have (having, had, had), 

dzih 8. How many do you have 

left, dfkwffshq 1 nidziih? I have 

two cartridges left, bee*eldg<?h 

bikV naaki yisdziih. 

left handed, to be (being, was, 

been), tf'ah. I am left handed, 


leg, 'ajaad. 

legerdemain, 'aliiL 

legging, jaad bqqh nina'niJt 

lemon, ch f il titsoof dik'^zhigif. 

lend, to (lending, lent, lent), 'aat 

10. I lent him a dollar, ?66ta'\ 

beeso ba'nf'q. 

length, naasee. 

lengthwise, naasee. 

leopard, nashdoftsoh tikizhf. 

lesson, bfhwiidoo'atfgff. 

let, -ni'; le*. Let him eat, bfni* 


'adoogh[[i! Let there be light, 

'adinfdfin le'! 

let go, to (letting, let, iet), chit 4. 

Let go of the stick, tsin bidichffd? 

let, to (letting, let, let), ad+ 18. I 

will let you stay all night here, 

t'aa kwe'e niidoatkaat biniighe 


lettuce, cIVil ligaai. 

Leupp, Ariz., tsiizizii. 

liar, biyoodVidi. 

lichen, dlaad; ni 1 hadlaad. 

lick, to (licking, licked, licked), 

naf 1. I licked my lips, sizabqqh 


lid, 'adaadit'ahi. 

lie, yooch'ffd; ghooch'ffd. 

lie, to (lying, lied, lied), eh' fid. 

You are lying; you are a liar, ni- 


lie (down), to (lying, lay, lain), 

teet I, 2. I will lie down, dfneesh- 

teet. I lay down, net[. I am lying 

down, setf. I lay with her, bi+ ne- 


lift, to (lifting, lifted, lifted), aat 

5. I lifted the rock, tse ridii'q. 

ligamsnt, 'ats'id. 

light, 'adinfdfin. 

light (in weight), 'aszolf. 
lighten, to (lightening, lighten- 
ed, lightened), ch'i+. It lightened, 

light gray, dinilba. 

lightning, 'atsiniltt'ish. 

like, -gi 'at'eego. I am lazy like 

you, nigi 'at'eego shit hoghee*. 

like, to (liking, liked, liked), niii 

1. I like to read, *ffnfshta*go baa 



shit honeeni. ! like coffee, go- 
hweeh ayoogo shit tikan. I like 
this milk, dn 'abe 1 shit ya'at'eeh. 
I like you, shit ya anit'eeh. 
limb, 'ats'aoz'a'. 
limp, to (limping, limped, limp : 
ed), hot 2. I am limping about, 

line up, to (lining, lined, lined), 
We lined up for food, ch'iyaan 
biniighe deetY. 
liniment 'azee'ettohf. 
lion, nashdoftsoh bitsiiji' dadi* 
ft ooign. 
lip, 'adaa\ 

lisp, to (lisping, lisped, lisped), 
tih 2. I lisp, sitsoo' bee yashtf. 
listen, to (listening, listened, list- 
ened), ts'jjt 8, 9. I am listening 
to him, ymists'qq'. Listen, 'iisi- 

little, yazhi; yaazh; 'atts'ffsf; 'at- 

little, to be (being, was, been), 
ts'iisf. I am little, 'anists'iisf. 
little bit, t'<56 'atch'tfdfgo; t*uh- 

little while, t'66 konfghanfji*. 
live, to (living, lived, lived), t*[[t 
5. I have lived here for five 
years, kwe'e keehasht'figo *ash- 
dla* naahai. Where do you live, 
haadishq' nighan? I live in a 
hogan, hooghan bii' shighan. 
liver, 'azid. 

liver lapped, bidaa' rVdeeshchid. 
lizard, na'ashp'ii. 
lizard (rock — ), ts^k'ina'azoliL 
loan, 'a'flyxS. 


loan, to (loaning, loaned, loan- 
ed), *aat 10. I will loan you my 
horse, shil[i' na'deeshteet. 
loco weed, ch'il 'ogham, 
locust (17 year — ), wooneesh- 

loiter, to (loitering, loitered, loit- 
ered), dlaat 1 . Don't go loiter- 
ing along the way, 'atiingoo 
t'aadoc 'ahodiyifdlati! Don't 
loiter, t'aadoo na'ahodiyidlahi! 
lonesome, to be (being, was, 
been), ts'iid. I am lonesome, doo 
shit hats'iid da. 

lonesome, to get (getting, got, 
gotten), ts'ffd. I will get lone- 
some here, kwe'e doo shit hodoo- 
ts'fid da. 

lonesomeness, doo 'it hats'fid da. 
long, neez; nineez; 'afts'oozf; 
-ts ooz. 

long and slender, to be (being, 
was, been), I am (long and) slen- 
der, 'anfsts'oozf. It is long and 
slender, 'atts'oozf. 

long ago, 'atk'tdqq*. 

long time, (a), t'aa shiidqq'dii. I 

have been living here for a long 

time, t'aa shiidqq'dii kwe'e kee- 


long way (a — ), doo deighani- 
goo; nfzaa(d)g66. 
look, to (looking, looked, look- 
ed), 'jit Look, dfnf [[*! I am look- 
ing at the ring, yoostsah nesh'j 
lin. You look tired, ch'eeh dfni- 
ya nahonflin. It looks like a dog, 
teechqq'f nahalin. They look a- 
like, 'ahinoolin. 



look about, to (looking, looked, 
looked), ghat 5. I stood up and 
looked about, yiizf doo niseghal 
look around quickly, to (looking, 
looked, looked), niit 9. The 
prairie dog stuck its head out of 
the hole and looked around 
quickly, dl99 Vdand£f ha- 
noolne' doo naneesne\ 
look for, to (looking, looked, 
looked), 'ijt 2. I am looking for 
my horse, shil[f hddesh'i[\ taat 
1. I am looking for (searching 
for) my hat, shich'ah hanishtd. 
look in quickly, to (looking, look- 
ed, looked), niit 1 1 . I opened the 
door and looked in quickly, ddd- 
dflka* 'qq •ffshtaa doo yah 'a- 

look in slowly, to (looking, look- 
ed, looked), t adt 8. I opened the 
door and looked in (slowly), ddd- 
dflkat 'qq 'iishtaa doo yah 'a- 

look out quickly, to (looking, 
looked, looked), niit 10. I look- 
ed quickly out the door, daddil- 
katd£e* chuninishne*. 

look up, to (looking, looked, 
looked), niit 2. I looked up when 
he entered, yah *liyaago dei'ds- 

look up quickly, to (looking, 
looked, looked), niit 8. He look- 
ed up quickly when I came in, 
shi yah 'ifydago hanoolne*. 
loom, dah 'iistt'$. 
loop (belt ~ ), sis bighdnt'Pf. 


loosen, to (loosening, loosened, 
loosened), ttoot I . I loosened my 
belt, siziiz diniitttod', I loosened 
the bow string, *a+t[[t+*66I ridi- 

lose, to (losing, lost, lost), 'at 2; 
di+3; niit 6; nit 10; feet IT. I 
lost it, ydd' 'n'ah; ydd' 'fitdeel; 
ydd p 'fftne'; yoo' We\ I lost 
them, yoo* 'ffnil. b[[-r 3. I lost 
my horse (gambling), shil([' sha- 
oozbq. ts'iini. I am losing 
weight, shi'ni'ts'iinf. 
lose, to (losing, lost, lost), neet 
4. Our enemies are slowly losing, 
nihe'ena'i tqqdee baa honeeneet 
louse, yaa\ 
love, 'aydi 'd'd'ni. 
love, to (loving, loved, loved), 
nih l I love her, 'aydf 'oosh'ni. 
low, ghdyah; nahashkdd*. 
lubricate, to (lubricating, lubri- 
cated, lubricated), jah 1. I lu- 
bricated the wheels on my car, 
shichidi bijddd sheje6* 
lubrication, na'djeeh. 
Lukochukai, Ariz., I6k'aa*ch'£- 

lukewarm, sizfli. 
lumbar, 'atsSzfil. 
lumber, tsin niheshjit*. 
lung, *ajei yilzdlii. 
lupine (blue flowered — ), 'azee- 
diilch'ffii; t[[dqq\ 
lure, 'ina'adlo*. 

lure, to (luring, lured, lured), *ah 
2. I lured him into the house 
and killed him, kin gone* yah *a- 



biniVaa' doo s#hi. 
lustrous, bfzdflid. 
luster, 'ak'inizdidlaad. 


magic, alul. 

maggot, ch'osh. 

magpie, 'aa'q'ii, 

mahogany (mountain — ), t$6- 


maiden, ch'ikffh; 'at'eed. 
mail carrier, naaltsoos neighehf 
maintain, to (maintaining, 

maintained, maintained), z\\\ 
10. I maintain my strength, si- 
dziilgo 'adiTnfszin. s[[i 4. I 
maintain my car in good running 
order, shichidf nizhonfgo diits'a'- 
go 'fmfsin. 

maintenance, 'oolzin. 
make, to (making, made, made), 
1 11+ 1 , 2, 4. I made a hogan, hoo- 
ghan 'ashtaa. I made another 
hogan, hooghan to* 'anaanash- 
dlaa. I made it correctly, t'aa 'a- 
kwfishtaa. r\\\\ 1. I made my- 
self a leader, naat'aanii Tdiish- 
yaa. sih 1 , 2. I made a mistake, 

mammary gland, 'abe* *astse\ 
man, hastiin; dine. 
manage, to (managing, manag- 
ed, managed), ch'id 1, 2. I man- 
age my sheep well, shidib£ ya'a- 
t'eehgo naashch'id. 
management, na'ach'ki 
mane, 'atsiigha*. 
mono, tsedaashclVfnf. 
manure, ndaaldlooshii bichaan. 
many, tq; tanf; Iq'f; t*66 'ahay6f. 


Many Farms, Ariz., da*dk*eha 

many kinds, Iq'i 'altah 'adaafeii 
many frimes, Iq'fdi; t'66 'ahayofdi 
March, gh66zhch*j[d. 
mare, +[[' tsa'ii. 

Mariano Lake, N* M., be'ak'id 

mark, to (marking, marked, 
marked), zoh 1. I marked; I 
made a mark, 'asezoh. 
market, to (marketing, market 
ed, marketed), adf 27. I mar- 
keted my sheep; I hauled my 
sheep to market, shidib£ k[]h yf- 


market, kin; na'iini* ba haz'qq- 


marriage, 'aha'iigeh. 
married, to get (getting, got. 
gotten), gheh 1. Tomorrow I 
will get married, yiskqqgo 'a- 
marrow, 'aghol. 

marry, to (marrying, married, 
married), gheh 3. I married her, 

marsh hawk, ch'iltaat'agii. 
massacre, na'aztseed. 
massacre, to (massacring, mas- 
sacred, massacred), tsi+ 1. We 
sneaked up on our enemy and 
massacred many of them, nihe- 
'ena'f baa ndasifna' doo t'66 'a- 
hayof ndasiiltseed. 
mastication, 'at'aal. 
masturbation, 'ak'inalchjih. 
mature, to (maturing, matured, 
matured), t f [[t 1 . The corn has 



all matured, naadqq' 'attsc 

match, tsitt'eti. 
mattock, ch'il bee yildehf. 
mattress, tsask'eh bikaa* dah 
matrimony, 'aha'iigeh. 
maturation, 'aneest'q; 'aneeyq. 
May, t'qqtsoh. 

may, sh[[; daats'i. You moy be 
strong, but it is possible that you 
cannot lift this rock, nidziil sh[{ 
ndi dff tse doo dah didif'aatgoo 
haz'q. I may get home before 
sundown, t'aadoo Ve'aahi sh[{ 
hooghandi ndeeshdaat. I may 
go tomorrow, or maybe the day 
after tomorrow, yiskqqgo daats'f 
doodaii' naaki yiskqqgo daats'i 
dah dideeshaal. 
maybe, sha'shin; daats'f; shf[. 
meadow, hootso. 
meadow lark, tsiyahghozhii. 
mean, to (meaning, meant 
meant), gheet. Stone means tse, 
stone t'eiya tse 'oolghe. What 
does gah mean, gahshq* ha'at'if 
'oolghe? It is cold — I mean hot, 
deesk'oaz — deesdoi dishni ni- 
sin What do you mean by say- 
ing that you saw him, yii+tsq di- 
nfnigifshq' ha'at'fi dishnf nfnf- 
zingo 'adfnf? ke. I am mean, 

measure, to (measuring, meas- 
ured, measured), 'qqt 4. I am 
measuring my foot, shikee* bf- 

measurement, Vneerqqh. 


measuring worm, wooshighishf. 
measles, tichfi'go 'qqh hadaa- 
meat. f ats[\ 
meal-us, 'ffch'ah. 
medicine, 'azee*. 
medicine pouch, jish. 
meeting, 'atah 'aleeh. 
meet, to (meeting, met, met), 
gaat 12, 13. I will meet you at 
two o'clock, naakidi 'azlii'go ni+ 
'ahidideesh'ash. I met them in 
Gallup, na'nfzhoozhfdi bit *ahi- 
diikai. I went to meet him, bi- 
daah nfya. leel 15. We wilt 
meet (in assembly) at Window 
Rock, tseghahoodzanfgi *a+ah 

melancholy, yfniit na'ada. 
melancholy, to be (being, was, 
been), gaat 34. I am melan- 
choly, yfnfft naasha. heet 6. I 
am dying of melancholy, ch'if- 
naff shi'niith{. 

melt, to (melting, melted, melt- 
ed), ghjh 1 . It is melting, yigh[h. 
h[h 1. I am melting it, yishh[{h. 
membership, 'atah 'fdli. 
mend, to (mending, mended, 
mended), lift 3. I mended the 
pot, *asaa' 'anashdlaa. 
menfolk, hastof. 
meninges, 'atsiighqq' bik'esti* 

menstruate, to (menstruating 
menstruated, menstruated) 

daat 1 I have menstruated for 
the first time, kinisfsda'. I am 



menstruating, chooghin s6l[i 


menstruation, chooghin. 

merchandise, naalgh£he. 

merchant, naalghehe yd sidahi. 

merciful, to be (being, was, 

been), baaf I am merciful jii- 


mercurochrome, 'azee' 'ii+chihf- 

mercury, beesh tozhaanii. 
mercy, joobaV 
merely, t*66. 
mesa, dah 'azkq. 
Mescalero Apache, naashgalf* 
metamorphosis, tahgo *6'6*n66h 
metare, tsedaashjee*. 
Mexican, naakaii. 
Mexican Spring, N. M. f naakaii 

microbe, ch'osh doo yit'finiL 
microscope, ch'osh doo yit'finii 
bee nfPfni. 

midafternoon, to become (be- 
coming, became, become) 
ch'[[t 1 . It has become midafter- 
noon, htitchY. 
midday, 'afnrnP^. 
middle, 'atnii\ 

midmorning, to become (be- 
coming, became, become) 
*aot 5. It has become midmorn- 
ing, dah 'adii'q. 
midnight, tt'6'fftnff\ 
midnight, to become (becoming, 
became, become), nfP 1. It has 
become midnight, tWfflhfP. 
midwife, 'aw6£* hayiidz[jsii. 
might, sha'shin; -go da 'at'6. It 


might be that I will have to go to 
the army, silaagogoo deeshaatgc 
da 'at'e. The bridge might have 
been washed away, tse'naa na'- 
nizhoozh 'ii'eel sha'shin. I might 
write to you, nich'j/ 'akVdeesh- 
chfi+go da *at'e. 
mile, tsin sitq. 
milk, 'abe\ 

milk, to (milking, milked, milk- 
ed), nih 1, 4. I milked the cow, 
beegashii senih. I am milking, 

Milky Way, fees'aan yflzhodf; 

milkweed, ch'il 'abe'e. 
millstone, (lower) tsedaashjee', 
(upper) tsedaashch'fnf. 
mind, to have one's — set on 
(having, had, had), t'ih 19. I 
have my mind set on going with 
you, nit deesh'ashfgif shfnP bi- 

mine, ha'ageed. 

mine, to (mining, mined, mined), 
go+1. I am mining coal, teejin 

mineral, t'aadoo le*6 teeghi* da- 

mirage, hadahoneeyanfgn. 
mirror, biPadest'if. 
misbehave, to (misbehaving 
misbehaved, misbehaved), nffj 
5. I misbehaved, bqqhagi 'as- 

misbehaviour, bqqhagi 'ahat'[. 
miscarriage, f atsq ha'ff'&l 
mischief, *6dfl6ah. 



mischievous, to be (being, was, 
been). I am mischievous, she a- 
dflaah. heel 7. I am full of mis- 
chief; I am mischievous, 'adf* 
laah shi'nii+h[. 

miss, to (missing, missed, miss- 
ed), I missed the rabbit, gah se- 
siih. I missed part of my sheep, 
shidibe ta'\V bfhosesa\ 
mist, *ahf. 
mistake, 'oodziT. 
mistletoe, dahts'aa'. 
mite, yaa\ 

mix, to (mixing, mixed, mixed), 
nih 1. I mixed the mud, hash- 
t-Tish taisenif. jot 4. I mixed 
the white wool with the black, 
'aghaa' tigaaigff 'aghaa' -Nzhin 
\g\\ bit 'attaanishe+jool. 
mixed, 'attah The sand is mix- 
ed with stones, sei tse bit 'a+tah 
at e. 

mixed up, to get j (getting, got, 

gotten), kah 2. He taught me so 

many things that I got mixed up, 

Iq'i yee nashineeztqq' nt'§e* 'at- 

tso shi* 'attaanaskai. The sheep 

got mixfcd up for me, dibe shi+ 


mixture, 'a+tah 'aat'ee+ii; 'ahi- 

dei'nilii; 'ahideidziidigff (liquid) 

moccasin, kelchf. 

moccasin (woman's high — ), 


moccasin gome, keshj6£'. 

mocking bird, zahal<5nii. 

Moenave, Ariz., kin tigaaf. 

moisten, to (moistening, moist- 


ened, moistened), shoh 1 . I wilf 
moisten it, ndeeshshoh. 
molasses, da akaz bitoo* tizhin- 

/ r r 


mold, dlaad. 

molestation, *aa hwiinit'[. 

Monday, damfjgo biiskanf, 

money, beeso. 

month, nahidizidigii. 

monthly, t'aa nahidizifd bik'eh 


monument, bee 'eehaniih binii- 

■ r i f I err 

ghe alyaaign. 

moody, to be (being, was, been), 

hee+. He is moody, ch'iinaii bee- 


moon, 'ooljee'; ti'ehonaa'ei. 

moonlight, ooljee' bee 'adinfdf 


moose, deeteet. 

mormon tea, tt'ohazihii. 

morning, 'ahbfnf; 'abfnf. 

mosquito, tsTii danineezi. 

moss, rati' id. 

moth r 'iich'qhii. 

moth (clothing — ), ch'osh 'at- 


mother, 'ama. 

motionless, t'aadoo naha'nani. 

motionless, to be (being, was 

been), zih 1,2. I am motionless, 

'ahodfinfszee*. I am standing 

motionless, t*aadoo nahash'na- 

m sez[. 

mound, dah yisk'id; yanaalk'id'. 

mountain, dzit. 

mountain goat, tt'fzi da'a+chinf 

mountain lion, nashdoftsoh. 

mountain sheep, tsetah dibe. 



mouse, na'ats'QQsf; j[ 'ani'ijhf. 
mouth, *ozee\ 
move the bowels, to (moving, 
moved; moved), ch[[+ 1. I have 
moved my bowels, 'ashechqq*. 
move, to (moving, moved, mov 
ed), 'neet 1, 3, 4, 5. 1 will move 
to Gallup, na'nfzhoozhigoc 
deesh'neel. 'naa+ 1 . I am mov- 
ing rny arm, shigaan bee no- 
hash'na. zeet 1, 2. The enemy 
started moving against us, nihe- 
'ena'i nihich'[' ndiizq. zhot 3. 
The clouds are moving along, 
k'os defizhood. 

move against, to (moving, mov- 
ed, moved), ghat 21. The enemy 
moved against us, nihe'ena'f ni- 
haa tiih yfjee\ 

move in, to (moving, moved, 
moved), jot 6 The fog will move 
in, 'ahf Tdoojot. A cloud moved 
in and obscured the sun, k'os jo- 
nonao'ei" yiclVqqh Vfijool. 
move slowly, to (moving, moved, 
moved), kii 4, 5, 6. The sun is 
moving slowly along, johonaa'ei 

movement, na'ii'na. 
mow, to (mowing, mowed, mow- 
ed), shih 1. I mowed the grass, 
t+'oh yfshee'. 

much, tq; tanf; lq*i; t'66 'ahayoi. 
mucilage, bee 'ahfda'diiljeehL 
mud, hasht+'ish. 
mule, dzaaneez. 

mummification, 'ats'ns yiganign 
mummify, to (mummifying 
mummified, mummified), gqe^ 


1. His body mummified, bits'fis 
y§£ sigan (silu). 
mumps, 'ayaayaah niichaad. 
murder, 'iilghe. 

murder, to (murdering, murder- 
ed, murdered), hee+ 2. A gang- 
ster murdered another man for 
his money, dine doo ya'ashoonii 
dine naanaia' bibeeso holpQgc 
biniinaa yiyiisx[. tsit 1. These 
men were murdered, dli hastoi 
murderer, 'iisxiinii. 
muscle, 'adoh. 
mushy, tozhaan. 
muskeg, nahoditsV- 
muskmelon, ta'neesk'anf. 
musk rat, tabqqh mq'ii. 
muss, to (mussing, mussed, mus- 
sed), chppt 1. I will muss (up) 
your hair, nitsii* deeshchggt. 
must, ya'at'eeh; sha'shin; sh{[. 
I must go now, k'ad yishaa+go 
ycVat'eek I must get to the store 
at noon, 'atni'nf'qqgo naalghehe 
ba hooghandi nfyaago ya'at'eeh 
I must be getting old, hashfnii- 
tih sha'shin. It must be cold up 
north, nahookgs biyaadi shy 
deesk'aaz. You must be tired 
cfVeeh dinfya sha'shin. 


nail, 'it 'adaalkaatf. 
name, yfzhf; *azhi\ 
mustache, 'adaghaa*; dagha. 
name, to (naming, named, nam- 
ed), zhii-f 1,2. I named him 
John, John yfzhi'. I named off 



plants, ch'il bitaa'iizhi*. lift 1. I 
named him; I gave him a name, 
bizhi* bd 'ifshiaa. 
nares, 'dnfi\ 

nasal mucus, ne'eshto'; 'an^*- 

Naschiti, N. M., nahashchMdf. 
nation, dine'e. 

naughty, (he is — ) be'ddilddh. 
nausea, nd'dkwih. 
nauseated, to become (becom- 
ing, became, become). *H\ 1. I 
become nauseated by whiskey 
todithil nash'jih +ek 
Nava, N. M., bis deez'dhf. 
Nava ha, naabeeho; t*dd din6. 
Nayaho Mountain, Utah, naa- 

Navaho tea, cIVil gohweh6. 
navel, f ats'ee\ 
near, t'dd 'dhdnf. 
nearby, t ad ahdnfgi; t'dd 'dhd- 
nfd££\; fad 'dghidfgi. 
nearly, k'asdqq'; k*ad£§. 
necessary, t*dd 'dkdneehee. 
necessity, t*dd 'dkoneehee 'at'eii 
neck, 'ak'os, 

neckerchief, zeedee+doi; ze£- 
necklace, yoo\ 
necktie, zeedeetYf; zeendztTf, 

neck yoke, 'adddh gonaa dah si- 

need, to (needing, needed, need- 
ed^ leet 13. I need (want badly) 
tobacco, ndt'oh bfdinishtf. 
needle, tsahts'dsf. 
negro, naakaii tizhinii. 
neighbor, bit kiehojit'finii. 


nephew, 'ado'; 'ayddzh. 

nerve, 'ats'oos. 

nest, (bird's) tsidii bit'oh; at'oh 

Newcome, N. M., bis deez'dhf. 

new, 'dniid. 

new moon, (first quarter) dah 

yiitq; (last quarter) chahathee4 


next day (on the — ), biiskdnf. 

nibble, to (nibbling, nibbled 

nibbled), ghddsh 1 . The mouse 

is nibbling the cheese, na'a- 

ts'ggsi geeso yighddzh. 

nice, nizhdnf; yd'dt'eeh; t*6<? 

ts'ffd; t'dd hats'fid. 

nickle (coin), titso. 

niece, ama yazhi; ach e e. 

night, t+'ee'. At night, tt'ee'go; 

last night, t+'eedqq'; on that 

night, t'aa *ei bit+'ee*; tonight, 

ii tf ee ; tf eedqq . 
nighthawk, biizhih 
nightmare, 'akTiilch[. 
nightmare, to have a (having 
had, had), chift3. I had. a night- 
mare, shik'i'iilch[. 
no, dcoda; nda; doodahei. 
noise, hahoo'd. 

noiseless, yiszee; haszee'; ho- 

noiselessly, t'dadoo 'fits'a'f. 
noise, to make (making, made 
made), *d 10. Don't make sc 
much noise, t'dadoo hahwffnit* 
ahi! ts'Iit 1,2, 3. The car is 
making a noise, chidi diits'a' 
There was a great noise, y6igc 
hodiists'qq*. There is a noise 


__ NO] 

^Jts'cT. 1 wish it would make a 
loud noise, yeigo 'oots'qq* laa- 

noisy, to be (being, was, been), 
'a 10. I Gm noisy, hahwn'nish'a. 
Don't be so noisy, t'aadoo ha- 
none, 'adin. 
nook f nast+'ah. 

noon, to be (being, was, been), 
aat 7. it will soon be noon, t'aa- 
doo hodina'i *atnf doo'adt. It \< 
nearly noon, k'ad£§ 'atne'e'aah 
noose, toh. 
north, ndhookps. 
northern, nahookpsjf; ndhookps- 
jigo; ndhook<?s bich'ijfgo; ndhoo- 
kgs biyaodi; ndhookgs biyaajigo 
northward, ndhookqsjigo. 
nose, *ach[[h. 
nosedrops, nff'iidzi' 
nostril, 'dchi[shtak 
not, doo —da. It is not sweet, 
doo tikan da. 

not even, doo — ndi. It is not 
even worth one dollar, t'ddtd'f 
beeso ndi doo bqqh 'ilii da. It is 
not even sweet, doo Jikan da ndi. 
nothing, 'adin. 
November, nfteh'its'osf. 
now, k*ad. 

nowhere, doo hddjf da. 
number, 'aneeltV; noomba. 
numerous, t'66 'ahayof; Iq'f. 
nuthatch (pygmy — ), tsiishgaii 


ook, ch6ch'il. 
oar, bee na'al'eetf. 
oatmeal, taaskaal. 


obedience, 'ak'eh hdl'[. 
obey, to (obeying, obeyed, obey 
ed), 'iit 7. I will obey him, bik'eh 
honish'ij dooleet. 
oblivion, to pass into (passing, 
passed, passed), nah 1. His 
name has passed into oblivion, 
bfzhi' baa hoyoos'nah. 
obscure, doo yit'jj da; doo hoo* 
t'i[ da; doo beeho'dflzin da. 
obscure, to (obscuring, obscured 
obscured), jot 6. A cloud obscur- 
ed the sun, k'os johonaa'ef yi- 
ch'qqh Tifjool. 
obscurity, chahatheet. 
obtain, to (obtaining, obtained 
obrained), t'eet 9. I obtained a 
dollar from him, t'ddtd'i beesc 
bits'qqd^' shofsettV. 
obviously, t'aadoo bahat'aadi, 

aa nshjani. 
occiput, 'atsiiyah. 
occupy, to (occupying, occupied 
occupied), I occupy a hogan 
hooghan bii' shighan. I am oc 
cupied, shinaanish hol<?. 
occur, to (occurring, occurred 
occured), nfit 10a, 10b, 10c, 10 
d. What occured, haa hooted? 
This is what occured, jo kohoo- 


occurrence, 'dhoodzaaigii; 'a 


ocean, ton tee I. 

ochre (yellow), teetsoii. 

o'clock. It is two o'clock, naaki- 

di *azlf[\ 

October, ghqqji*. 

ocular area, *anak*ee. 



offensive odor, nitchxon. 
offer, to (offering, offered, offer- 
ed), kqqt 2. I am offering it (for 
sale), bi'ooshkqqh. 
oil, 'ak'ahkp'. 
oil drum, na'aldonf. 
ok (okay), hagoshii; iqqq'; Iq, 
t'dd 'ako. That is ok, T ef t'dd *a- 

old age, sq. 
old, to be (being, was, been), hah 

6. How old are you, dfkwffshq' 
ninddhai? I am twenty years 
old, naadiin shinddhai. tih 
This shirt is old, dif 'ee' haastih. 
oleomargarine, mandagiiya, 

on if*, bikda'gi; bik'i. 

on account of it, biniinaa; bi- 


on one's back, ts6dei. 

on the floor, ni'jP; ni'gdd. 

on the ground, ni'ji'; ni'gdd. 

on one's face, tse'yaa. 

on the other side, ghdnaanf; tah- 


once, tah; t adtdhddi. 

only, t eiya; t ei; eiya; t aa bi- 


ooze, to (oozing, oozed, cozed) 
l[. The sap is oozing out of the 
tree, tsin bitoo 1 bqqh haalf The 
resin is oozing out of the pifion, 
deestsiin bijeeh bqqh hddl[. 
open, to (opening, opened 
opened), lift 15. I opened the 
door, ddddflkaat y qq 'ifshtaa. t[[f 

7. I opened the door ddddflkaJ 
'qq dinftq. nift 6. The door o- 
pened, ddddflkat 'qq 'ddzaa 


The door is open, ddddflkat 'qq 
dt'e. 'Hi 1 . I have my eyes o- 
pen, dinfsh'lf. ghat 4. I opened 
my eyes, deghal. ch'ah 1. Open 
your mouth, diich'eeh! I have 
my mouth open, dfnfshch'ah. 
opportunity, 'ashja'. There i£ 
opportunity for work, naanish 
'ashja' 'iilaa. 

opportunity, to give an (givmg 
gave, given), lift 29. I gave him 
an opportunity, bd 'ashja'iish- 
taa. Opportunity knocks but 
once, 'ashja'at'fini t'ddtdhddi 
opposite him, binaashii. 
or, doodaii*. 
orange, ch'il titsoof. 
orator, nanit'dii. 
order, 'aPd; akd 'e'elneeh. 
order, to (ordering, ordered, or- 
dered), lift 26. I ordered a gun, 
bee'eldggh bfkd Tiishtaa. 'aat 
2. I ordered him to go away, yoo* 
nt a . 

origin, haat i sil[ ign. 
original, ts'fda 'dttseedi. 
originally, crTodshdqqd^q'. 
other one, to f ; ta'fgii. 
otherwise, tahgo; doodaii*. 
otter, tabqqstffn. 
ought to, rit'§£'; dooleet nt £§ \ 
I ought to go now, k'ad dah dii- 
shddh nt'£e'. People ought tc 
eat more vegetables, dine ch'il 
daaddnigff t'dd tdnigo deiyqqgc 
yd'dt'eeh dooleet nt'e£\ I fixed 
the car; it ought to run now, chi- 
df 'attso 'dn^ishdlaa; k'ad sh[[ 




overeat, to (overeating, overate. 

didoots'jft. We ought to have 
paid the man, hastiin bicrTf ni- 
da'diilgheet nt'eg* (hastiin bi- 
ch'f nda'siilydago yd'dt'eeh doo- 
leet nt'§§). 
outdoors, t-Too'di. 
out of breath, to get (getting, got 
gotten), leet 12. I got out of 
breath, yisdah sel[[\ 
outhouse, kin bii* nii'oh nda'a- 
ddhfgn; chqq 1 bd hooghan. 
outline, 'aghdadi 'ddaat*eii. 
outline, to (outlining, outlined 
outlined), nih 3. I outlined it tc 
him, 'aghdadi 'ddaat'e nahal- 
infgif bee bit hweeshne*. 
outside, tt'oo'di; ttod'gdd. 
outsider, binaad^' daniliinii; 

oven (outdoor — ), bddh bighan. 
over it, bitis; bddtis. 
overawed, to be (being, was, 
been), ti it 3. lam overawed by 
him, bfkd sist;\ 

over, to be (being, was, been), 
zhish 5, 6. The cold is over, 
deesk'aaz bit yoo' 'ahoolzhiizh 
t'lh 14. The sing is over, hatddl 

overcoat, *e£n6ez. 
overcome, to (overcoming, over 
came, overcome), dleet 3, 4. I 
overcame him, bik'ehdeshdlfi* 
I was overcome, shik'ehodees- 
dlij\ doh 4. I was overcome by 
the heat, shit ninf+doii. 
overdrink, to (overdrinking, o- 
verdrank, overdrunk), dlftt 3. I 
overdrank last night, tt'66dqq 


overeaten), d££+ 1. I have over- 
eaten, *dde'eeshdqq\ 
overflow, to (overflowing, over- 
flowed, overflowed), goh 16. It 
overflowed, gho'qqgo*. 
overseas, tonteel ghdnaani'di. 
overshoes, ke'achogii, 
overturn, to (overturning, over- 
turned, overturned), ts'it 3. My 
car overturned with me, shichidi 
shit ndhideelts'id. 
have, to (having, had, had), lee-l 
23. i have a knife, beesh shee 

overwhelm, to (overwhelming 
overwhelmed, overwhelmed) 

!eet 18. His difficulties have 
overwhelmed him, bich'f na 
hwiis'nd'igif bidei 'dneelqq' si 

Itt f . 

owe, to (owing, owed, owed), a 

9. I owe him two dollars, naaki 

beeso shqqh hayfft'd. You owe 

me five dollars, 'ashdla' beeso 

nqqh hddt'd. 

owing to (the fact that), bee afe 

owl, ne'eshjaa*. 

owJet, ne'eshjaa yddzh. 

owl's claw, yisdd beegd. 

own, to (owning, owned, owned) 

leet 23. I own a car, chidf shee 


oxford shoes, k£tsiinf. 

oxygen, nitch'i yd'dt'eehii. 


pace, *ad6es'eez. 
pace off, to (pacing, paced, pac- 
ed), 'is 3. ! paced off the dis- 


tonce between the house and the 
field, kin doo dd'ak'ehjf ndinis- 

pack, heet, 

pock, to (packing, packed, pack- 
ed), lii! 12. I will pack the cloth- 
ing into the car, *ee* chidf bii* 
heel 'adeeshtfft. 
padlock, 'it dah nat'ahf. 
pail, naadlo'i; to bee naakahf. 
pain, diniih. 

pain, to (paining, pained, pain- 
ed), gah 7. My tooth pains me, 
shighoo' shit honeesgai. 
pain, to be in (being, was, been), 
gah 6. I am in pain, shit honeez- 

paint, to (painting, painted 
painted), dleesh 1, 2. I painted 
my house, shikin shedle6zh. I 
am painting, 'ashdleesh. ch'qh. 
I painted a picture, ni'shech'qq' 
painted cup, dah yiit[hfdqq\ 
Painted Desert, Ariz*, halchfftah 
painting, na'ashch'qq'fgff. 
Paiute, bayoodzin. 
palate, 'azahat'agf. 
palm (of the hand), *alatta6h. 
pan, 'asaa\ 
pancreas, 'alohk'e 1 . 
panic, 'it hooghee*. 
pant, to (panting, panted, pant- 
ed), ghih. I am panting, dishhlh. 
pants, tt'aajf&T. 
Papago, kegiizhf. 
paper, naaltsoos. 
papoose, *awee\ 

oara chute, bee hadah dah rVdiil- 


parallel to it, baatk'iisji; bii~ 

parents, 'ashchiinii. 
park, to (parking, parked, park- 
ed), bqs 12, 13. 1 parked my car, 
shichidf ninftbqqz. I will park 
right here, t'aa kwe'e n'deesbqs. 
part (of it), tahji'; taji\ 
parts, 'eeheestt'inigff. 
partner, 'ach'oonf. 
pass, to (passing, passed, passed) 
kit 7, 8. An hour passed, t aata- 
hddi 'aheeilkid. zit 1, 2. A 
month passed, t'adtdhadi ndee- 
zid. The months are passing^ 
nahidizfid 'nahl. He has pas- 
sed into oblivion, baa hoyoos- 
'nah. nih 1. An epidemic of in- 
fuenza passed among them, ta- 
honiigaah ntsaafgff bitaadaas- 
niih. kaat 2. I passed the night 
there, 'akwe'e shiiskq. leet 29. 
He passed away, bizee' hazlff. 
ghot 3. I passed his car, bichidf 
bfighah ch'infshghod. I passed 
the tree, tsin biighahgoo chuni- 
ya. I passed the night out in the 
open, t'aa bita'fgi shiiskq. 
patch, to (patching, patched, 
patched), 'adt 12. I patched the 
tire, chidf bikee* bidadPnfq. 
patrol, to (patrolling, patrolled, 
patrolled), sit 2. The soldiers are 
patrolling the beach, silaago ta- 
bqqhgoo hada'asiid. 
pavement, tse sikaad. 
pawn, *qqh *azla. 
pawn, to (pawning, pawned 


'aat 9. I pawned mv 


bracelet, shilatsinf 'qqh ninttq. 
pay, to (paying, paid, paid), I6el 
3, We paid him for the car, chi- 
di bike bich*i* na*niilya. 
payment, 'ach'i' na'Nya. 
pea r naa'oti nimazi. 
peach, didzetsoh. 
pear, bitsee* holoni. 
pebble, tse yazhf. 
peck, to (pecking, pecked, peck- 
ed), tqsh 1 , 2. The chicken is 
walking around pecking the 
corn, naa'ahoohai naadqq* yitaa 
'aftqzhgo naagha. The wood- 
pecker is pecking the tree, tsi[t- 
katii tsin neiniitqsh. 
pedagogy, na'nitin. 
peek, to (peeking, peeked, peek- 
ed), ts'gf 6. I peeked through 
the hole, bighahoodzanfgn bini- 
kad^e* nisets'ggd. 
peel, to (peeling, peeled, peeled) 
cWW 1. The paint is peeling off 
of the house, kin bee yidleeshi 
kin bee yidleezh§e belch'iil. 
k'fh. I am peeling the potato, 
nimasiitsoh beshk'[|h. 
peeling, 'elk'if fgff. 

peep, to (peeping, peeped, peep- 
ed), tsgt 6. I peeped from be- 
hind the tree, tsin bine'd£|' ni- 

peevet!, to be (being, was, been), 
nih 3. I am peeved at him, bi- 
k'ee dinishniih. 
pelt, 'asgq'; 'akagf. 
pefvic bone, 'ak'aP. 
pelvis, *ak*aashjaa\ 
pencil, bee 'akVelchfhf. 


pendant, ndzhahf. 
penis, 'aziz. 

penitentiary, 'awaalya hdtsaai. 
penny, sendao; tsindao, 
pepless, t'da bifch'[[dii. I have 
no pep; I am "poohed out," t'da 
pepper, 'azeedich'iT. 
peppermint (plant), *azeenifchir 
percolator, gohweeh bee yibezhf. 
per day, t'aata'aji 
perform (a ceremony), to (per- 
forming, performed, performed^ 
+aat 2. I am performing a cere- 
mony, nahashta. 
period, to be a (being, was, been) 
zhish 2. 4. A period of cold wea- 
ther will start, deesk'aazgo ho- 
didoolzhish. There will be a per- 
iod of cold weather, deesk'aaz- 
go hodoolzhish. There was a 
period of cold weather, dees- 
k'aazgo nihoolzhiizh. There was 
a period during which the Nava- 
ho were raiders, naabeeho ndaa- 
baahgo nahashzhiizh. 
permissible, bee haz'q. Smok- 
ing is permissible in the house, 
kin gone* na'at'oh t'aa bee 

permission, 'a'deet'q. 
permit, 'a'deet'q 
permit, to (permitting, permittee 
permitted), *aat 18. I permitted 
him to spend the night at my 
home, shighan gone' biidoot- 
kaaf biniighe badi'ni'4 
perspiration, 'atdsiil. 



perspire, to (perspiring, perspir- 
ed, perspired), leet 31. I am per- 
spiring, to shqqh hazlf['. til 2. 
I am perspiring all over, to shqqh 

persuade, to (persuading, per- 
suaded, persuaded), t'aal 9. I 
persuaded him to give it to me, 
shaa ni'aah bidishnfigo bigha* 

persuasion, 'agha'deet q. 
pet, to (petting, petted, petted), 
ka+ 18. I am petting the dog, 
teechqq'i nanfshkad. 
petition, ghokeed; bee ghokeed- 

Petrified Forest, Ariz., sahdiibis 
phases of the moon, 'ooljee' tah- 
go anaa nnf. 
phoebe, dibe nii'f. 
phonograph, beesh hataatf. 
photograph, 'e'elyaa. 
photograph, to (photographing 
photographed, photographed) 
reel 2. I will photograph you, 
naa I tsoos bik'i ndeeshteet. lift 
28. Shall I photograph you, ne'- 
eshteeh ya? 
photographer, Ve-Kiinii. 
photography, 'e'el'ugi. 
pick, 'atts'qq' deeninf. 
pick, to (picking, picked, pick- 
ed), nish 1. I picked the plants, 
ch'il yfnizh. beet 3. I am pick- 
ing apples, bilasaanaa yinfshbe. 
aaf5. I will pick up your hat for 
you, nich'ah na ndideesh'aat. 
ts'ih. He picks on me, she'ets'ih. 


picture, naaltsoos bikaa' Vel- 

picture, to take a (taking, took, 
taken), teet 2. I took your pict- 
ure, naaltsoos bik'i nininfitj. Iff! 
28. I will take his picture, bf- 
pie, masdeel. 
pig, bisoodi, 

piki, tse ast'ei doot+'izhigii (blue) 
tigaafgff (white). 
pile, yistt'in; yanaa'a. 
pile, to (piling, piled, piled), tt'ijt 
1, 2, 3, 4. I am piling stones a- 
long, tse yishtt'in. I have finish- 
ed piling them now, k'ad 'attso 
pillow, tsiis'aal. 
Pima, kett'ahf. 
pimple, ne'etsah. 
pinch, to (pinching, pinched, 
pinched), I pinched him, sets' ih 
pine away to (pining, pined, pin- 
ed), heet 6. He is pining away r 
ch nnan bi nnfh[. 
Pinedale, N. M„ to beehwiisganf 
pined rop, ndoochii*. 
pine cone, neeshch'nts'iil. 
Pine Springs, Ariz., t'iis *h ahi. 
pine tick, ndishchfP biya\ 
pine tree, ndfshchfP. 
pink, dinilchfr. 

Pinon, Ariz., be'ak'id baa 'ahocv 

pinon jay, ts'anf. 
pinon tree, cha'ot. 
pipe (tobacco — ), nat'ostse\ 
pistol, bee'eldggh yazhf. 
pit, te'oogeed. 



pitch, jeeh. 

pitchfork, tt'oh bee naaljooti. 
place, to (placing, placed, plac- 
ed), 'oat 9. I placed it on the 
ground, mi* j i * ninisrTaah. nih 
4. I placed my hands on it, bik'i- 
diishnif. s[[i 1. I placed the 
sheep on its feet, dibe biisf. 
t'aai 4. I placed my head against 
it, bidiniisht'q. 
placenta, 'awee' biyaa+ai. 
plan, nahat'a. 

plan, to (planning, planned 
planned), 'aa-f 4. I am plan- 
ning; I am making plans, na- 

plant, to (planting, planted 
olanted), leet 6. I am planting 
now, k ad k'i'dishteh. leet 5. I 
planted corn yesterday, 'ad^q- 
dqq' naadqq' k'idiild 
plane (wood — ) # tsin bee diil- 

plant, nanise'; ch'iL 
play, to (playing, played, play- 
ed), neet 1 . I want to play with 
you, nit ndeeshneet nisin. I am 
playing a trumpet, dilnf bee 

plaything, daane'6. 
pleat, noot'ish. 
Pleiades, dilgh^he. 
pleura, f ajef yilzolii bik'estPigii. 
pliable, dit*6df. 
pliers, bee 'otsa'i. 
plot, to (plotting, plotted, plot- 
ted), *ad* 1. He plotted against 
me, sizee* yideez'cj. 
plow, bee nihwiildlaadi. 


plow, to (plowing, plowed, plow- 
ed), dial 6. I am plowing, ni- 

pluck, to (plucking, plucked 
plucked), nish 1, I am plucking 
my beard, shidaghaa' yishnizh. 
plum, didzetsoh diVgzhfgff. 
plum (wild — ), didze. 
plug tobacco, nat'oh nt+'izi. 
pneumonia, 'ajei yilzolii biih yil- 

pocket, 'aza'azis. 
pocketbook, beeso bizis 
pocket knife, biih nagho'i. 
pod, bits'a'. 

point, to (pointing, pointed, 
pointed), tsih 1. I pointed my 
gun at him, shibee'eld<?<?h bidii- 
tsih. tsih 3. I am pointing with 
a stick, tsin bee dah 'astsih. 'a 
6. I have it pointed at you, ni- 
di i+*a. 

poison, 'azee* baahadzidii; an- 

poison ivy, k*fshfshji[zh. 
poke, to (poking, poked, poked) 
shish 1. I am poking the fire, 
kg 1 nanfshshish. 
poker (for fire), honishgish. 
polar bear, shash tigai. 
pole, tsin; gish, 

poles (upper and lower poles of 
the loom), 'at-Po tsin. 
pollen, tadidfm. 
policeman, yah Yiiniitii. 
pollution, TniiyqqV 
pond, be'ak'id. 

poor, *aa hojoobdT I am poor, 
shaahojooba'f; te'e'f shi'mi+hj. 



porcupine, dahsanf. 
possibility, \ih6n6edzq; 
possible, bihoneedzq, 
possibly/ sha'shin; daats'f 
possess, to (possessing, possess- 
ed, possessed), leef 23. I possess 
a car, shichidf holp. 
possession, to come into (com 
ing, came, come), lee+ 23. 
came into possession of a lot of 
money, beeso t*66 *ahay6fgc 
shee hazl[f\ 

possession, yodf; *ee holonigir. 
possessor, bee holoonii. 
potato, nfmasiitsoh. 
potshard, kits'iil; *dsaats*iil. 
pouch, dah na'aghizii. 
pound (weight), dah 'adiidloh. 
pound, to (pounding, pounded 
oounded), ntii 1. I am pounding 
it with a rock, tse bee ndnfshne'. 
niit 3. I pounded the bark off of 
it, bikasht oozh bee+ne\ tstf 1 
2. I am pounding the silver, 
beesh tigaii yistsid, 
pour, to (pouring, poured, pour- 
ed), zif 3. I poured the water in- 
to the dish, 'asaa' bighi'ji 1 tc 

poverty, te'e f [. He is poverty 
stricken, te'e't bi'niithf. 
prairie, halgai; hoteel. 
proirie dog, d\$g\ 
pray, to (praying, prayed, pray- 
ed), 7\\t II. I am praying, sodis- 

prayer, sodizin. 

prayer, to be (is, was, been), z[i+ 
1 1 , There will be prayer tonight, 
dfi tl'ee* sohodidooz[}t. 


prayer-stick, k'eet'adn. 
pregnancy, 'ootsq. 
pregnant, to get (getting, got, 
gotten), tsqqf 1 , 2. I wish that I 
could get pregnant, Ynoos- 
tsqqh laanaa. I will get you 
pregnant, sha 'idrhiiltsqqt. 
preparation, hashfehodi^neeh. 
prepare, to (preparing, prepared/ 
prepared), WW 25. I will prepare 
my bed now, k'ad sitsdsk'eh 
prepuce, 'acho' bizis. 
present, to be (being, was, been), 
naat. I was present at the Yer 
Bichei, shfmaal na'askai. 
pretty, nizhonf; bnghis; ya*a* 

pretty, to be (being, was, been), 
I am pretty, nishzhonf. This is 
a pretty place dn kwe'e hozhonf. 
prevention, honeezt-Kah. 
prevent, to (preventing, prevent- 
ed, prevented), t-Kah 4. ! pre- 
vented him from going, shf 
n&fti'ahgo biniinaa t'aadoo dee- 
yaa da 

prickly pear, hosh niteelf. 
primrose (evening — ), tt'e'iiga- 

prisoner, 'awaalyaai. 
probably, sh[{; fad shfr 
produce ,to (producing, produc- 
ed, produced), lift I. We are 
producing more airplanes than 
our enemies, nihe'ena'f bila6h 
'at'eego chidf naatYTf '6deiH'{. 
production, (of manufactured 
goods) aP[; (agricultural) 'anil- 



profession, nahaghd; 'inaanish. 
progress, to (progressing, pro- 
gressed, progressed), gddt 26 
The Navaho are progressing, 
naabeeho ndds yikah. 
prohibit, to (prohibiting, prohib- 
ited, prohibited), 66\ 17. I wil! 
prohibit smoking to him, nd'd- 
t'oh bits'ddideesh'ddt. 
prohibition, 'ats'ddeet'q 
project, to (projecting, projected, 
projected), *d. It projects up 
vertically, hdd'd; yaa'd. 
pronged, deeshzha. 
property, 'inchxgu, 
propitiate, to (propitiating, pro- 
pitiated, propitiated), hit 3. We 
will propitiate the god with 
prayers, dine dighinii sodizin 
bee bididiitghit. 
propitiation, 'adiigheet. 
prostate gland, 'alizh bikddz. 
prostrate oneself, to (prostrating 
prostrated, prostrated), ghat 1 
I prostrated myself on the floor, 
ni'ji' neshghal. 
prostration, 'aneesghal. 
prostitute, 'atjitnii; kin yqqh si- 

protection, 'aclVqqh na'addh. 
protect, to (protecting, protect- 
ed, protected), gddt (gaat) 36. 
I will protect you, nich qqh ni- 

provide, to (providing, provided, 
provided), dzil 6, 7. I provide for 
my family, sha'dtchfnf bik'iis- 

provision, *ak*ina*adzil. 


provisions, bidookijtii; chode- 
doo'tjtigii; ch'iyddn. 
prune, ch'il na'att'o'titsok 
Pueblo Indian, kiis'danii. 
Pueblo Pintado, N* M., kinteel. 
Puertocito, N. M., t'iistsok 
pull, to (pulling, pulled, pulled), 
*ddt 1. I pulled out my knife, 
shibeezh hdd'q. dial I. I pulled 
the rope in two, tt'oot k'fni't- 
dladd. dz[jsl,2, 3. I am pull- 
ing the log along, tsin yisdzijs. 
tfit 8. I pulled the nail, 'it 'adaal- 
kaatf hddtq. tsV 1, 2. I pulled 
out the plant, ch'il hddtts'ggd 
fs'ot 3, 4. I pulled the wire taut, 
beesh atts oozf detts'pgd. 
pulse, 'ats'oos yita*. 
pump (water — ), to hahalt'ood. 
pump ,to (pumping, pumped, 
pumped), sot 3. I pumped up my 
tire, shichidi bikee* bir'fisol. t'ot 
I pumped the water out, t6 
pumpkin, naaghfzi. 
punch, bee 'aghddadzilne'e. 
punish, to (punishing, punished 
punished), lift 30. You did not 
behave so I punished you, doc 
'dkwii 'dnft'ij dago biniinaa *atf- 

punishment, 'ate'el'i. 
pupil (of the eye), 'andzhiin. 
puppy r teechaq ydzhf. 
purchase, 'qq nahanii. 
purgative, 'aghdhwiizfdf 
purple four o'clock, tsfdfde£h. 
purse, beeso bizis. 
pus, his. 



push/ to (pushing, pushed, push- 
ed), ghit 1,2. I am pushing the 
wheelbarrow about, nabegili na- 
beshhil. Push it to me, shich'f 
nibsnighiW goh 4. I pushed 
him down from the rock, tse bi- 
kdad^e* hadddtgo'. 
put, to (putting, put, put), adt 
2. ! put it out, ch'iniq. 'ddt 8. 
I put it in the water, taah yi'q. 
'ddt 9. I put it down, nP nini'q. 
I put it away, hasht'e' ninf'q. 
'ddt 10. I put my hat on, shi- 
ch'ah 'dk'ideshtq. adt 11. I 
put it under it, biyaa *u% 'ddt 
12. I put a lid on it, bidadi'nf'q. 
'ddt 25. I put it i.n the fire didfi'q. 
bqs 7. I will put the car in the 
garage, chidf chidf ba hooghan 
gone* yah 'adeesbqs. gddt 44. 
I put my clothes back on, shi'ee 1 
biih ndsdzd. loh 6, 7. I put the 
brake to it bfdiilo*. I put on the 
brake, *idiilo\ feet 10. I put 
the horse in the corral, t[f t[[* bi- 
ghan gone' yah 'ifttV. f is 1, 2, 
I will put my shoes (back) on, ke- 
ndeest'is. tsis 2. I put out the 
fire, kg* nettsiz. zis 1. I am 
putting on my belt, 'dkdszis. 

quadruped, naaldiooshii. 
quail, ditddnii. 

quarrelsome, to be (being, was, 
been), 'ddt 21. I am quarrel- 
some, 'ayoo shfnf si'q. 
queen bolt (of a wagon), 'att'ee- 
vah dah sinilf bit 'ff'ahfgff. 
quickly, hah; hahf; tsjjtgo. 


quick-tempered, to be (being, 
was, been), ts'ffd 6. I am quick- 
tempered, doo yists'iid da. 
quiet, to become (becoming, be- 
came, become), zih 1,2. I be- 
came quiet, 'dhodiiszee'. I am 
quiet, 'dhodfmszee\ 
quilt, golchoon. 
quirt, bee 'atsxis. 
quit, to (quitting, quit, quit), 
gddt 9. I quit smoking, nd'dsh- 
t'oh§£ bik'ideyd. t'j[t 3. I was 
working, but I quit, naashnish 
nt^' , 66hosist'Ud 
quiver, k'aagheet. 

rabbit, gah. 

rabbit brush (big), k'iiitsoii; 

(small) k'iiitsoii dijooli. 

race, (of men), dine'e. The races 

of man, dine 'attah 'ddt'eetii; 

footrace, 'atha'dit'aash. 

race, to (racing, raced, raced), 

t'ash 1 . I raced with him, bit f a- 


rag, *anili. 

raid, to (raiding, raided, raided), 
bah 1 , 2, 3, 4. I am going on a 
raid, debaa*. I went about raid- 
ing, nisebaa'. I am on my way 
returning from war, nddshbah. 
Our soldiers raided the city, ni- 
hisildago kjjh daazbaa'. 
railroad track, kg' na'atbqqsii 

rain, nfttsq; nahattin. 

rain, to (raining, rained, rained), 

t[{t 2, 3, 4, 5. It started to rain, 



nikihontttq. It is raining, nahpt- 
tin. There comes the rain, 'aa- 
d£e' hoott[[f. it has stopped 
raining, ydo* 'ahddttq, 
rainbow, nddts'nlid. 
raise, to (raising, raised, raised), 
lift 13. Raise up that sheep's 
head, 'eii dibe bitsii' dei'dnfleeh! 
ni'ft 2. The lady raised her head 
and looked at me, 'asdzqq dei- 
adzaa doo shineet'tf. seel 2, I 
raised on orphan boy, 'ashkii bi- 
k'ef adingo binesq. t'iH 2. I 
raised a lot of corn, naadqq' t'66 
'ahayoi ndne+t'q. 
rake, bee ndhwiidzidf. 
rake, to (raking, raked, raked) 
zit 1 . I raked the leaves together, 
'at'qq' 'ahaninfziid. 
ram, deendsts'aa*. 
ram, to (ramming, rammed 
rammed), goh 18, I rammed 
him, segoh. 
Ramah, N. M„ t+'ohchini. 

, idni gone . 
rank, to (ranking, ranked, rank- 
ed), leet 17, We ranked third a- 
mong them, tad' gone* bee 'atah 

rape, 'it ni'ideel. 
rape, to (raping, raped, raped), 
dil 5. He raped the girl, 'afeed 
yit ninfdeel. 

rapidly, tsift; ts[[tgo; hah; hahi. 
rarely, tdhdda. 
rasp, tsin bee yigoK. 
rasp, to (rasping, rasped, rasp- 
ed), ch*ish 1. I am rasping it, 


rat, te'etsoh. 

rattle, 'aghddt. Hide rattle, *a- 
kat 'aghddt. Gourd rattle, 'a- 
ghddt nfmazigff. Hoof rattle 
'akeshgaan 'aghddt. 
rattlepod, dd'dghdlii. 
rattlesnake, t+'iish 'antnigfi. 
raw, t'dd t'eehgo. 
razor, ddghd bee yilzhehf. 
reach, to (reaching, reached, 
reached), 'qqt 1. The water 
reaches the top of the hogan, to 
hooghan bikda'ji* neel'q. chil 
I reached for my hat, shich'ah 
bikd dechid. 

read, to (reading, read, read), 
tah 1,2. I am reading a book, 
naaltsoos yfmshta*. I know how 
to read, 'ifnishta* beehasin. 
readiness, to keep in (keeping, 
kept, kept), I keep myself always 
in readiness, t'dd 'dtaji' hasht'e* 

ready, to get (getting, got, got- 
ten), *nfft 16. I got ready to go 
to Gallup, na'nizhoozhigod dee- 
shddJ biniighe hasht'ediisdzaa 
really, t'dd aanif; ts'fdd; 'aydo- 
go; * qq iighisn. 
reassemble, to (reassembling 
reassembled, reassembled), *nM 
6. I reassembled my car, shichi- 
di 'ahiih nddsh'nil. 
reassembly, 'ahiih nd'd'nnt. 
reassured, to be (being, was, 
been), I was reassured (by the 
comforting news), t'dd hats'fid- 
go shit hooneV 



recede, to (receding, receded, re- 
ceded), qqt The water is reced- 
ing, to yaa na'noorqqt. 
recently, 'anffdf; 'aniid. 
reconnaissance, ha'alzfid. 
reconstruction, 'ana'alneeh. 
recover, to (recovering, recover- 
ed, recovered), lee+ 25, 26. I re- 
covered my health, shanah nf- 
sfsdlfi'. I recovered; I got well, 
ya'at'eeh nisisdlii'. 
recovery, ya'at'eeh na'adleeh. 
recreation, naVne'; haa'algh[[h 
rectum, 'ajilchii'. 
red, fichu"; halchiT. 
red, to be (beinp, was, been